Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants

A special issue of Horticulturae (ISSN 2311-7524). This special issue belongs to the section "Medicinals, Herbs, and Specialty Crops".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 July 2023) | Viewed by 27925

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Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Medicinal plants exhibit a lot of variation based on morphological, palynological, and phytochemical characteristics, as well as their habitats, etc. These factors also influence the effects of medicinal plants against specific disorders. Human beings have used medicinal plants to treat ailments for several decades. However, the increase in disease incidence has raised the demand for novel therapeutics, which can be fulfilled using phytochemicals from plants. Current research advances reveal that herbal plants are a fundamental factor in the development of biomedicines. To ensure the safe use of medicinal plants and their products, detailed studies of medicinal plants are required. These characterizations could be based on determining structural or morphological variations among medicinal plants, environmental impacts on medicinal plants, phytochemicals isolation, bioactivities, the phylogenetic relationship among medicinal plants, interactions between phytochemicals, and in silico approaches of drug designing from phytoconstituents. This Special Issue can help researchers to determine novel phytochemicals and explore variations in morphology and palynology among medicinal plants of different families. This Special Issue aims to fill knowledge gaps in recent studies of medicinal plant identification/authenticity using classical, as well as advanced methods, by encouraging the submission of original research papers, short communications, and review articles, that address topics related to the morphology, palynology and phytochemicals of medicinal plants.

Dr. Wajid Zaman
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • medicinal plants
  • biomedicines
  • bioactive compounds
  • morphological variations
  • phylogeny
  • environment
  • biodiversity
  • authenticity
  • herbal medicine
  • phytochemistry

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 160 KiB  
Editorial
Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants
by Wajid Zaman
Horticulturae 2024, 10(3), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae10030202 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 609
Abstract
The study of plant morphology and palynology not only enhances our understanding of plant biology, but also provides insights into the evolutionary adaptations and ecological dynamics that contribute to the medicinal properties of plants [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

18 pages, 3325 KiB  
Article
Physiological, Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Response of Basil (O. basilicum Linn. var. pilosum (Willd.) Benth.) to Red and Blue Light
by Qingfei Wu, Rigui Ye, Jingmian Duan, Duo Lin, Yuru Jia, Fengfeng Dang and Tiantian Han
Horticulturae 2023, 9(11), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9111172 - 26 Oct 2023
Viewed by 681
Abstract
Basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn. var. pilosum (Willd.) Benth.) is an aromatic plant with high nutritional and economic value, and the synthesis and regulation of its active ingredients have been studied in prior research. However, the mechanisms by which red and [...] Read more.
Basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn. var. pilosum (Willd.) Benth.) is an aromatic plant with high nutritional and economic value, and the synthesis and regulation of its active ingredients have been studied in prior research. However, the mechanisms by which red and blue light—the most effective absorption spectra for photosynthesis—regulate the growth and metabolism of basil remain elusive. This study investigated the changes in phenotype, transcriptome, and metabolome in basil under red and blue light. The photosynthetic efficiency and biomass of basil under blue light (B) treatment were higher than those under white light (W), while red light (R) decreased photosynthesis and biomass. Metabolomic analysis showed that 491 significantly differentially accumulated metabolites were identified between the W and B groups, while 630 differentially accumulated metabolites were identified between the W and R groups. The DAMs were mainly enriched in pathways such as biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, monoterpenoid biosynthesis, limonene and pinene degradation, etc. In addition, transcriptomic analysis revealed that 34,760 and 29,802 differentially expressed genes were detected in the W vs. B pair and the W vs. R pair, respectively, while differentially expressed genes were divided into different unique subclasses, suggesting that they respond to light quality in specific ways. Overall, this work will not only enrich knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of light spectra’s regulation of plant metabolism, but also provide a theoretical basis and guidance for the molecular improvement and quality cultivation of basil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants)
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12 pages, 5636 KiB  
Article
Morphology, Anatomy, Micromorphology, and Palynology of the Squirrel’s Foot Fern, Davallia mariesii (Davalliaceae)
by Sungyu Yang, Goya Choi and Jun-Ho Song
Horticulturae 2023, 9(8), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9080939 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1200
Abstract
Davallia mariesii T. Moore ex Baker, a member of the section Trogostolon (Copel.) M. Kato and Tsutsumi (Davalliaceae M.R. Schomb.), is a lithophytic or epiphytic herb that grows on rocks and tree trunks in montane forests. This study analyzed the morphological, anatomical, micromorphological, [...] Read more.
Davallia mariesii T. Moore ex Baker, a member of the section Trogostolon (Copel.) M. Kato and Tsutsumi (Davalliaceae M.R. Schomb.), is a lithophytic or epiphytic herb that grows on rocks and tree trunks in montane forests. This study analyzed the morphological, anatomical, micromorphological, and palynological characteristics of D. mariesii using a digital slide scanner and a field-emission scanning electron microscope and presented an expanded and updated description. A circumendodermal band was observed in the anatomical structure of the stipe, making D. mariesii the second species in the family Davalliaceae with such a band. The frond anatomical studies revealed that the epidermal cells of the indusium were thicker than those of the epidermis on both sides and that hypostomatic fronds with stomata chambers were present. Diacytic, anisocytic, and tetracytic stomatal complexes were observed on abaxial surfaces. The indusia covered numerous sporangia. Leptosporangium consisted of an apical cap, a basal cap, an annulus, and a stalk. The spore had an ellipsoidal outline, a monolete aperture, and verrucae with colliculate ornamentation. The obtained results provide systematic data for the phylogeny of Davalliaceae and establish a basis for future taxonomic delimitation of other taxa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants)
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19 pages, 1779 KiB  
Article
Taxonomic Comparison, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Three Ebenus pinnata Ait. ecotypes (Fabaceae) from Algeria
by Tassadit Zemouri, Amirouche Chikhoune, Hassina Benmouhoub and Mohamed Sahnoune
Horticulturae 2023, 9(8), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9080879 - 03 Aug 2023
Viewed by 987
Abstract
Ebenus pinnata is not known as a traditional medicinal plant, but modern research has revealed its richness in components of medicinal value. Yet, the species remains understudied. Here, we assess the climate effect on its morphology, pollen grains size, chromosome numbers, pollen fertility, [...] Read more.
Ebenus pinnata is not known as a traditional medicinal plant, but modern research has revealed its richness in components of medicinal value. Yet, the species remains understudied. Here, we assess the climate effect on its morphology, pollen grains size, chromosome numbers, pollen fertility, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Plant material was collected from the humid, sub-humid, and semi-arid areas of Northeastern Algeria. Data treatment by principal component analysis and/or cluster analysis and ANOVA post hoc tests revealed three significantly discriminated ecotypes correlated with the climate stage. Significant differences were detected for whole plant morphology, pollen size, and antioxidant activity. No differences were revealed for chromosome numbers, pollen fertility, and antibacterial activity. The studied material showed a chromosome number of 2n = 14, high pollen fertility (94.04 ± 2.64–95.01 ± 2.02%), small pollen grains (polar axis: 17.95 ± 1.10–19.47 ± 1.27 µm; equatorial axis: 12.80 ± 1.18–13.03 ± 0.99 µm), high antioxidant activity (TPC: 50.79 ± 0.51–56.89 ± 0.46 mg/g; DPPH: 71.18 ± 2.24–95.67 ± 2.02 mg/g; RP: 11.09 ± 1.24–25.88 ± 0.26 mg/g), and efficient antibacterial activity (Inhibition area diameter: 9.25 ± 1.06–12.00 ± 1.41 mm). The climate seems to exert a significant impact on multiple aspects of the plant’s biology. It would be interesting to assess the genetic basis of this phenomenon in E. pinnata and other species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants)
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11 pages, 10284 KiB  
Article
Micromorphology of Barleria albostellata (Grey Barleria) Flower and Pollen Grains
by Serisha Gangaram, Yougasphree Naidoo, Yaser Hassan Dewir, Moganavelli Singh and Katalin Magyar-Tábori
Horticulturae 2023, 9(7), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9070732 - 21 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1025
Abstract
Barleria albostellata C.B. Clarke (grey barleria, Acanthaceae) is an indigenous shrub to South Africa and has been relatively understudied. This shrub is a valuable medicinal plant with a wide spectrum of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Detailed studies on the floral and pollen morphology [...] Read more.
Barleria albostellata C.B. Clarke (grey barleria, Acanthaceae) is an indigenous shrub to South Africa and has been relatively understudied. This shrub is a valuable medicinal plant with a wide spectrum of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Detailed studies on the floral and pollen morphology on B. albostellata are rare. This study was conducted to observe the morphology of the flower and pollen grains using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphological observations showed numerous non-glandular trichomes on the bracteoles and bracts of B. albostellata. Three types of trichomes were identified on these structures: I—unicellular, II—multangulate-dendritic branched non-glandular trichomes, and III—capitate glandular trichomes. A taxonomical description of the floral structures using stereo and SEM micrographs is provided. SEM micrographs revealed the pollen grains as globose tricolporate with a rough honeycomb exine, and small granules inside the lumina. The diameter of the pollen grains was 77.53 ± 5.63 μm, whereas the aperture of these grains was 14.31 ± 0.59 µm. This study provides insight into the floral biology of B. albostellata, and the results presented here will add to the body of knowledge and encourage further research on this species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants)
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23 pages, 2354 KiB  
Article
Discrimination of Syzygium samarangense cv. ‘Giant Green’ Leaves at Different Maturity Stages by FTIR and GCMS Fingerprinting
by Nuruljannah Suhaida Idris, Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker, Zalilawati Mat Rashid, Ali Majrashi, Mekhled Mutiran Alenazi, Ahmad Faris Mohd Adnan, Khairil Mahmud and Nashriyah Mat
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050609 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1344
Abstract
‘Giant Green’ is one of the Syzygium samarangense cultivars planted throughout Malaysia because it has great potential for benefitting human health. However, its variation in chemical compounds, especially in the leaves at different maturity stages, cannot be systematically discriminated. Hence, Fourier transform infrared [...] Read more.
‘Giant Green’ is one of the Syzygium samarangense cultivars planted throughout Malaysia because it has great potential for benefitting human health. However, its variation in chemical compounds, especially in the leaves at different maturity stages, cannot be systematically discriminated. Hence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS) coupled with chemometric tools were applied to discriminate between the different stages of leaves, namely, young, mature, and old leaves. The chemical variability among the samples was evaluated by using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) techniques. For discrimination, partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) was applied, and then partial least squares (PLS) was used to determine the correlation between biological activities (antioxidant and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory assay) and maturity stages of ‘Giant Green’ leaves. As a result, the PCA, HCA, and PLS-DA of the FTIR and GC-MS data showed the separation between clusters for the different maturity stages of the leaves. Additionally, the PLS result demonstrated that the young leaves showed a strong correlation between metabolite quantities and biological activities. The findings of this study revealed that FTIR and GC-MS coupled with chemometric analyses can be used as a rapid method for the discrimination of bioactive structural functions in relation to their biological activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants)
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15 pages, 1165 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Growth Patterns and Metabolite Composition of Different Ginseng Cultivars (Yunpoong and K-1) Grown in a Vertical Farm
by Ga Oun Lee, Seong-Nam Jang, Min Ju Kim, Du Yong Cho, Kye Man Cho, Ji Hyun Lee and Ki-Ho Son
Horticulturae 2023, 9(5), 583; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9050583 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1198
Abstract
This study analyzed growth patterns, biological compounds, antioxidant properties, ginsenoside contents, metabolites, and the annual net production of ‘Yunpoong’ and ‘K-1’ to find the optimal harvesting time of ginseng sprouts. One-year-old ginseng seedlings were cultivated in a container-type vertical farm under a temperature [...] Read more.
This study analyzed growth patterns, biological compounds, antioxidant properties, ginsenoside contents, metabolites, and the annual net production of ‘Yunpoong’ and ‘K-1’ to find the optimal harvesting time of ginseng sprouts. One-year-old ginseng seedlings were cultivated in a container-type vertical farm under a temperature of 20 °C, a humidity of 60%, and average light intensity of 46.4 µmol m−2 s−1 (16 h photoperiod). Growth patterns at 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after transplanting (WAT) differed between cultivars. Regarding biological compounds and antioxidant properties, ‘Yunpoong’ took 5 WAT (43.59%; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazine-hydrate radical scavenging activity, 1.47 OD593nm; ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, 78.01%; 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity), and ‘K-1’ took 4 WAT (0.98 Re mg g−1; total flavonoid contents, 35.93%; DPPH) to show a high content. Two cultivars showed the highest total ginsenoside contents at 5 WAT. Most of the analyzed metabolites had a higher content in ‘Yunpoong’ than in ‘K-1’. In both cultivars, it was confirmed that the longer the growth period (3 − > 5 WAT), the lower the yield and the annual ginsenoside net production. Therefore, ‘Yunpoong’ and ‘K-1’ cultivars should be grown as ginseng sprouts in the vertical farms for approximately 3 WAT and 4 WAT, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants)
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15 pages, 3367 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Glucosinolate and Phenolic Compounds in Green and Red Kimchi Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) Hairy Roots after Exposure to Light and Dark Conditions
by Sook Young Lee, Haejin Kwon, Jae Kwang Kim, Chang Ha Park, Ramaraj Sathasivam and Sang Un Park
Horticulturae 2023, 9(4), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9040466 - 07 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1518
Abstract
Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis (Lour.) Hanelt (kimchi cabbage) is a major vegetable cultivated in Korea, and its hairy roots (HRs) are rich in glucosinolates and phenolic compounds. This study aimed to induce HRs from cotyledon explants via the transformation of the Agroacterium [...] Read more.
Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis (Lour.) Hanelt (kimchi cabbage) is a major vegetable cultivated in Korea, and its hairy roots (HRs) are rich in glucosinolates and phenolic compounds. This study aimed to induce HRs from cotyledon explants via the transformation of the Agroacterium rhizogenes strain R1000 and examine the glucosinolate and phenolic compounds present in the HRs of two kimchi cabbage (green and red) cultivars after exposure to 16 h light/8 h dark conditions (photosynthetic photon flux density of 54.6 µmol m−2 s−1) and continuous dark conditions. The highest HR production was achieved in the green kimchi cabbage grown under dark conditions (0.37 ± 0.01 DW g/30 mL). The highest glucosinolate and phenolic contents were neoglucobrassicin and catechin hydrate, which were highest in the green kimchi HRs grown under dark (GKHD) conditions (5268.29 ± 292.84 µg/g DW) and green HRs grown under light (GKHL) conditions (203.49 ± 4.70 µg/g DW), respectively. A heat map showed that the red kimchi HRs grown under dark conditions (RKHD) and the GKHL condition accumulated the highest glucosinolate and phenolic contents. Principal component (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant (PLS-DA) analyses of the 13 identified metabolites showed a clear separation. According to a variable importance in projection (VIP) analysis, quercetin was the most important metabolite, leading to a clear separation. The most suitable conditions for enhancing the glucosinolate and phenolic contents were the GKHD and GKHL conditions, respectively, whereas both compounds were enhanced in the RKHD condition. HRs cultures cultivated under light and dark conditions are a promising method to enhance the production of specific health-promoting bioactive metabolites, which might be helpful in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants)
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23 pages, 1788 KiB  
Article
Polyphenolic Compounds and Biological Activities of Leaves and Fruits of Syzygium samarangense cv. ‘Giant Green’ at Three Different Maturities
by Nuruljannah Suhaida Idris, Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker, Zalilawati Mat Rashid, Ali Majrashi, Mekhled Mutiran Alenazi, Zanariah Mohd Nor, Ahmad Faris Mohd Adnan and Nashriyah Mat
Horticulturae 2023, 9(3), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9030326 - 01 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2598
Abstract
Syzygium samarangense cv. ‘Giant Green’ is an underutilised fruit that can be found in Malaysia and other Asian countries. Since this fruit is not fully commercialised, the information about its potential health benefits is limited. Thus, this study was carried out to determine [...] Read more.
Syzygium samarangense cv. ‘Giant Green’ is an underutilised fruit that can be found in Malaysia and other Asian countries. Since this fruit is not fully commercialised, the information about its potential health benefits is limited. Thus, this study was carried out to determine the polyphenolic contents (total phenolic and total flavonoid) and biological activities (antioxidant, alpha-glucosidase and antibacterial assay) of ‘Giant Green’ leaves and fruits at different maturity stages. The young, mature and old leaves, and unripe, half-ripened and ripened fruits were analysed. The results showed that the young leaves increased the TPC and TFC by 35% and 41%, over the old leaves. Similarly, TPC and TFC contents were 37% and 54% higher in unripe fruits compared to the ripened fruits. In addition, young leaves exhibited the strongest scavenging activity towards DPPH, NO and ABTS radicals with IC50 values increasing 1.6-fold, 1.7-fold and 2.3-fold, respectively, over the old leaves. However, in fruit samples, only unripe fruits were able to inhibit more than 50% of radicals. A comparable trend was observed in alpha-glucosidase inhibitory assay whereas young leaves and unripe fruits recorded 81% and 99% increases in IC50 values, respectively, from young leaves to old leaves and unripe fruits to ripened fruits. Identically, young leaves also showed a significant effect in antibacterial assay with an inhibition zone increase of 19%, 36%, 32%, and 31% in S. aureus, E. faecalis, S. typhimurium and E. coli, respectively, over the old leaves. However, only unripe fruits were most effective against all tested bacteria while half-ripened fruits were only effective against E. faecalis with a 1.1-fold increase in the inhibition zone compared to unripe fruits. Ripened fruits were resistant to all of the bacteria. These results suggest that the young leaves and unripe fruits of ‘Giant Green’ cultivar of S. samarangense could be a potential candidate for the management of some diseases coming from harmful free radicals or bacterial infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants)
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12 pages, 5984 KiB  
Article
Anatomical and Chemical Analysis of Moringa oleifera Stem Tissue Grown under Controlled Conditions
by Holly M. McVea and Lisa J. Wood
Horticulturae 2023, 9(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9020213 - 06 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2684
Abstract
Moringa oleifera is a relatively well-studied ethnobotanical species, but information is limited regarding its stem anatomy and the production potential of phytochemicals from bark tissue. Knowing that variation exists in the production of chemical defenses by plants with growing conditions and with developmental stages, [...] Read more.
Moringa oleifera is a relatively well-studied ethnobotanical species, but information is limited regarding its stem anatomy and the production potential of phytochemicals from bark tissue. Knowing that variation exists in the production of chemical defenses by plants with growing conditions and with developmental stages, M. oleifera was grown under controlled conditions to characterize stem tissues and to determine if stem bark contained the correct phytochemical compounds to be of value in medicinal treatments. We used microscopy to characterize the stem anatomy of M. oleifera and analyzed stem bark extracts using FTIR and GC to identify 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (moringin) and benzylamine (moringine) in tissue. We found the stems to be in transition between juvenile and mature stages of development at 4 months old under the growth conditions used. In 7-month-old stems, we found the presence of moringin in all bark samples and did not find any moringine. These results indicate that M. oleifera bark of 7-month-old trees grown in greenhouse conditions may be valuable for drug development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants)
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15 pages, 5948 KiB  
Article
Two New Ferula (Apiaceae) Species from Central Anatolia: Ferula turcica and Ferula latialata
by Hüseyin Onur Tuncay, Emine Akalın, Aslı Doğru-Koca, Fatma Memnune Eruçar and Mahmut Miski
Horticulturae 2023, 9(2), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9020144 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1942
Abstract
Ferula turcica and Ferula latialata are two novel endemic species discovered in the Konya and Kırşehir provinces of the central Anatolian region of Türkiye. These two new species are described by morphological, ecological, carpological, and phytochemical characteristics and phylogenetic analysis. F. turcica and [...] Read more.
Ferula turcica and Ferula latialata are two novel endemic species discovered in the Konya and Kırşehir provinces of the central Anatolian region of Türkiye. These two new species are described by morphological, ecological, carpological, and phytochemical characteristics and phylogenetic analysis. F. turcica and F. latialata are morphologically distinct from F. szowitsiana by their habit, the stalk of the terminal umbella, and the mericarp size, as well as by the profile of their secondary metabolite markers and phylogenetic placement. The phylogenetic analyses of sequences of the internal transcribed spacer in ribosomal DNA belonging to both new taxa were conducted to reveal the evolutionary relationships of the new species. Their relationships with the other related species and proposed conservation status were reviewed. The morphological, molecular, and phytochemical evidence supported the hypothesis that Ferula turcica and Ferula latialata are two new distinct species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants)
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15 pages, 5987 KiB  
Article
Seasonal Development of Paeonia obovata and Paeonia oreogeton and Their Contents of Biologically Active and Reserve Substances in the Forest-Steppe Zone of Western Siberia
by Olga V. Kalendar, Vera A. Kostikova, Tatiana A. Kukushkina, Andrey S. Erst, Alexander A. Kuznetsov, Maxim S. Kulikovskiy and Olga Y. Vasilyeva
Horticulturae 2023, 9(1), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9010102 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1160
Abstract
Paeonia obovata and Paeonia oreogeton belong to the monotypic family Paeoniaceae. Both are popular as ornamental plants. P. obovata and P. oreogeton have been introduced into Novosibirsk Oblast (Western Siberia) from Primorye (Far East). The aim of the study was to assess their [...] Read more.
Paeonia obovata and Paeonia oreogeton belong to the monotypic family Paeoniaceae. Both are popular as ornamental plants. P. obovata and P. oreogeton have been introduced into Novosibirsk Oblast (Western Siberia) from Primorye (Far East). The aim of the study was to assess their adaptability as well as the effect of seasonal developmental stages on the accumulation of secondary metabolites and reserve substances in the leaves and rhizomes under the conditions of Akademgorodok (Novosibirsk, Russia). According to long-term data (15 years), P. obovata and P. oreogeton complete the entire growth cycle here, including flowering and fruiting. Both species exhibited abundant flowering, but in the first 3 years, P. oreogeton did not bloom; yet under the microclimatic conditions specifically selected for this species (a more shaded area), it started to bloom and fruit yearly. A biochemical analysis (by spectrometric method) of P. obovata and P. oreogeton grown in Akademgorodok showed that the leaves accumulate higher concentrations of flavonols (P. obovata: 1.77%), tannins (P. oreogeton: 16.42%), ascorbic acid (P. oreogeton: 155.2 mg/100 g), and sugars (P. obovata: 20.85%) as compared to the roots. Peony rhizomes contain higher concentrations of protopectins (P. oreogeton: 13.03%), saponins (P. obovata: 21.06%), and starch (P. obovata: 30.20%) than the leaves do. These data can help to increase the levels of these natural compounds in these species. Further investigation into the dynamics of accumulation of biologically active substances in the organs of peonies will help to identify introduced plant species having high biochemical potential for the pharmaceutical industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants)
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10 pages, 2525 KiB  
Article
The Breeding of High-Quality Dandelions by NaCl Induced Callus Variation Combined with a Drosophila Tumor Cell Migration Test
by Zhe Wu, Zhaojia Li, Wei Feng, Ran Meng, Xiuping Wang and Chenxi Wu
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1167; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121167 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2421
Abstract
Creating high-quality and salt-tolerant plant germplasm is an effective strategy to improve the utilization of saline-alkali land. Salt-induced callus mutation was used to create dandelion germplasm and mutant dandelion calluses were obtained under NaCl concentrations of 0.8%, 1%, and 1.2% with the identification [...] Read more.
Creating high-quality and salt-tolerant plant germplasm is an effective strategy to improve the utilization of saline-alkali land. Salt-induced callus mutation was used to create dandelion germplasm and mutant dandelion calluses were obtained under NaCl concentrations of 0.8%, 1%, and 1.2% with the identification of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A new dandelion line, “Binpu 2”, selected from the progenies of dandelion tissue culture plantlets that originated from callus treated under 0.8% NaCl, was evaluated in light of its morphological characteristics, bioactive components, and antitumor functions. Results showed that the plant shape of “Binpu 2”was nearly upright; its cichoric acid content was 6.7 mg/g, which was 39.6% and 36.7% higher than its mother plant and local dandelion cultivar, respectively; its leaf water extracts of 0.2 g/mL had a significant inhibitory effect on cell polarity disruption-induced cell migration without affecting drosophila normal growth, revealed by the strong inhibitory effect on tumor cell migration, the increased level of MMP1 and β-Integrin, and the reduced E-cadherin expression. Our results suggested that “Binpu 2” originated from salt-induced mutant performed better than its mother plant and processed strong antitumor function, which was suitable for amplified cultivation in saline-alkali land for food and medicinal industrial development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants)
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8 pages, 3348 KiB  
Article
Study of 15 Varieties of Herbaceous Peony Pollen Submicroscopic Morphology and Phylogenetic Relationships
by Dongliang Zhang, Anqi Xie, Xiao Yang, Yajie Shi, Lijin Yang, Lingling Dong, Fuling Lei, Jingyue Wu and Xia Sun
Horticulturae 2022, 8(12), 1161; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8121161 - 07 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1213
Abstract
Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is widely used in medicine, garden applications, and as a potted ornamental. Cultivated varieties of paeonifloras suitable for cut flowers are urgently needed. In this study, the pollen morphology of P. lactiflora was studied and the characters of different varieties [...] Read more.
Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is widely used in medicine, garden applications, and as a potted ornamental. Cultivated varieties of paeonifloras suitable for cut flowers are urgently needed. In this study, the pollen morphology of P. lactiflora was studied and the characters of different varieties were compared, so as to provide reference for selecting suitable parents for new hybrid varieties. We examined the pollen morphology of 15 herbaceous peony varieties using scanning electron microscopy and analyzed the external pollen morphology and genetic relationship of the varieties. The pollen grains of the studied varieties were spheroidal or subspheroidal, bilaterally symmetrical monads, circular in polar view, and circular or elliptical in equatorial view. The exine of the pollen grains was observed as being relatively smooth under the light microscope, with the area around the equatorial axis having more lumina under the scanning electron microscope. The pollen grain exine sculpture was either reticular or pit type. The pollen apertures were tricolporate, arranged longitudinally, and equally spaced. The pollen grains were of two sizes: medium and small. The differences between the varieties were mainly reflected in the exine sculpture of the pollen. The closer the genetic relationship between the 15 peony varieties, the more subtle the differences in the exine sculpture. In the same cluster group, the morphological characteristics of herbaceous peony pollen were correlated with the shapes of flower and scale buds and the texture of the petals. However, the study identified no direct correlation with the cultivar type and flower color. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants)
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19 pages, 2504 KiB  
Article
Comparative Study on Genome Size and Phytochemical Profile of Three Potential Species of Acacia: Threatened and Endemic to Saudi Arabia
by Salim Khan, Fahad Al-Qurainy, Abdulrahman Al-hashimi, Mohammad Nadeem, Mohamed Tarroum, Abdalrhaman M. Salih and Hassan O. Shaikhaldein
Horticulturae 2022, 8(11), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8110994 - 26 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1522
Abstract
Acacias are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and have both economic as well as medicinal value. The estimation of genome size is very important as it changes due to the change in noncoding DNA sequence as well as [...] Read more.
Acacias are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and have both economic as well as medicinal value. The estimation of genome size is very important as it changes due to the change in noncoding DNA sequence as well as genome duplication among organisms for their evolutionary aspects. Three potential species of the genus Acacia including Acacia etbaica, Acacia johnwoodii and Acacia origena, which are threatened and nearly endemic to Saudi Arabia, were collected. The present study was carried out to determine the genome size (2C DNA contents), total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC) and some bioactive compounds in these species for their comparison. The genome size ranged from 1.91 pg (A. etbaica) to 2.45 pg/2C (A. origena) among the Acacia species, which correspond to genome sizes 1843.15–2364.25 Mbp, respectively. The variation was observed in genome size within Acacia species as nuclei were extracted using different extraction buffers except for GB and MB01 buffers. The FTIR analysis revealed the presence of various functional groups in compounds that might be responsible for different types of phytochemicals in these Acacia species. Total flavonoid content (TFC) ranged from 0.647 (A. origena) to 1.084 mg QE/g DW (A. etbaica), whereas the total phenolic f content (TPC) ranged between 15.322 (A. origena) to 28.849 (A. johnwoodii) mg/g DW of GAE. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of quercetin 3-β-D-glucoside and luteolin 7-rutinoside in the leaves of all three Acacia species in considerable amounts, and these might have good health-promoting effects. This is our first study on genome size (2C DNA content) using flow cytometry and phytochemical profiling on these Acacias. Thus, estimated genome size and phytochemical study of these species could help to understand the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites under various genes and the evolutionary relationships among them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants)
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12 pages, 3706 KiB  
Article
Trichomes’ Micromorphology and Their Evolution in Selected Species of Causonis (Vitaceae)
by Gaurav Parmar and Wajid Zaman
Horticulturae 2022, 8(10), 877; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8100877 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1238
Abstract
The Vitaceae genus Causonis is found in tropical to temperate climates from Asia to Australia, including the Pacific Islands. Rafinesque established the genus in 1930; however, Süssenguth classified it under Cayratia as a sect. Discypharia in 1953. The genus was resurrected in 2013 [...] Read more.
The Vitaceae genus Causonis is found in tropical to temperate climates from Asia to Australia, including the Pacific Islands. Rafinesque established the genus in 1930; however, Süssenguth classified it under Cayratia as a sect. Discypharia in 1953. The genus was resurrected in 2013 using morphological and genetic evidence. We herein provided insight into the diversity of trichomes’ micromorphology of selected species of this recently reinstated genus for taxonomical implication. Simple trichomes, representing non-glandular and unbranched trichomes, are only found in Causonis. Trichomes vary from straight, curved, hooked, appressed, pilose, to villous in different parts like branchlets, abaxial leaf surface, and adaxial leaf surface in different species. They also vary in the same plant from the young stage to the mature stage. Most species are pubescent when young, but a few species become nearly glabrous when they are mature. Significant variations can be observed in trichomes’ length between the species. Principal component analysis (PCA), based on the micromorphological traits, was carried out for the species delimitation. In Mesquite, ancestral character state reconstruction was used to examine evolutionary trends for trichomes on three different surfaces. The glabrous to sparsely pubescent state found on the branchlets and both leaf surfaces were found to be the ancestral state and, on the branchlets and both leaf surfaces, the villous hairs state was the derived state in the genus. The identification of Causonis species is greatly aided by trichomes morphology. Therefore, similar studies should be conducted on other Vitaceae genera to reveal the variety of trichomes found in the family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

17 pages, 1249 KiB  
Review
Medicinal Use, Flower Trade, Preservation and Mass Propagation Techniques of Cymbidium Orchids—An Overview
by Khosro Balilashaki, Marcos Edel Martinez-Montero, Maryam Vahedi, Jean Carlos Cardoso, Catherine Lizzeth Silva Agurto, Michel Leiva-Mora, Fatemeh Feizi and Mohammad Musharof Hossain
Horticulturae 2023, 9(6), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae9060690 - 11 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2014
Abstract
Cymbidium is an economically important genus in the orchid family (Orchidaceae) that has a pronounced medicinal and ornamental value. Medicinally, the plant is employed as a tonic to treat weakness in chronic diseases, dizziness, eye problems, burns, and wounds, etc. Cymbidiums are highly [...] Read more.
Cymbidium is an economically important genus in the orchid family (Orchidaceae) that has a pronounced medicinal and ornamental value. Medicinally, the plant is employed as a tonic to treat weakness in chronic diseases, dizziness, eye problems, burns, and wounds, etc. Cymbidiums are highly prized for their graceful flowers and sweet fragrance and are among the top ten most popular cut flowers. They are one of the most important commercial orchid groups and account for 3% of cut flowers in floriculture. Some orchid species in this genus are particularly threatened by excessive harvesting, so conservation measures are needed. Several enthusiastic organizations (e.g., The Cymbidiums Society of America, The Cymbidiums Club in Australia, The Golden Gate Cymbidiums Society, Alameda, CA, etc.) are dedicated to propagating, conserving, promoting, appreciating, and disseminating information about these beautiful and charming orchids. Through organogenesis (direct and indirect) and somatic embryogenesis, extensive propagation techniques for Cymbidiums have been developed to create protocols for synthetic seed production leading to large-scale propagation and long-term ex situ and in vitro conservation. This review highlights the medicinal uses, flower trade, conservation, and massive propagation techniques of Cymbidium orchids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morphology, Palynology and Phytochemicals of Medicinal Plants)
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