The Edible Mushroom Industry: A Vital Component in Horticultural Production

A special issue of Horticulturae (ISSN 2311-7524). This special issue belongs to the section "Medicinals, Herbs, and Specialty Crops".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 March 2024) | Viewed by 13796

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
2. Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100081, China
Interests: mushroom breeding; oyster mushroom; spawn quality

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Edible mushrooms can famously be characterized by the expression "three highs and one low". That is, high protein, high amino acids, high vitamins and low fat. Edible mushrooms production has the advantages, so to speak, of "three highs and one strong", namely high economic benefits, high product quality, high production efficiency and strong ecological functions. The edible mushroom industry has made great contributions to winning the battle against poverty in China. It ranks 6th in the planting industry, surpassing even the tea and cotton industries. In China, edible mushrooms exports account for ca. 1/3 of vegetable exports. The edible mushrooms industry is becoming more and more prominent in agricultural production.

Most researchers who work on edible mushrooms research believe that their subject belongs to microorganisms as a group, at least according to the traditional taxonomic view. They prefer to publish their findings in mycology or microbiology journals. In fact, edible mushrooms are large enough to be seen with the naked eye and be picked by hand. Edible mushrooms production is different from conventional microbial fermentation, the latter being classified as horticulture in agricultural production. Therefore, the findings on edible mushrooms production published in horticultural journals are a good choice.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to arouse a general understanding that edible mushrooms are important members of the horticultural industry. Please keep in mind that, horticulture production not only includes plants, but also microorganisms. We are glad to publish the latest and best findings related to edible mushrooms production and the edible mushrooms industry.

We look forward to receiving your work.

Prof. Dr. Chenyang Huang
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • edible mushroom
  • factory farming
  • agricultural farming
  • germplasm resources
  • breeding
  • domestication
  • spawn running
  • fruiting management
  • disease and pest prevention
  • preservation and processing

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 636 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study of Calcium Sulfate Alternatives in Compost Production for White Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)
by András Misz, Amanda Sándorné Szőke, Judit Bajzát, Dániel Kökény, Marianna Visnyei, László Kredics, Henrietta Allaga, Attila Szűcs, Sándor Kocsubé, Csaba Csutorás and Csaba Vágvölgyi
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040378 - 09 Apr 2024
Viewed by 307
Abstract
This study explores various potential substitutes for gypsum in the production of compost for white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). During compost preparation, calcium sulfate (CaSO4) was replaced with calcium carbonate (CaCO3), ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2 [...] Read more.
This study explores various potential substitutes for gypsum in the production of compost for white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). During compost preparation, calcium sulfate (CaSO4) was replaced with calcium carbonate (CaCO3), ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4), and monocalcium phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2). Complete replacement of gypsum with calcium carbonate led to a significant pH increase during the second phase of composting, adversely affecting mushroom mycelium growth. Compost parameters were observed to be similar in scenarios where calcium sulfate was supplemented with calcium carbonate in 8:2 and 6:4 ratios, both with and without the presence of ammonium sulfate, and in 3:1 and 1:1 mixtures of calcium sulfate and monocalcium phosphate, when compared to traditional gypsum-based processes. All experimental compost mixtures yielded comparable mushroom crops in cultivation trials. Notably, the 8:2 mixture of calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate demonstrated superior performance in cultivation trials relative to the 6:4 mixture. However, supplementing these mixtures with ammonium sulfate resulted in similar crop yields. Monocalcium phosphate also emerged as a promising partial gypsum substitute, showing comparable crop production in both 3:1 and 1:1 ratios to the technological optimum. The exploration of alternative calcium sources like calcium carbonate and monocalcium phosphate reflects the adaptability of the industry in response to resource availability challenges. The potential use of byproducts like ammonium sulfate from the composting process itself offers a cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach to compost formulation, underscoring its worldwide relevance. Full article
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14 pages, 2380 KiB  
Article
Identification, Nutrient Composition, and Evaluation of a Wild Pleurotus citrinopileatus Strain (X21156) from Tibet for Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities
by Xiaoshan Xiao, Yun Li, Xiaomin Li, Xin Hu, Junli Zhang, Xiaoping Wu and Junsheng Fu
Horticulturae 2024, 10(4), 377; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10040377 - 09 Apr 2024
Viewed by 280
Abstract
A fungal strain (X21156) collected in Tibet was used as the material, identified based on its morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence; its optimal culture conditions were analyzed by single-factor experiments; artificial domestication and cultivation were carried out; its nutrient composition [...] Read more.
A fungal strain (X21156) collected in Tibet was used as the material, identified based on its morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence; its optimal culture conditions were analyzed by single-factor experiments; artificial domestication and cultivation were carried out; its nutrient composition was determined; and the bioactivities of its polysaccharides were detected using chemical antioxidant assays and MTT assays. The results showed that the strain was Pleurotus citrinopileatus Sing. Its optimal culture conditions were a pH of 7, a temperature of 25 °C, glucose (20 g·L−1) as the carbon source, and yeast powder (20 g·L−1) as the nitrogen source. The fresh weight of a single domesticated fruiting body was 41.16 g. The strain had high protein (28.5%), high fiber (34%), and low fat (1.4%) contents, with high proportions of fresh and sweet amino acids. Polysaccharides had good scavenging ability on ABTS+, DPPH, and OH free radicals (EC50 0.06 mg/mL, 1.21 mg/mL, and 3.62 mg/mL, respectively), and the cytotoxicity of polysaccharides to hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) (IC50: 1.69 mg/mL) was higher than that of triple-negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-468) (IC50: 1.76 mg/mL). In conclusion, the study provides a reference on the optimal culture conditions, domestication and cultivation, and dietary and medicinal values of wild P. citrinopileatus Sing. Full article
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16 pages, 2397 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Genetic Diversity and Agronomic Traits of Germplasm Resources of Stropharia rugosoannulata
by Miao Gu, Qiang Chen, Yan Zhang, Yongchang Zhao, Li Wang, Xiangli Wu, Mengran Zhao and Wei Gao
Horticulturae 2024, 10(3), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10030213 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 681
Abstract
China possesses abundant wild germplasm resources and a wide range of cultivated strains of Stropharia rugosoannulata. However, issues such as genetic diversity and unclear genetic relationships have had an impact on the classification and preservation of germplasm resources, the breeding of new [...] Read more.
China possesses abundant wild germplasm resources and a wide range of cultivated strains of Stropharia rugosoannulata. However, issues such as genetic diversity and unclear genetic relationships have had an impact on the classification and preservation of germplasm resources, the breeding of new varieties, and the promotion of superior strains. There is an urgent need for genetic diversity analysis and assessment of germplasm resources. In this study, we conducted whole-genome resequencing of 50 cultivated and wild strains collected from various regions across the country. After applying a series of filtering parameters, we obtained 888,536 high-quality Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. Using these SNP markers, we performed principal component analysis, population structure analysis, and phylogenetic clusters analysis on the 50 strains. Most cultivated strains exhibited high genetic similarity, while significant genetic diversity was observed among wild strains. Based on factors such as marker distribution throughout the entire genome and marker quality, we selected 358 core SNP markers to construct SNP fingerprints. Two-dimensional barcodes were generated for each strain to enable specific identification. Additionally, the mycelial growth rate of strains was evaluated on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and substrate culture media. We also assessed their lignin degradation capability using guaiacol agar plates assay. It was observed that the mycelial growth rate on PDA and substrate culture medium exhibited a significant correlation with the diameter of the mycelial colony on guaiacol agar medium. Additionally, the correlation between the mycelial growth rate on the substrate medium and that on the guaiacol agar plate was stronger than that on PDA medium. This study provided molecular-level identification and assessment of germplasm resources. It clarified the genetic relationships among strains and the characteristics of mycelium growth-related agronomic traits of each strain. This research contributed to the enrichment and development of utilizable germplasm resources and breeding materials for S. rugosoannulata, offering a scientific basis for further research. Full article
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16 pages, 3170 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Influence of Culture Environment on the Yield of Volvariella volvacea Based on Microbiomics
by Zhu Liu, Jianhao Wang, Linzhi Kang, Yangyang Peng, Luyao Ye, Hui Zhou and Ming Liu
Horticulturae 2024, 10(3), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10030204 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 605
Abstract
As one of the most nutritious and delicious mushroom varieties, Volvariella volvacea has always been popular among people around the world. Different from other artificially cultivated mushrooms, Volvariella volvacea is mostly planted on non-sterile substrates. As the cultivation time increases, the yield of [...] Read more.
As one of the most nutritious and delicious mushroom varieties, Volvariella volvacea has always been popular among people around the world. Different from other artificially cultivated mushrooms, Volvariella volvacea is mostly planted on non-sterile substrates. As the cultivation time increases, the yield of mushroom houses continues to decrease. In our experiment, we selected two groups of samples from the old and new mushroom houses, environmental samples and substrate samples. The results showed that the diversity and abundance of microorganisms in the culture environment of the old mushroom room were consistent with that of the new mushroom room, but the proportion of actinomycetes in the former was significantly higher than that of the new mushroom room. The metabolic activity of microorganisms in the old mushroom room was enhanced compared with the new mushroom room. The microbial diversity in the growth substrate was investigated, and it was found that the structure and diversity of the microbial community in the substrate had changed. In conclusion, the interplay between mushrooms, the culture environment, and the host bacterial community may be the cause of the changes in the yield of Volvariella volvacea. Full article
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13 pages, 5750 KiB  
Article
The Metacaspase Gene PoMCA1 Enhances the Mycelial Heat Stress Tolerance and Regulates the Fruiting Body Development of Pleurotus ostreatus
by Jingqi Pei, Mengran Zhao, Lijiao Zhang and Xiangli Wu
Horticulturae 2024, 10(2), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10020116 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 783
Abstract
Pleurotus ostreatus is one of the most cultivated edible mushrooms worldwide, of which the fruiting body development is a highly complex process involving the precise genetic regulatory network and suitable environmental factors. Metacaspases play important roles in developmental processes and programmed cell death [...] Read more.
Pleurotus ostreatus is one of the most cultivated edible mushrooms worldwide, of which the fruiting body development is a highly complex process involving the precise genetic regulatory network and suitable environmental factors. Metacaspases play important roles in developmental processes and programmed cell death (PCD) induced by some environmental stress in many organisms. In this study, a type I metacaspase, PoMCA1, was identified via the analysis of the enzyme domain and alignment with homologous metacaspases. PoMCA1 overexpression and RNAi mutants were generated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) into the P. ostreatus mycelium. The roles of the PoMCA1 gene in heat stress and fruiting body development were examined. The results show that both of the overexpression transformants were more tolerant to heat stress than the wild-type strain, while the opposite phenomenons were found for the two RNAi strains. Compared with the wild-type strain, the overexpression strain OE-7 had faster formation of the fruiting body, while the two RNAi strains produced significantly more primordia and young fruiting bodies, and presented morphological deformities and slower fruiting body development. All of the results suggest that the PoMCA1 gene is involved in the positive regulation of heat stress tolerance and fruiting body development in P. ostreatus. Full article
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14 pages, 6205 KiB  
Article
Box-Behnken Design for Optimizing Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzymatic Extraction of Soluble Dietary Fiber from Pleurotus citrinopilestus
by Panling Yu, Changxia Yu, Mingjie Chen, Qin Dong, Die Hu, Baosheng Zhang, Mengke Zhang, Jianshuai Ma, Baoting Xu and Yan Zhao
Horticulturae 2023, 9(12), 1322; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9121322 - 08 Dec 2023
Viewed by 731
Abstract
Pleurotus citrinopilestus contains a variety of physiologically and pharmacologically active compounds. A key active component among these compounds is dietary fiber, a polysaccharide that exhibits several biological properties. The objective of this study was to assess how soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from Pleurotus [...] Read more.
Pleurotus citrinopilestus contains a variety of physiologically and pharmacologically active compounds. A key active component among these compounds is dietary fiber, a polysaccharide that exhibits several biological properties. The objective of this study was to assess how soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from Pleurotus citrinopilestus responded to ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic (UAE) extraction. The response surface method (RSM) combined with the Box-Behnken design method (BBD) was used to optimize the yield of SDF. The effects of the liquid-solid ratio (35–55 mL/g), α-amylase concentration (0.5–2.5%), complex protease concentration (0.4–2.0%), and ultrasonication time (15–55 min) on the yield of SDF were examined. The RSM results revealed the optimal liquid-solid ratio (45 mL/g), α-amylase concentration (1.5%), complex protease concentration (1.2%), and ultrasonic time (35 min). The SDF yield was 10.25%, which is close to the predicted value (10.08%). Full article
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12 pages, 3170 KiB  
Article
Development of Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence Marker for Cap Color Identification in Pleurotus cornucopiae
by Yashu Yang, Yan Zhang, Chenyang Huang, Qiang Chen and Wei Gao
Horticulturae 2023, 9(11), 1238; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9111238 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 880
Abstract
Cap color is one of the most crucial commercial traits for oyster mushrooms, and dark-colored varieties are highly favored by consumers, yet they are relatively scarce on the market. There is an urgent need for the selection and breeding of dark oyster mushrooms. [...] Read more.
Cap color is one of the most crucial commercial traits for oyster mushrooms, and dark-colored varieties are highly favored by consumers, yet they are relatively scarce on the market. There is an urgent need for the selection and breeding of dark oyster mushrooms. Previous studies identified PcTYR, a key gene that controls the cap color of Pleurotus cornucopiae, and four SNPs were identified based on a genome-level sequence comparison of the black and white gene pools for extreme traits in the segregating populations. In this study, we verified whether these SNPs were color-specific sites via specific primer design, PCR amplification, and enzyme digestion of the entire isolated population strains and developed CAPS/dCAPS markers for the early visual identification of cap color to assist material screening in cap color breeding. One CAPS marker, TYR-CAPS-3-2, was developed for identifying the cap color of oyster mushrooms. After digestion with the restriction endonuclease Mse I, the marker generated polymorphic bands that accurately and visually distinguished dark-colored (non-white) and white strains from the cap color-segregating population. Consequently, the application of this marker during the early growth stage of oyster mushrooms can facilitate molecular-marker-assisted selection, expediting the breeding process for dark-colored varieties. Full article
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17 pages, 1376 KiB  
Article
Exogenous Application of Coconut Water to Promote Growth and Increase the Yield, Bioactive Compounds, and Antioxidant Activity for Hericium erinaceus Cultivation
by Preuk Chutimanukul, Siripong Sukdee, Onmanee Prajuabjinda, Ornprapa Thepsilvisut, Sumalee Panthong, Hiroshi Ehara and Panita Chutimanukul
Horticulturae 2023, 9(10), 1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9101131 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1934
Abstract
Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr) Pers. is a medicinal mushroom that has various health benefits and is a rich source of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. In recent years, H. erinaceus has been considered for its many medicinal properties and is widely consumed in Asian [...] Read more.
Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr) Pers. is a medicinal mushroom that has various health benefits and is a rich source of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. In recent years, H. erinaceus has been considered for its many medicinal properties and is widely consumed in Asian countries. This work aimed to explore the potential improvement of coconut water utilization in order to promote growth and increase the yield, as well as the enhancement of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of H. erinaceus. The application of coconut water at a concentration of 20% (v/v) resulted in the optimal development and production of H. erinaceus. In terms of biological efficiency, it was demonstrated that the 22.09% increase over the control treatment resulted in a higher yield. Moreover, H. erinaceus cultivated from coconut water intake at all concentrations resulted in higher protein content. Additionally, bioactive compounds such as total triterpenoid content and total phenolic content of H. erinaceus were 67.87–89.24 mg Urs/g DW and 16.62–17.39 mg GAE/g DW, respectively, while H. erinaceus grown on a control treatment had the lowest at 56.84 mg Urs/g DW and 14.42 mg GAE/g DW, respectively. Applying coconut water at all concentrations resulted in H. erinaceus IC50 values of 0.58–0.69 mg/mL exhibiting higher DPPH activities than those grown on control treatment IC50 value of 0.77 mg/mL. Therefore, this finding of the study indicated that the utilization of coconut water as a therapy resulted in a significant enhancement in the development, production, and bioactive compounds of H. erinaceus, in comparison to the control treatment. Full article
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14 pages, 3969 KiB  
Article
Interspecific Hybridization between Ganoderma lingzhi and G. resinaceum by PEG-Induced Double-Inactivated Protoplast Fusion
by Jintao Li, Linling Liu, Lin Xu, Sheng Wang, Nan Zhang, Changwei Sun and Meixia Yan
Horticulturae 2023, 9(10), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9101129 - 12 Oct 2023
Viewed by 857
Abstract
Ganoderma lingzhi is an important medicinal fungus, and it is particularly important to select strains with high yields and active substance contents. In this study, protoplasts of G. lingzhi were thermally inactivated to destroy intracellular enzyme proteins and preserve DNA. The DNA of [...] Read more.
Ganoderma lingzhi is an important medicinal fungus, and it is particularly important to select strains with high yields and active substance contents. In this study, protoplasts of G. lingzhi were thermally inactivated to destroy intracellular enzyme proteins and preserve DNA. The DNA of G. resinaceum was damaged by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and other components of the protoplasm except DNA were preserved. Then, the protoplast was induced using polyethylene glycol (PEG) for fusion. The results showed that the optimal thermal inactivation conditions for G. lingzhi were 30 min in a 45 °C water bath, and the optimal UV inactivation conditions for G. resinaceum were 70 s of irradiation using a 20 W UV lamp at a vertical distance of 15 cm. Antagonistic tests, internal transcribed space (ITS) and mitochondrial DNA identification, intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers and morphology were used to distinguish the parents from the fusants. Four true fusants were obtained, and the yield was 2.5%. The fruiting body yield of the fusants was significantly higher than that of G. lingzhi, and the polysaccharide and triterpene contents of the RAD-64 fusant were significantly higher than those of G. lingzhi. The results presented in this paper show that protoplast fusion technology can effectively improve G. lingzhi varieties and support the breeding of new varieties. Full article
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12 pages, 1351 KiB  
Article
Turn Waste into Treasure: Spent Substrates of Auricularia heimuer Can Be Used as the Substrate for Lepista sordida Cultivation
by Chunge Sheng, Chunlei Pan, Yanfeng Wang, Yinpeng Ma, Fei Wang, Lei Shi, Shurong Wang, Jinhe Wang, Shuqin Liu, Peng Zhang, Zitong Liu, Haiyang Yu and Jing Zhao
Horticulturae 2023, 9(10), 1074; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9101074 - 26 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 939
Abstract
Mudanjiang is a major producer of black wood ear (Auricularia heimuer) mushrooms in China. It has been estimated that more than 1.5 million tons of spent substrates of A. heimuer (SSA) are produced each year. Most of these are discarded or [...] Read more.
Mudanjiang is a major producer of black wood ear (Auricularia heimuer) mushrooms in China. It has been estimated that more than 1.5 million tons of spent substrates of A. heimuer (SSA) are produced each year. Most of these are discarded or burned and have become an important source of pollution, which urgently merits research to find appropriate uses for them. To explore the feasibility of SSA as a substrate for cultivating Lepista sordida mushrooms, experiments were conducted to assess the effects of the addition of 0, 40%, 73%, and 98% SSA on the days required for the mycelia to fully colonize the substrate and initiate primordia, biological efficiency (BE), yield, and composition of the chemical biomass of the L. sordida fruiting bodies. The yield of fruiting bodies with 0, 40%, 73%, and 98% SSA supplementation for three flushes was 3.90 ± 0.74 kg m−2, 4.06 ± 0.77 kg m−2, 4.03 ± 0.62 kg m−2, and 4.51 ± 0.65 kg m−2, respectively. The addition of 98% SSA significantly delayed the number of days for the mycelia to fully colonize and form primordia by 6 and 3 d, respectively. This treatment also significantly increased the yield and BE by 15.64% compared with that of the control group. The crude polysaccharide content of 25.64 ± 0.38 g 100 g−1 was higher in the samples grown on the 98% SSA substrate, which was shown to increase by 78.93% compared with that of the control substrate with 73% corn straw (14.33 ± 0.03 g 100 g−1). The content of crude protein of 51.10 ± 0.08 g 100 g−1 was higher in the samples grown on the 40% SSA substrate, which increased by 11.14% compared with the protein content of the control group. This study reveals that SSA would be a good substrate for the cultivation of L. sordida and is an efficient, promising, and cost-effective substrate additive that can improve the quality and yield of these mushrooms, while substantially reducing the problems of disposing of SSA. Full article
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15 pages, 2261 KiB  
Article
Improved Genetic Map and Localization of Quantitative Trait Loci for Quality Traits in Auricularia heimuer
by Jia Lu, Ming Fang, Fangjie Yao, Lixin Lu, Xiaoxu Ma, Jingjing Meng and Kaisheng Shao
Horticulturae 2023, 9(7), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9070763 - 02 Jul 2023
Viewed by 963
Abstract
Auricularia heimuer is among China’s most important edible mushrooms and is rich in gum. With the improvement of people’s quality of life, demand is increasing for high-quality and good-tasting food; thus, the texture of A. heimuer is the focus of increasing attention. In [...] Read more.
Auricularia heimuer is among China’s most important edible mushrooms and is rich in gum. With the improvement of people’s quality of life, demand is increasing for high-quality and good-tasting food; thus, the texture of A. heimuer is the focus of increasing attention. In this study, we added extra markers to a previously constructed genetic linkage map to generate a high-density genetic linkage map of A. heimuer, resolved the attributes of substrate quality-related traits, and performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) localization. The original genetic linkage map was improved by adding two new linkage groups, merging seven linkage groups into three linkage groups, and increasing the average linkage distance and total linkage estimated length. We anchored the 142 scaffolds of the genome to the improved genetic linkage map. In total, 15 significant QTLs controlling four quality-related traits were detected. Gumminess and chewiness, and cohesiveness and resilience, were linked. Three genes controlled cohesiveness and resilience; one gene controlled gumminess and chewiness. In conclusion, this study lays the foundation for gene localization and chromosome assembly in A. heimuer, elucidation of the mechanism of substrate quality-related trait formation, and provides a basis for precision breeding of A. heimuer. Full article
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11 pages, 1952 KiB  
Article
Biotransformation of Wastes of Essential Oil Industry by Strains Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach, Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm
by Elena Semenova, Alexander V. Kurakov, Vladimir Nazarov, Victoria Presnyakova, Natalia Markelova, Elena Karaseva, Evgeny E. Kurdyukov, Inna Tsokalo, Tatiana Minkina and Vishnu D. Rajput
Horticulturae 2023, 9(4), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9040450 - 31 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1239
Abstract
The aim of the present work was to explore insights into the possibility of cultivating the mycelium of the edible basidiomycetes, i.e., Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach, Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. on wastes produced from lavender, sage, [...] Read more.
The aim of the present work was to explore insights into the possibility of cultivating the mycelium of the edible basidiomycetes, i.e., Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach, Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. on wastes produced from lavender, sage, mint, and rose. To achieve this goal, we assessed the growth and development of strains on various substrates, a component analysis of the biomass of strains, initial essential oil raw materials after processing, and raw materials after exposure to the mycelium of basidial fungi strains. The wastes of essential oil production can be transformed with the help of edible basidiomycetes (A. bisporus, L. edodes, P. ostreatus) into a valuable fodder product enriched with proteins and vitamins and with good organoleptic properties. The best of the tested substrates was the green mass of mint after successive distillation and extraction. The conversion of solid waste from lavender, rose, sage, and mint processing depends on the types of strains. The high accumulation of octen-3-ol (up to 1.38 g/kg of the substrate) by P. ostreatus was confirmed by its organoleptic evaluation. The results suggested the cultivation of edible mushroom mycelium on the solid waste of mint, lavender, and sage processing could produce high-grade (enriched in proteins and vitamins) biomass for the purpose of fodder. These by-products could serve as a basis for the creation of cultivation technology for champignon, shiitake, and oyster mushrooms as food products using secondary resources of essential oil production. Full article
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13 pages, 1625 KiB  
Article
Influence of Growing Substrate Preparation on the Biological Efficiency of Pleurotus ostreatus
by Francesco De Mastro, Andreina Traversa, Francesco Matarrese, Claudio Cocozza and Gennaro Brunetti
Horticulturae 2023, 9(4), 439; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9040439 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1560
Abstract
Pleurotus ostreatus is one of the most cultivated mushrooms worldwide. It is a lignocellulolytic fungus cultivated on different substrates, whose more common raw material is straw. The present study investigated the biological efficiency of Pleurotus ostreatus as affected by the different age of [...] Read more.
Pleurotus ostreatus is one of the most cultivated mushrooms worldwide. It is a lignocellulolytic fungus cultivated on different substrates, whose more common raw material is straw. The present study investigated the biological efficiency of Pleurotus ostreatus as affected by the different age of straw and the growing media preparation process in four production cycles. The content of organic carbon significantly decreased during the growing media preparation, while the content of total nitrogen, moisture, and ash, as well asthe pH value, showed an opposite trend. The first production cycle was characterized by the highest total and soluble sugar content. A dramatic reduction in soluble sugars was recorded at the end of the preparation of the growing media, regardless of the production cycle, while the total sugars were slightly reduced during the production cycle. The microbial population was significantly influenced by the growing media preparation, while only bacteria were slightly influenced by the straw’s age. In contrast, cellulase activity significantly increased in the old straw, while an opposite trend was observed for pectinase activity. The β-glucosidase activity was influenced only by the growing media preparation. As expected, cluster analysis showed that the microbial community changed in each phase of growing media preparation. Finally, the biological efficiency of Pleurotus ostreatus decreased from 26.28% to 15.49% with increasing age of the straw, which may presumably be ascribed to the higher content of sugars in fresh straw compared to the older ones. Therefore, fresh straw should be used to prepare the growing media of Pleurotus ostreatus in order to increase its biological efficiency. Full article
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