Developments in the Genetics and Breeding of Banana Species

A special issue of Horticulturae (ISSN 2311-7524). This special issue belongs to the section "Genetics, Genomics, Breeding, and Biotechnology (G2B2)".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2024 | Viewed by 4890

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
CIRAD, TA A-108/01, Avenue d'Agropolis, F-34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
Interests: banana breeding; genetics; fruit quality; stress adaptation

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Guest Editor
Department of Plant Breeding, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE 2 3053 Alnarp, Sweden
Interests: agrobiodiversity; food security; genetic resources; genetics; plant breeding
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Alliance of Bioversity International and CIAT, Europe – Montpellier Office, Parc Scientifique Agropolis II, 34397 Montpellier, France
Interests: genetic resources conservation and use; Musa; banana; plantain; breeding; partnerships

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With 120 million metric tons produced per year, bananas (Musa spp.), consumed as a fruit or vegetable, are a major economically important fruit crop grown throughout the world’s tropical and subtropical regions. Bananas are a cash crop sold on local and international markets, and are simultaneously a staple food for several million people worldwide. Whether they are intended for export, domestic markets or self-consumption, their production is endangered by several diseases (cercosporiosis, fusariosis) and pests (nematodes, weevils), but also by today’s changing climate due to global warming.

Banana breeding aims to develop improved cultivars with resistance to major pathogens and pests, while maintaining agronomic performance and fruit quality; this may contribute to the sustainability of their production, by reducing the negative environmental impacts of industrial plantations, and enhancing the food security and sovereignty of the countries producing bananas for local consumption. However, banana breeding is particularly complex, since cultivars need to be sterile to produce seedless edible fruits. The genome complexity of banana cultivars (interspecificity, polyploidy and high levels of genetic and structural heterozygosity), and the lack of knowledge on the genetics of the targeted traits, are further challenges posed to banana crossbreeding.

This Special Issue on “Developments in the Genetics and Breeding of Banana Species” will thus focus on scientific and technical advances in the field of banana’s conventional breeding, genetics and genomics; this will facilitate and accelerate the development of cultivars that meet the expectations of the markets, both today and in the future.

Dr. Sébastien Ricci
Prof. Dr. Rodomiro Ortiz
Dr. Nicolas Roux
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • banana/Musa
  • breeding techniques
  • QTLs
  • GWAS
  • genomic

Published Papers (5 papers)

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11 pages, 1922 KiB  
Article
Phytoene Desaturase (PDS) Gene-Derived Markers Identify “A” and “B” Genomes in Banana (Musa spp.)
by Fernanda dos Santos Nascimento, Marcelly Santana Mascarenhas, Samantha Costa Boaventura, Carla Catharina Hora de Souza, Andresa Priscila de Souza Ramos, Anelita de Jesus Rocha, Julianna Matos da Silva Soares, Leandro Eugenio Cardamone Diniz, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira Mendes, Claudia Fortes Ferreira and Edson Perito Amorim
Horticulturae 2024, 10(3), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10030294 - 19 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Phytoene desaturase (PDS) is a plant enzyme involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. The PDS gene has been used as a selective marker for genome editing in several plant species, including banana (Musa spp.). Its knockout promotes dwarfism and albinism, characteristics that are easily [...] Read more.
Phytoene desaturase (PDS) is a plant enzyme involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. The PDS gene has been used as a selective marker for genome editing in several plant species, including banana (Musa spp.). Its knockout promotes dwarfism and albinism, characteristics that are easily recognizable and highly favorable. In Musa spp., the A genome increases fruit production and quality, whereas the B genome is associated with tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The objective of this study was to identify a molecular marker in the PDS gene to easily discriminate the A and B genomes of banana. A 2166 bp fragment for the “PDSMa” marker was identified as polymorphic for the A genome (identification accuracy of 99.33%), whereas ~332 and ~225 bp fragments were detected for the “PDSMb” marker with 100% accuracy using MedCalc software. In this study, we used genotypes with A and B genomes that are used in the genetic improvement of bananas and an accession with the BT genome. It was not possible to differentiate the accession with the BT genome from the others, suggesting that the markers do not have the capacity to separate the T genome from the A and B genomes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to use the PDS gene to determine doses of the A genome and identify the B genome in Musa spp., which will aid in evaluating the genomic constitution of banana hybrids and accessions at the seedling stage and accelerating their classification in crop genetic improvement programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developments in the Genetics and Breeding of Banana Species)
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18 pages, 5600 KiB  
Article
Evidence of Correlation between Pathogenicity, Avirulence Genes, and Aggressiveness of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense in Banana “Cavendish” and “Prata” Subgroups
by Karinna V. C. Velame, Anelita de Jesus Rocha, Mileide dos Santos Ferreira, Fernando Haddad, Vanusia B. Oliveira Amorim, Kátia Nogueira Pestana, Claudia Fortes Ferreira, Saulo Alves Santos de Oliveira and Edson Perito Amorim
Horticulturae 2024, 10(3), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10030228 - 27 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is one of the most destructive diseases in banana farming worldwide. Knowledge of the factors of genetic diversity and virulence of the pathogen contributes to the development of resistant cultivars and management strategies based [...] Read more.
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is one of the most destructive diseases in banana farming worldwide. Knowledge of the factors of genetic diversity and virulence of the pathogen contributes to the development of resistant cultivars and management strategies based on exclusion. In this study, phenotypic traits such as virulence and aggressiveness in a sample of 52 Foc isolates were analyzed and their relationship to the presence of putative effectors of gene SIX (Secreted in Xylem) pathogenicity homologs was verified. The similarity matrix revealed three isolates that were closest to the standard Foc race 1 strain. Isolates 229A and 218A were selected according to their aggressiveness profile in ‘Grand Naine’ and ‘Prata-Anã’, respectively, to replace the standard isolate of race 1 in the resistance screening process carried out by the breeding program. Two homologs of the SIX8 gene, SIX8a and SIX8b, are present in isolates of Foc from Brazil, and the SIX8b gene correlates with avirulence in the cultivar ‘Grand Naine’ (Cavendish). These results are important to support the banana genetic breeding program by identifying sources of resistance to Foc and contributing to the establishment of the function of SIX effector proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developments in the Genetics and Breeding of Banana Species)
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15 pages, 1357 KiB  
Article
Identification of the Loci Associated with Resistance to Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (Xanthomonas vasicola pv. musacearum) Using DArTSeq Markers and Continuous Mapping
by Brigitte Uwimana, Gloria Valentine Nakato, Reagan Kanaabi, Catherine Nasuuna, Gerald Mwanje, George Simba Mahuku, Violet Akech, Marnik Vuylsteke, Rony Swennen and Trushar Shah
Horticulturae 2024, 10(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10010087 - 16 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Banana Xanthomonas wilt, caused by Xanthomonas vasicola pv. musacearum (Xvm), is a devastating disease that results in total yield loss of affected plants. Resistance to the disease is limited in Musa acuminata, but it has been identified so far in [...] Read more.
Banana Xanthomonas wilt, caused by Xanthomonas vasicola pv. musacearum (Xvm), is a devastating disease that results in total yield loss of affected plants. Resistance to the disease is limited in Musa acuminata, but it has been identified so far in the zebrina subspecies. This study identified markers associated with tolerance to Xvm in Monyet, a tetraploid banana from the zebrina subspecies which was identified to be partially resistant to the bacterium. We used a triploid progeny of 135 F1 hybrids resulting from a cross between Monyet (Xvm partially resistant) and Kokopo (diploid and Xvm susceptible). The F1 hybrids were screened in pots for resistance to Xvm. The population was genotyped using the genotyping-by-sequencing platform of Diversity Array Technology (DArTSeq). The adjusted means of the phenotypic data were combined with the allele frequencies of the genotypic data in continuous mapping. We identified 25 SNPs associated with resistance to Xvm, and these were grouped into five quantitative traits loci (QTL) on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, and 7. For each marker, we identified the favorable allele and the additive effect of replacing the reference allele with the alternative allele. The comparison between weevil borer (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar)) and Xvm QTL revealed one QTL shared between the two biotic stresses at the distal end of chromosome 6 but with a repulsion linkage. This linkage should be broken down by generating more recombinants in the region. We also identified 18 putative alleles in the vicinity of the SNPs associated with resistance to Xvm. Among the 18 putative genes, two particularly putative genes, namely, Ma06_g13550 and Ma06_g36840, are most likely linked to disease resistance. This study is a basis for marker-assisted selection to improve banana resistance to banana Xanthomonas wilt, especially in East and Central Africa where the disease is still devastating the crop. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developments in the Genetics and Breeding of Banana Species)
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15 pages, 1213 KiB  
Article
Improving Crossing Efficiency by Exploiting the Genetic Potential of Allotetraploid Cooking Bananas
by Camille Ulrich Dzokouo Dzoyem, Guy Blaise Noumbissié Touko, Emmanuel Youmbi and Frédéric Bakry
Horticulturae 2024, 10(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10010062 - 08 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Conventional breeding involves considerable genetic recombination. To maximize breeding efforts, it is necessary to increase seed yield. This study proposes to improve seed yield by using tetraploid bananas as part of a genetic improvement programme for cooking varieties. To this end, the female [...] Read more.
Conventional breeding involves considerable genetic recombination. To maximize breeding efforts, it is necessary to increase seed yield. This study proposes to improve seed yield by using tetraploid bananas as part of a genetic improvement programme for cooking varieties. To this end, the female fertility (seeding rate and embryo sac maturity) of tetraploid banana plants was characterised. The pollen potential of tetraploids was then assessed at anthesis and at the end of meiosis, as well as during crosses with seminiferous diploids, leading to a phenotypic characterisation of the value of an offspring. This study highlighted the low seed production rate of tetraploid genitors. At best, 7% of seeds are produced per fruit, but 57% of the ovules per fruit have mature embryo sacs. The use of tetraploids as male parents, free from any source of sterility associated with the domestication process, did not generally improve the seed rate, except in the case of FHIA 21 (2930 seeds). Its pollen potential was used in a cross with Banksii 0623 (♀). This resulted in progeny with interesting vigour and phenotypic characteristics. This latter combination has the potential to transfer its “cooking” genetic structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developments in the Genetics and Breeding of Banana Species)
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11 pages, 2302 KiB  
Brief Report
Visualizing and Inferring Chromosome Segregation in the Pedigree of an Improved Banana Cultivar (Gold Finger) with Genome Ancestry Mosaic Painting
by Alberto Cenci, Guillaume Martin, Catherine Breton, Angélique D’Hont, Nabila Yahiaoui, Julie Sardos and Mathieu Rouard
Horticulturae 2023, 9(12), 1330; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9121330 - 11 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1010
Abstract
Banana breeding faces numerous challenges, such as sterility and low seed viability. Enhancing our understanding of banana genetics, notably through next-generation sequencing, can help mitigate these challenges. The genotyping datasets currently available from genebanks were used to decipher cultivated bananas’ genetic makeup of [...] Read more.
Banana breeding faces numerous challenges, such as sterility and low seed viability. Enhancing our understanding of banana genetics, notably through next-generation sequencing, can help mitigate these challenges. The genotyping datasets currently available from genebanks were used to decipher cultivated bananas’ genetic makeup of natural cultivars using genome ancestry mosaic painting. This article presents the application of this method to breeding materials by analyzing the chromosome segregation at the origin of ‘Gold Finger’ (FHIA-01), a successful improved tetraploid variety that was developed in the 1980s. First, the method enabled us to clarify the variety’s intricate genetic composition from ancestral wild species. Second, it enabled us to infer the parental gametes responsible for the formation of this hybrid. It thus revealed 16 recombinations in the haploid male gamete and 10 in the unreduced triploid female gamete. Finally, we could deduce the meiotic mechanism lying behind the transmission of unreduced gametes (i.e., FDR). While we show that the method is a powerful tool for the visualization and inference of gametic contribution in hybrids, we also discuss its advantages and limitations to advance our comprehension of banana genetics in a breeding context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developments in the Genetics and Breeding of Banana Species)
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