Recent Scientific Developments in Breeding and Genetics of Ornamental and Beverage Plants

A special issue of Horticulturae (ISSN 2311-7524). This special issue belongs to the section "Genetics, Genomics, Breeding, and Biotechnology (G2B2)".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 6284

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation and Molecular Breeding, National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture, Beijing Laboratory of Urban and Rural Ecological Environment, Engineering Research Center of Landscape Environment of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding in Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants of Ministry of Education, School of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
Interests: flower crops; woody ornamental plants; flower development; abiotic stress; molecular genetics; genomics; molecular breeding

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Resource Utilization, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150006, China
Interests: economic plants; secondary metabolites; functional active substances; biosynthesis
College of Tea and Food Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University, Heifei 230036, China
Interests: beverage crops; secondary metabolites; developmental biology; metabolic genomics; molecular breeding

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the rapid development of genetics, compared with traditional breeding, the speed of plant breeding is also greatly accelerating. Through the directional change of plant traits, the purpose and operability of breeding improve. The application of plant genetic engineering technology can also expand the scope of breeding, break the reproductive isolation barrier between species, realize the sharing of genes in the biological community, and further enrich gene resources and new plant varieties.

Ornamental plants include herbaceous and woody plants with aesthetic and ornamental value. Beverage plants serve as potential raw materials for beverage products. Therefore, ornamental and beverage plants are integral constituents of natural beauty and healthy beverages that not only enrich the quality of human life, but also possess huge economic value in the agricultural business. Recently, plant breeders have explored how to efficiently use molecular data and link breeding objectives with the molecular formation mechanism of important agronomic, ornamental and resistant traits.

In this Special Issue, we would like to focus on the recent progress in the breeding and genetics of ornamental and beverage plants. We welcome the submission of original research and review articles on, but not limited to, the following subjects:

  • The genetic mechanism of specific traits of ornamental and beverage plants.
  • The analysis of the important scientific problems related to ornamental and beverage plants using genome, transcriptome and proteome data.
  • Evolution mechanism.
  • Innovative breeding technology.
  • Biological and abiotic stresses.

Dr. Tangchun Zheng
Prof. Dr. Jiao Jiao
Dr. Penghui Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Horticulturae is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ornamental plants
  • beverage plants
  • omics technology
  • molecular breeding
  • phytohormones
  • regulation mechanism
  • gene verification
  • genetic mechanism

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 4902 KiB  
Article
Targeted Metabolome and Transcriptome Analyses Reveal the Molecular Mechanism of Color Variation between Sepals and Petals in Fuchsia hybrida
by Shutong Lei, Jingjing Li, Jiaying Wang and Chengyan Deng
Horticulturae 2023, 9(11), 1236; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9111236 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 710
Abstract
The sepal color of Fuchsia hybrida is colorful instead of green and usually varies from the petal colors, which greatly increases its ornamental value and attract customers’ preference. However, the potential molecular mechanism underlying the color variation between sepals and petals remains unclear. [...] Read more.
The sepal color of Fuchsia hybrida is colorful instead of green and usually varies from the petal colors, which greatly increases its ornamental value and attract customers’ preference. However, the potential molecular mechanism underlying the color variation between sepals and petals remains unclear. The present study collected F. hybrida with red sepals and purple petals to explore the key pigments and genes involved in color development using a targeted metabolome and transcriptome. A total of 43 metabolites with diverse hydroxylation, glycosylation, methylation and acylation patterns were isolated and identified by UPLC-MS/MS. The quantification analysis showed that peonidin-3,5-O-diglucoside and malvidin-3,5-O-diglucoside were the most abundant anthocyanins accumulating in the sepals and petals, respectively. Then, six libraries from the sepals and petals were constructed for the transcriptome and 70,135 unigenes were generated. The transcript level of FhF3′H was significantly higher in the sepals, while Fh3′5′H showed more abundant expression in the petals, which can account for the abundant peonidin and malvidin accumulation in the sepals and petals, respectively. The subsequent multiomics analysis showed that both the differentially accumulated anthocyanins and expressed unigenes were enriched in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway. Additionally, FhMYBs potentially regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis were screened out by correlation analysis and protein interaction prediction. These findings help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the color variation between the sepals and petals in F. hybrida. Full article
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23 pages, 5675 KiB  
Article
Physiological and Molecular Responses of Apocynum venetum L. (Apocynaceae) on Salt Stress
by Lulu Li, Jingyang Wang, Cheng Qian, Cuiping Zhang, Haixia Wang, Wei Li, Han Zhao and Yiqian Ju
Horticulturae 2023, 9(9), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9091010 - 07 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1096
Abstract
Soil salinization is a crucial factor that impacts plant distribution and growth. Apocynum venetum, an ornamental plant with medicinal value, has shown remarkable salt tolerance. However, the specific mechanisms through which A. venetum responds to salt stress are not yet fully understood. [...] Read more.
Soil salinization is a crucial factor that impacts plant distribution and growth. Apocynum venetum, an ornamental plant with medicinal value, has shown remarkable salt tolerance. However, the specific mechanisms through which A. venetum responds to salt stress are not yet fully understood. To address this gap, we conducted a study where 10-week-old A. venetum seedlings were subjected to salt stress by irrigating them with a nutrient solution containing varying concentrations of NaCl (0, 100, 200, and 350 mmol·L−1). After the salt stress treatment, various growth indicators (such as plant height, root length, root fresh weight, root dry weight, leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight, root water content, leaf water content, and root–leaf ratio) as well as physiological indicators (including SOD and CAT activities in both leaves and roots, soluble protein contents in leaves and roots, and chlorophyll and carotene contents in leaves) were determined. In addition, the gene expression profile of roots under salt stress was examined by transcriptome sequencing to explore the mechanism of salt response in A. venetum. Our results show that salt stress led to yellowing and wilting of A. venetum seedling leaves. Furthermore, the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in the leaves of the 350 mmol·L−1 NaCl-treated group were significantly reduced. Although the leaf and root biomass gradually decreased with an increase in the salt concentration, the root–leaf ratio exhibited a decreasing trend. NaCl stress also caused significant changes in physiological indices in the A. venntum leaves and roots. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased in both leaves and roots of the 100 mmol·L−1 NaCl-treated group. The soluble protein content in both leaves and roots increased under the 200 mmol·L−1 NaCl stress. To screen changes in root gene expression, transcriptome sequencing and qRT-PCR were performed. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses revealed that salt stress primarily affects carbohydrate metabolism, MAPK signaling transduction, phytohormone signaling pathways, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, and other pathways. This study provides a novel understanding of the growth and physiological response of A. venetum leaf and root to NaCl stress, as well as the changes in the transcription levels in A. venetum root. The results serve as a reference for future research on salt-tolerant mechanisms and molecular breeding of A. venetum. Full article
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15 pages, 3858 KiB  
Article
Hub Gene Identification and Heat-Stress-Related Transcriptional Regulation Mechanism in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.)
by Qiang Li, Guoli Zhang, Yuqian Zhao, Liqiang Gu, Ying Wang, Xiaohui Yu and Shamsiah Abdullah
Horticulturae 2023, 9(9), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9090977 - 30 Aug 2023
Viewed by 698
Abstract
Cabbage is a heat-stress-sensitive cool-season crop. When exposed to high temperatures, cabbage plants can experience reduced growth, wilting, leaf yellowing, and premature bolting (the formation of a flowering stem). The regulatory mechanism controlling heat stress is poorly understood in cabbage. To investigate this [...] Read more.
Cabbage is a heat-stress-sensitive cool-season crop. When exposed to high temperatures, cabbage plants can experience reduced growth, wilting, leaf yellowing, and premature bolting (the formation of a flowering stem). The regulatory mechanism controlling heat stress is poorly understood in cabbage. To investigate this mechanism, physiological changes and transcriptional profiling for different heat treatment times were analyzed in this study. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activities were enhanced under heat stress. In particular, the increase in SOD and POD activities after 12 h of heat treatment was greater than that after 4 h of heat treatment. With increasing heat treatment duration, the leaf CAT activity and H2O2 content decreased after the initial increase. The electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content dropped significantly, while the proline content increased. Alongside that, 7007 and 5537 upregulated genes were identified in the experimental group treated with heat stress for the 4 h and 12 h treatments, respectively. We found that 10,479 DEGs were shared in the heat stress treatment, of which 1241 were associated with the heat treatment time. By integrating the expression patterns and functional annotations of genes related to heat stress, we identified 15 hub genes that respond to heat stress in cabbage. Meanwhile, we had constructed a physiological to molecular model of cabbage response to long-term heat stress. These findings provide new insights for the comprehensive analysis of cabbage response to heat stress and genetic resources for breeding new varieties of cabbage with heat tolerance via genetic engineering. Full article
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12 pages, 7095 KiB  
Article
Integrative Metabolome and Transcriptome Analyses Reveal the Molecular Mechanism of Yellow-Red Bicolor Formation in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Petals
by Guizhi Feng, Jiaying Wang, Zimeng Pan and Chengyan Deng
Horticulturae 2023, 9(7), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9070844 - 24 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
The winter pot kalanchoe (Kalanchoe blossfeldiana) is an ornamental plant with succulent leaves and clustered flowers in Crassulaceae, widely used as a potted flower or garden decoration. In nature, the bicolor petal is an interesting phenomenon, and breeders have succeeded in [...] Read more.
The winter pot kalanchoe (Kalanchoe blossfeldiana) is an ornamental plant with succulent leaves and clustered flowers in Crassulaceae, widely used as a potted flower or garden decoration. In nature, the bicolor petal is an interesting phenomenon, and breeders have succeeded in cultivating the winter pot kalanchoe with bicolored petals. However, its potential molecular mechanism of pigmentation is poorly understood. This study collected a yellow-red colored winter pot kalanchoe to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying its bicolor formation using the integrative analyses of metabolome and transcriptome. The metabolome results showed that both flavonoid and carotenoid co-existed in the winter pot kalanchoe petals, whereas only anthocyanin accumulation showed significant differences—about nineteen times higher in the red region than that in the yellow region. The differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, and the expression level of biosynthetic genes, including KbCHS, KbCHI, KbF3H, KbDFR, KbANS and KbGTs, were significantly upregulated in the red region. Moreover, transcription factors potentially regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis were predicted, and KbMYB2 and KbbHLH1 might play important roles in positively regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in the red region. The findings reported here provide new insights into the understanding of petal bicolor formation mechanisms and will assist cultivar innovation in winter pot kalanchoe. Full article
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15 pages, 3250 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of the NCED Gene Family in Cold Stress Response of Prunus mume Siebold & Zucc
by Ke Chen, Xue Li, Xiaoyu Guo, Lichen Yang, Like Qiu, Weichao Liu, Jia Wang and Tangchun Zheng
Horticulturae 2023, 9(7), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9070839 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1024
Abstract
The 9-cis-epoxy carotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is an enzyme that is crucial in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, and its role is vital in plant development and abiotic stress. However, the function of the NCED family in Rosaceae plant species remains unclear. Through genome-wide screening, [...] Read more.
The 9-cis-epoxy carotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is an enzyme that is crucial in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, and its role is vital in plant development and abiotic stress. However, the function of the NCED family in Rosaceae plant species remains unclear. Through genome-wide screening, we identified 10, 10, 11, 12 and 13 NCED genes in Prunus mume, Prunus apricot, Prunus salicina, Prunus persica, and Rosa chinensis, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these NCED genes were divided into six groups. Gene structure analysis showed that the number and size of introns were relatively constant in each subfamily, while the motif composition differed significantly among them. Collinearity analysis revealed a high homology of NCEDs in the Prunus genus. Promoter cis-acting element analysis showed that eight PmNCEDs contained abscisic acid-responsive elements (ABRE). Furthermore, expression profile analysis based on qRT-PCR revealed that PmNCED3, PmNCED8 and PmNCED9 were up-regulated in response to low temperature stress, suggesting their significant role in the plant’s response to cold stress. These findings provide insights into the structure and evolution of PmNCEDs and lay the foundation for further studies regarding their function during cold stress. Full article
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16 pages, 4169 KiB  
Article
Effects of Three Exogenous Substances on Heat Tolerance of Peony Seedlings
by Jiaxin Guo, Yu Huang, Xingyu Yang, Wenxuan Bu, Jianing Tian, Minhuan Zhang, Kaili Huang, Xiaoning Luo, Ye Ye, Wen Xing and Yating Huang
Horticulturae 2023, 9(7), 765; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9070765 - 03 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 849
Abstract
In this study, one-year-old seedlings of Paeonia ostii ‘Fengdan’ were used as materials. The method of spraying exogenous salicylic acid (SA), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and abscisic acid (ABA) was used. The effects of different concentrations of SA, CaCl2 and ABA [...] Read more.
In this study, one-year-old seedlings of Paeonia ostii ‘Fengdan’ were used as materials. The method of spraying exogenous salicylic acid (SA), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and abscisic acid (ABA) was used. The effects of different concentrations of SA, CaCl2 and ABA on the heat tolerance of peony seedlings under high temperature stress were studied. The optimum concentration and mechanism of SA-, CaCl2- and ABA-induced heat tolerance of peony seedlings under high temperature stress were discussed. The results showed that 100 μmol/L SA, 40 mmol/L CaCl2 and 40 mg/L ABA had the best induction effect on the heat tolerance of peony. The effects of three exogenous substances on the heat resistance of peony seedlings were ranked as SA > CaCl2 > ABA. The three exogenous substances mainly alleviated high temperature damage by alleviating the degradation of chlorophyll (Chl), relative electrical conductivity (Rec) content, increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, soluble proteins (SPs), free proline (Pro) and soluble sugars (SSs) content, and reducing SSs content under high temperature stress. The five indices had the most significant effect on the three exogenous substances in improving the heat resistance of peony seedlings. These could be used as an index to identify the heat resistance. Full article
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