Phytochemical Composition and Bioactivity of Horticultural Products

A special issue of Horticulturae (ISSN 2311-7524). This special issue belongs to the section "Postharvest Biology, Quality, Safety, and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 November 2023) | Viewed by 22258

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Department for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia
Interests: phytochemistry; environmental science; agricultural plant science; environmental chemistry; food quality and safety; organic chemistry
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Núcleo de Espectroscopia e Estrutura Molecular, Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Campus Universitario s/n, Martelos, Juiz de Fora 36033-620, MG, Brazil
Interests: molecular spectroscopy; Raman spectroscopy as analytical tool for detecting the most distinctive analytes; carrotenoids; natural products; supramolecular chemistry
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Department of Pharmacy, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan 23200, Pakistan
Interests: pharmacology; drug discovery; phytomedicine
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Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia 5756151818, Iran
Interests: plant ecophysiology; agronomy; medicinal plants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, consumers’ attention has been more focused on the quality of food. Horticultural crops include fruits, vegetables, medicinal, aromatic, and ornamental plants which have received increasing interest due to their organoleptic, nutritional and medicinal properties.  From the nutritional aspect, horticultural crops and products are an important source of macro- and micronutrients. Underutilized horticultural crops should not be neglected too. A wide variety of horticultural plants and other plant foods provide a range of nutrients (carbohydrates, organic acids, proteins, minerals) and different bioactive compounds. The main classes of bioactive compounds commonly found in plants include phenolics, carotenoids, phytosterols, vitamins, glycosides, alkaloids and saponins. The conventional classification of bioactive compounds often found in literature is based on their pharmacological and toxicological effects.

Regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, and other plant foods has been positively correlated with the reduced risk of the development of many chronic diseases. Bioactive compounds from horticultural crops have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-ulcerogenic, antidiabetic, anti-mutagenic, and anti-cancer activities, and they act against rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, obesity, renal disturbances, skin disorders, and aging. Moreover, horticultural crops have the potential to become a functional food that can be used in preventing and treating chronic diseases. It is well known that many bioactive compounds significantly contribute to building the resistance of horticultural crops to abiotic and biotic stresses. A balanced diet rich in nutrients, antioxidants, bioactive compounds, and phytochemicals is a prerequisite for consumers to acquire proper nutrition and welfare from horticultural crops and products.

During the past decades, extensive research has focused on the identification and evaluation of the activity of bioactive compounds in horticultural crops. Additionally, various approaches have been developed for the extraction, identification and quantification of bioactive compounds. Techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance of several different nucleus, chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, mass spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy techniques (infrared and Raman), as well any other single or hyphenated techniques are valuable tool in elucidation of their chemical structure, including both nutritional and bioactive compounds, and their overall quality. Ever-increasing interest for high-quality food products associated with their health beneficial effects highly encourages researchers to intensively study horticultural crops.

The provision of data through original research papers or reviews that contribute to the comprehensive knowledge about horticultural crops significant in medicine and for food, along the entire food chain, from farm to fork is very welcome. 

Prof. Dr. Jelena Popović-Djordjević
Prof. Dr. Luiz Fernando Cappa de Oliveira
Prof. Dr. Haroon Khan
Dr. Sina Siavash Moghaddam
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • horticultural crops
  • underutilized plants
  • medicinal plants
  • nutritional benefits
  • healthy diet
  • nutrients
  • essential and toxic elements
  • phenolic compounds
  • antioxidants
  • enzyme inhibitory activity
  • analytical methods

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 2044 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Isolation of Piperamides from Piper nigrum Cultivated in Costa Rica
by Luis Felipe Vargas-Huertas, Luis Diego Alvarado-Corella, Andrés Sánchez-Kopper, Andrea Mariela Araya-Sibaja and Mirtha Navarro-Hoyos
Horticulturae 2023, 9(12), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9121323 - 9 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1029
Abstract
The piperamides profile of Piper nigrum cultivated in Costa Rica was studied using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-HRMS) on enriched-piperamides extracts. A total of 31 different piperamides were identified, 24 of them with a methylenedioxyphenyl [...] Read more.
The piperamides profile of Piper nigrum cultivated in Costa Rica was studied using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-HRMS) on enriched-piperamides extracts. A total of 31 different piperamides were identified, 24 of them with a methylenedioxyphenyl moiety, including piperine and nine other compounds with the characteristic piperidine ring, as well as guineensine, retrofractamide B, and eight other piperamides with an N-isobutyl group. In addition, piperyline and two other compounds with a pyrrolidine ring, as well as piperflaviflorine B, holding a N-2-methylbutyl chain, were characterized. In turn, pellitorine and six other piperamides exhibiting a long olefinic chain instead of the methylenedioxyphenyl group were also tentatively identified. In addition, quantification was performed using UPLC coupled with a diode array detector (UPLC-DAD), with 15 piperamides being quantified, including piperine, piperyline, piperanine, and piperloguminine with values within the range of previous reports, while results obtained for guineensine (276.5–421.0 mg/100 g dry material) and pellitorine (414.4–725.0 mg/100 g dry material) were higher than those reported in the literature. Additionally, preparative and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separations allowed to isolate, besides piperine, four other piperamides, which were identified through HRMS, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). These included retrofractamide B, guineensine, pellitorine, and (2E,4E,12Z)-N-isobutyl-octadeca-2,4,12-trienamide, with yields of 134.0 mg/100 g dry material, 209.7 mg/100 g dry material, 361.8 mg/100 g dry material and 467.0 mg/100 g dry material, respectively, with all these values higher than those reported in previous studies in the literature. The findings constitute the first report of such a number and diversity of compounds in P. nigrum cultivated in Costa Rica. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Composition and Bioactivity of Horticultural Products)
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25 pages, 3353 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Evaluation of Nutritional Qualities of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) Varieties Based on Multivariate Statistical Analysis
by Chao Song, Xinyu Ye, Guangyang Liu, Shifan Zhang, Guoliang Li, Hui Zhang, Fei Li, Rifei Sun, Chenggang Wang, Donghui Xu and Shujiang Zhang
Horticulturae 2023, 9(12), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9121264 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1412
Abstract
In order to make the identification and utilization of nutritional quality components in Chinese cabbage more predictive, to obtain ideal raw materials, and to help screen functional Chinese cabbage varieties that have high nutritional value, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the nutritional [...] Read more.
In order to make the identification and utilization of nutritional quality components in Chinese cabbage more predictive, to obtain ideal raw materials, and to help screen functional Chinese cabbage varieties that have high nutritional value, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the nutritional quality of different Chinese cabbage varieties. In this study, 17 nutritional quality indexes of 35 Chinese cabbage varieties, including crude fiber (CF), crude protein (CP), vitamin C (VC), glucose (Glc), fructose (Fru), malic acid (MA), citric acid (CA), oxalic acid (OA), total amino acid (TAA) and CA, K, Mg, P, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, were analyzed using diversity analysis, correlation analysis, principal component analysis, membership function analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that there were different degrees of variation in the 17 nutritional quality indexes, and the coefficients of variation ranged from 11.45% to 91.47%. The correlation analysis found that there were significant or extremely significant correlations between different nutrient elements of Chinese cabbage, which indicated that principal component analysis could be carried out, and the comprehensive score (D value) of different materials could be obtained using principal component analysis and the membership function method. The nutritional quality of Chinese cabbage was classified into five grades by cluster analysis. Finally, a mathematical model for evaluating the nutritional quality of Chinese cabbage was established using the D value and multiple stepwise regression methods, and 10 key indexes were selected from the 17 indexes, which could be used for the rapid identification of the nutritional quality of Chinese cabbage. This study provided a theoretical basis for the nutritional quality evaluation and variety breeding of Chinese cabbage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Composition and Bioactivity of Horticultural Products)
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14 pages, 1280 KiB  
Article
Study of the Chemical Composition of Carica papaya L. Seed Oils of Various Geographic Origins
by Sergey Goriainov, Svetlana Orlova, Elena Nikitina, Viktor Vandishev, Vasiliy Ivlev, Cesar Esparza, Vasiliy Vasil’ev, Evgeniy Platonov, Anzhelika Sheremeta and Gennadiy Kalabin
Horticulturae 2023, 9(11), 1227; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9111227 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 2628
Abstract
The papaya plant (Carica papaya L.) is tree-like fruit plant cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics. The aim of this study was to compare the physicochemical properties, fatty acid, sterols, and triterpenic alcohols composition of Carica papaya L. seed oils grown in [...] Read more.
The papaya plant (Carica papaya L.) is tree-like fruit plant cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics. The aim of this study was to compare the physicochemical properties, fatty acid, sterols, and triterpenic alcohols composition of Carica papaya L. seed oils grown in a typical geographical location and Carica papaya L. seed oils grown in an untypical geographical location in greenhouse conditions (Saratov Region, Russia). The oils were extracted from the seeds of Carica papaya L. fruits collected in Kenya, the Dominican Republic, Angola, Ghana, and Brazil, as well as from the seeds of fruit plants grown in a similar environment (Russian Federation, Saratov). Parameters such as the oil yield, refractive index, peroxide value, iodine value, saponification value, and acid value of the extracted Carica papaya L. seed oils were determined. The qualitative and quantitative chemical compositions of the seed oils were determined by a combination of mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The profiles as well as the content of fatty acids, sterols, triterpenic alcohols, and benzyl isothiocyanate were established. The saponifiable fraction of the oils is mainly represented by triglycerides (98.7–99.4%), while di-(0.4–1.1%) and monoglycerides (0.1–0.3%) are also present but in smaller amounts. The content of sterols and triterpene alcohols was (537.5–918.2) mg/100 g of oil (0.54–0.92%), and up to 75% of the fraction was represented by β-sitosterol (55.9–66.7%) and its saturated analogue-sitostanol (11.0–15.7%). The physicochemical properties and the fatty acid, sterol, and triterpenic alcohol composition of seed oils from Carica papaya L. fruits, cultivated in Russia, is in the quantitative range of other samples, which suggests that Carica papaya L. can be grown in Russia for obtaining the seed oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Composition and Bioactivity of Horticultural Products)
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15 pages, 4762 KiB  
Article
Fruit Quality Parameters, Sugars, Vitamin C, Antioxidant Activity, Organic Acids, and Phenolic Compounds for a New Endemic Apple Variety, “Long Apple”
by Serdar Balık, Tuncay Kaya and Rafet Aslantaş
Horticulturae 2023, 9(11), 1171; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9111171 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1133
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the quality characteristics and bioactive components of the local variety “Long Apple”. Although it is a very delicious and popular old apple variety, the knowledge about “Long Apple” is very insufficient. In this study, fruit [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the quality characteristics and bioactive components of the local variety “Long Apple”. Although it is a very delicious and popular old apple variety, the knowledge about “Long Apple” is very insufficient. In this study, fruit quality parameters, organic acids, vitamin C, sugar components, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity of the endemic apple “Long Apple” were determined as follows: chlorogenic acid, catechin, syringic acid, and o—coumaric acids, 117.68, 35.11, 22.71, and 15.54 mg kg−1fw, respectively; vitamin c 135.67 mg L−1, total sugar 196.29 g L−1; malic, succinic, and citric acid 10.50, 2.88, and 2.13 g 100g−1, respectively; fruit weight 139.11 g, hardness 8.27 kg cm−2, shape index 1.42, and soluble solid content 16.70%; antioxidant capacity 3.30 µmol g−1 TE were the highest. Except for fruit size and shape, the “Long Apple” genotypes outperformed Starking Delicious based on quality parameters and bioactive properties. The genotypes of “Long Apple” are separated by different parameters, but the genotypes 36K093, 36K094, and 36K106 are more prominent than others. In addition to its health benefits, the “Long Apple” has valuable properties for researchers. Therefore, increased research on “Long Apple” has been recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Composition and Bioactivity of Horticultural Products)
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13 pages, 494 KiB  
Article
Quantification and Distribution of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in the Inner and Outer Parts of Strawberry Fruit
by Kristyna Simkova, Robert Veberic, Metka Hudina, Nika Cvelbar Weber, Tina Smrke, Mariana Cecilia Grohar, Tea Ivancic, Massimiliano Pelacci, Aljaz Medic and Jerneja Jakopic
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050605 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1670
Abstract
The distribution of primary and secondary metabolites within a fruit can affect its nutritional and organoleptic quality, as fruit can vary in size and shape. This study investigated the differences in the distribution of the primary and secondary metabolites in the fruit of [...] Read more.
The distribution of primary and secondary metabolites within a fruit can affect its nutritional and organoleptic quality, as fruit can vary in size and shape. This study investigated the differences in the distribution of the primary and secondary metabolites in the fruit of four strawberry cultivars (‘Asia’, ‘Clery’, ‘Frederica’, and ‘Sandra’) that were collected at one harvest point. The study included an analysis of the individual sugars, organic acids, phenolic compounds, and enzymes responsible for the degradation of phenolics. All of the studied cultivars showed a lower pH, higher total organic acid content, and lower glucose and fructose content in the outer part of the fruit. Differences were also observed in the total phenolic and anthocyanin contents, which were always higher in the outer part. The absolute differences in the total phenolic content ranged from 3723 to 6154 mg kg−1 dry weight. Our results provide a basis for understanding the differences in the biosynthesis of these metabolites within this fruit and prove that it is essential to mix samples well before extractions to obtain results that are representative of the whole fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Composition and Bioactivity of Horticultural Products)
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14 pages, 1112 KiB  
Article
Exogenous β-Aminobutyric Acid (BABA) Improves the Growth, Essential Oil Content, and Composition of Grapefruit Mint (Mentha suaveolens × piperita) under Water Deficit Stress Conditions
by Soghra Akbarzadeh, Mohammad Reza Morshedloo, Farhad Behtash, Hasan Mumivand and Filippo Maggi
Horticulturae 2023, 9(3), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9030354 - 7 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
Grapefruit mint, Mentha suaveolens × M. piperita, belonging to the Lamiaceae family, is an important medicinal plant with applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food, and nutraceutical industries. Environmental factors such as cold, salinity, and water deficit significantly impact the quantity and quality of [...] Read more.
Grapefruit mint, Mentha suaveolens × M. piperita, belonging to the Lamiaceae family, is an important medicinal plant with applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food, and nutraceutical industries. Environmental factors such as cold, salinity, and water deficit significantly impact the quantity and quality of the active compounds of medicinal plants. To examine the effects of drought stress and β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) as an elicitor on the biochemical characteristics and essential oil (EO) profile of grapefruit mint, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design (CRD) with two factor and three replications under greenhouse conditions. The first factor included field moisture capacity (FC) as the control (100% FC), mild (75% FC), moderate (55% FC), and severe water deficit stress (35% FC), while the second factor consisted of 0 (control plants without BABA), 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4 mM of BABA foliar application. Water stress and BABA application significantly affected the EO content and composition of grapefruit mint. The highest content of EO was observed in mild drought stress and BABA spraying at 1.6 to 2.4 mM, which increased by about 140% compared with the control condition. The EO components were identified using GC-FID and GC-MS analysis. Linalool (33.7–47.3%) and linalool acetate (31.2–52%) were the most abundant compounds. The highest content of linalool acetate was observed in severe drought stress (35% FC) with foliar application of BABA (1.6 mM), which increased by 33.86% compared with the control condition. However, the highest content of linalool was observed under normal irrigation with foliar application of 0.8 to 1.6 mM BABA. Based on the results, severe drought stress reduced the total chlorophyll and carotenoids by 81.76 and 64.6% compared with the control condition, respectively. Water stress and the foliar application of BABA significantly affected the activity of antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, APX; guaiacol peroxides, GPX; and superoxide dismutase, SOD). The application of 1.6 mM BABA significantly increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes under water stress conditions. Finally, our results showed that the application of BABA (mainly at 1.6 mM) can improve the grapefruit mint yield and EO profile under water stress conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Composition and Bioactivity of Horticultural Products)
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13 pages, 6734 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE) for Simultaneous Determination of Individual Phenolic Compounds in 15 Dried Edible Flowers
by Asadin Briliantama, Nurul Mutmainah Diah Oktaviani, Sitti Rahmawati, Widiastuti Setyaningsih and Miguel Palma
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1216; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121216 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2116
Abstract
Nowadays, dried edible flowers have become one of the eating habits of a healthy lifestyle. The most common way to consume dried flowers is via infused water (tisane). A number of studies on dried edible flowers have reported antioxidant activities mainly due to [...] Read more.
Nowadays, dried edible flowers have become one of the eating habits of a healthy lifestyle. The most common way to consume dried flowers is via infused water (tisane). A number of studies on dried edible flowers have reported antioxidant activities mainly due to their phenolic compounds. This work has developed a new extraction method using ultrasound technology to determine phenolic compounds in 15 widely consumed edible flowers. Several extraction factors including pulse duty cycle (0.2, 0.6, 1.0 s−1), temperature (10, 40, 70 °C), solvent-to-sample ratio (10:1, 20:1, 30:1 mL of solvent g −1 of sample), and solvent composition (0, 25, 50% methanol in water) have been optimized based on a Box–Behnken design coupled with response surface methodology. UPLC-PDA has been employed to quantify 12 major phenolic compounds (2,4,6-trihydroxy benzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, quercetin-3-rutinose, iso-ferulic acid, and quercetin-3-glucoside) in the extracts. The optimum extraction conditions for a 1 g sample were 30 mL of solvent (28% methanol in water) at 42 °C with 1.0 s−1 of pulse duty cycle. Based on the kinetic study, the optimal extraction time was 10 min. The method was validated with high precision (CVs of repeatability and intermediate precision were lower than 7%) and high accuracy (recovery higher than 90%). Additionally, the proposed ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied in the determination of phenolic compounds in 15 dried edible flowers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Composition and Bioactivity of Horticultural Products)
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17 pages, 1032 KiB  
Article
Polyphenolic Profile, Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Potential of Medlar (Mespilus germanica L.), Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) and Common Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) Fruit Extracts from Serbia
by Jelena S. Katanić Stanković, Nenad Mićanović, Nadja Grozdanić, Aleksandar Ž. Kostić, Uroš Gašić, Tatjana Stanojković and Jelena B. Popović-Djordjević
Horticulturae 2022, 8(11), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8111053 - 9 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2929
Abstract
Plant-based food represents an excellent source of different nutrients and bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, vitamins, etc., with proven health benefits for humans. The content of selected phytochemicals, polyphenolic profile, and biological activity (antioxidant potential and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity) of fruit extracts [...] Read more.
Plant-based food represents an excellent source of different nutrients and bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, vitamins, etc., with proven health benefits for humans. The content of selected phytochemicals, polyphenolic profile, and biological activity (antioxidant potential and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity) of fruit extracts of medlar (Mespilus germanica L.), blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.), and common hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.), the neglected Rosaceae species originated from Serbia were studied. Targeted UHPLC/(−)HESI–MS/MS quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds revealed pinocembrin only in medlar fruit extract, and it is the first report of this flavanone in medlar fruits. Total phenolic content did not differ between extracts, whereas significant differences were observed for the contents of total flavonoids, total phenolic acids, and total gallotannins. Monomeric anthocyanins and total anthocyanins were significantly higher in blackthorn compared to medlar and hawthorn fruit extracts (p < 0.05). DPPH· and ABTS·+ scavenging activities for examined fruits were modest compared to other natural antioxidants and BHT. The most potent inhibitory activity toward α-glucosidase expressed medlar and blackthorn extracts with IC50 values of 129.46 and 199.84 μg/mL, respectively, which was higher compared to the standard drug acarbose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Composition and Bioactivity of Horticultural Products)
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Review

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17 pages, 371 KiB  
Review
Role of the Green Husks of Persian Walnut (Juglans regia L.)—A Review
by Laurine Kithi, Éva Lengyel-Kónya, Mária Berki and Géza Bujdosó
Horticulturae 2023, 9(7), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9070782 - 9 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2198
Abstract
Green husks are the outer layer of walnut fruits. They form part of the agro-residues discarded away upon nut maturity in the walnut industry. Although it is not used, research studies show that green husk is a rich source of natural bioactive phytochemicals. [...] Read more.
Green husks are the outer layer of walnut fruits. They form part of the agro-residues discarded away upon nut maturity in the walnut industry. Although it is not used, research studies show that green husk is a rich source of natural bioactive phytochemicals. A total of 83 individual phenolic compounds were identified in walnut husks, mainly consisting of naphthoquinones, flavonols, and hydroxycinnamic acids. There is no standard profile of phenolic compounds in walnuts; the quantity and quality of phenolic compounds vary by cultivar. Walnut extracts exhibit strong antioxidant activities and play an important role in the plant’s defence mechanisms against diseases, attacking different plant organs. The study provides a review of total phenolic content and individual phenolic compounds identified in green husks of different walnut cultivars as documented in different studies. It also explores the role and application of green husks in various industries such as traditional medicine, textile, wood, leather, beverage, and agriculture. In addition, the effects of phenolic compounds on biotic and abiotic factors are also evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Composition and Bioactivity of Horticultural Products)
32 pages, 3779 KiB  
Review
Allium Species in the Balkan Region—Major Metabolites, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties
by Sandra Vuković, Jelena B. Popović-Djordjević, Aleksandar Ž. Kostić, Nebojša Dj. Pantelić, Nikola Srećković, Muhammad Akram, Umme Laila and Jelena S. Katanić Stanković
Horticulturae 2023, 9(3), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9030408 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3797
Abstract
Ever since ancient times, Allium species have played a significant role in the human diet, in traditional medicine for the treatment of many ailments, and in officinal medicine as a supplemental ingredient. The major metabolites of alliums, as well as their antioxidant and [...] Read more.
Ever since ancient times, Allium species have played a significant role in the human diet, in traditional medicine for the treatment of many ailments, and in officinal medicine as a supplemental ingredient. The major metabolites of alliums, as well as their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, with an emphasis on the species most represented in the Balkan region, are discussed in this review. Due to its richness in endemic species, the Balkan region is considered the genocenter of alliums. There are 56 recorded Allium species in the Balkans, and 17 of them are endemic. The most common and well-studied Allium species in the Balkans are A. cepa (onion), A. sativum (garlic), A. ampeloprasum (leek), A. schoenoprasum (chives), A. fistulosum (Welsh onion), and A. ursinum (wild garlic or bear’s garlic), which are known for their pungent taste and smell, especially noticeable in garlic and onion, and attributed to various organosulfur compounds. These plants are valued for their macronutrients and are used as desirable vegetables and spices. Additionally, phytochemicals such as organosulfur compounds, phenolics, fatty acids, and saponins are associated with the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of these species, among many other bioactivities. All parts of the plant including the bulb, peel, clove, leaf, pseudostem, root, flower, and seed exhibit antioxidant properties in different in vitro assays. The characteristic phytocompounds that contribute to the antimicrobial activity of alliums include allicin, ajoene, allyl alcohol, and some diallyl sulfides. Nanoparticles synthesized using Allium species are also recognized for their notable antimicrobial properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemical Composition and Bioactivity of Horticultural Products)
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