Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 87800

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Sports Science School of Rio Maior-Polytechnic Institute of Santarém, 2040-413 Rio Maior, Portugal
2. Life Quality Research Center, 2040-413 Rio Maior, Portugal
3. Research Centre in Sport Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: exercise physiology; clinical exercise physiology; exercise training programs; well-being, physical activity and healthy lifestyle; assessment of physical capacity; quality of life of subjects with clinical conditions and active lifestyle (elderly, children, type 2 diabetes, Parkinson, etc.); sarcopenia; osteopenia; osteoporosis; fall prevention; body composition; strength and conditioning; soccer training; load monitoring; sports
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Sports Science School of Rio Maior, Polytechnic Institute of Santarém, 2040-413 Rio Maior, Portugal
2. Life Quality Research Center, 2040-413 Rio Maior, Portugal
3. Research Centre in Sport Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: exercise physiology; soccer training, well-being, training load; sports; physical activity and healthy lifestyle; exercise training programs; physical capacity; body composition; strength and conditioning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In several elite sports, training and match loads have been assessed over the years. However, only the clubs with the most resources and money are able to apply more valid and reliable tools. For instance, at the regional level, clubs and their coaches do not have sufficient resources to allow them to precisely monitor the training/match load. As an example, elite football generates the most media and commercial attention, but it is in regional football that the greatest number of clubs, players, and coaches are found. Meanwhile, the literature that investigates load monitoring in teams at regional level is sparse. Considering other sports such as futsal, basketball, volleyball, rugby, hockey, handball, and/or others, resources could be equally reduced to apply proper load management. Conducting studies at regional level enables the development of knowledge about this population, promoting the evolution of this sport at all competitive levels which will also contribute to avoid any kind of healthcare issues such to injury or illness. 

Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue is to provide information on load monitoring, especially in less resourceful sports, but not only, and to show how several load monitoring tools can be used to avoid healthcare issues. The present Special Issue will accept original research and systematic reviews from all sports. We hypothesize that this Special Issue will generate relevant information for several sports to increase performance levels and to avoid healthcare issues.

Dr. João Brito
Dr. Rafael Oliveira
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • fitness
  • injury
  • illness
  • match load
  • sports training
  • sports performance
  • training load
  • wellness
  • wellbeing

Published Papers (37 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 235 KiB  
Editorial
Load Monitoring and Its Relationship with Healthcare in Sports
by Rafael Oliveira and João Paulo Brito
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2330; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11162330 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 765
Abstract
Load monitoring consists of training/match demand quantification as well as wellness and readiness to maximize the likelihood of optimal athletic performance [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)

Research

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12 pages, 642 KiB  
Article
Lower Limb Unilateral and Bilateral Strength Asymmetry in High-Level Male Senior and Professional Football Players
by Mário C. Espada, Marco Jardim, Rafael Assunção, Alexandre Estaca, Cátia C. Ferreira, Dalton M. Pessôa Filho, Carlos E. L. Verardi, José M. Gamonales and Fernando J. Santos
Healthcare 2023, 11(11), 1579; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11111579 - 28 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2084
Abstract
This study sought to assess the relationship between different jumping asymmetries and associated performance variables in high-level male senior and professional football players. Nineteen football players with at least 12 years of training experience (23.2 ± 3.1 years of age; 75.2 ± 4.8 [...] Read more.
This study sought to assess the relationship between different jumping asymmetries and associated performance variables in high-level male senior and professional football players. Nineteen football players with at least 12 years of training experience (23.2 ± 3.1 years of age; 75.2 ± 4.8 kg of body mass and 181 ± 0.06 cm of height) participated in this study performing countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), single-leg CMJ and drop jump (DJ), associated performance variable eccentric utilization ratio (EUR), stretch-shortening cycle (SSC), bilateral deficit (BLD), and limb symmetry index (LSI) were determined. High correlations were observed between different methodologies of jump tests and associated performance indicators (SSC, BLD, EUR), except LSI. Moreover, CMJ and SJ results were different (p < 0.05), but no differences were found between interlimb in CMJ (p = 0.19) and DJ (p = 0.14). Between the same limbs and different jumps differences were detected in CMJ and DJ (p < 0.01), and it has also been found that the laterality effect size on strength was small in CMJ (ES = 0.30) and DJ (ES = 0.35). LSI between CMJ and DJ was not different despite higher mean values in CMJ, and although mean BLD was positive (>100%), the results highlight the need for individual evaluation since eight players scored negatively. An in-depth and accurate analysis of performance in preseason screening jump tests should be considered, aiming to detect injury risk, specifically evaluating different jumping test methodologies, and determining jumping associated performance variables for each test, namely EUR, SSC, BLD, and LSI. Specific muscle-strengthening exercises could be implemented based on this study results and outcomes, aiming to reduce injury risks and lower extremity asymmetries and to enhance individual football performance in high-level male senior and professional football players. Sports institutions should pay special attention regarding potential health problems in athletes exposed to daily high training loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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12 pages, 595 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Ramadan Fasting on the Coping Strategies Used by Male Footballers Affiliated with the Tunisian First Professional League
by Jamel Hajji, Aiche Sabah, Musheer A. Aljaberi, Chung-Ying Lin and Lin-Yi Huang
Healthcare 2023, 11(7), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11071053 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1746
Abstract
This study aimed to discover coping strategies among professional male Tunisian footballers during the Ramadan 2021 fast. One hundred and eighty footballers who belong to twelve Tunisian professional clubs (age: 25.54 ± 4.41 years, weight: 77.19 ± 5.99 kg; height: 180.54 ± 7.28 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to discover coping strategies among professional male Tunisian footballers during the Ramadan 2021 fast. One hundred and eighty footballers who belong to twelve Tunisian professional clubs (age: 25.54 ± 4.41 years, weight: 77.19 ± 5.99 kg; height: 180.54 ± 7.28 cm; BMI: 23.67 ± 0.58) were tested during three sessions: one week before Ramadan, during the last week of Ramadan, and one week after Ramadan 2021. The footballers completed the Arabic version of the Inventory of Coping Strategies for Competitive Sport (ICSCS) scale in each session. Responses were recorded retrospectively one hour after a competition. The analysis of variance revealed a significant effect of Ramadan fasting on the adaptation profile of footballers (F = 3.51; p-value = 0.0001). Before and after Ramadan fasting, active coping dominates the adaptation profile of Tunisian professional footballers. During Ramadan, footballers use an irregular and unbalanced coping profile. The lifestyle change induced by the Ramadan fast significantly and negatively affected the adaptation profile of Tunisian professional footballers. Under the effect of the month of Ramadan, footballers developed a different coping profile from that of normal months. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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12 pages, 329 KiB  
Article
Influence of Mindfulness on Levels of Impulsiveness, Moods and Pre-Competition Anxiety in Athletes of Different Sports
by Laura C. Sánchez-Sánchez, Clemente Franco, Alberto Amutio, Jaqueline García-Silva and Juan González-Hernández
Healthcare 2023, 11(6), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11060898 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3006
Abstract
Training in emotional regulation skills is one of the most important resources for the adaptation of athletes to contexts of sports pressure, especially during competitions. This study explored the effects of a mindfulness programme (Flow Meditation) on levels of impulsivity, mood and pre-competition [...] Read more.
Training in emotional regulation skills is one of the most important resources for the adaptation of athletes to contexts of sports pressure, especially during competitions. This study explored the effects of a mindfulness programme (Flow Meditation) on levels of impulsivity, mood and pre-competition anxiety-state in a sample of athletes (N = 41, 22.83 ± 5.62 years). Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention group (N = 21; 14 males and 7 females) which received the intervention over 10 weeks (a weekly session) and a control group (wait-list; N = 20; 13 males and 7 females). The variables under study were assessed through different questionnaires at pre- and post-test (T1–T2) in both groups. The mindfulness intervention was effective in reducing impulsivity (cognitive (t = −4.48, p ≤ 0.001, Cohen’s d = 1.40), both motor (t = −4.03, p ≤ 0.001, Cohen’s d = 1.20) and unplanned (t = −5.32, p ≤ 0.001, Cohen’s d = 1.66)), mood (tension (t = −4.40, p ≤ 0.001, Cohen’s d = 1.37), depression (t = −4.56, p ≤ 0.001, Cohen’s d = 1.42), anger (t = −7.80, p ≤ 0.001, Cohen’s d = 2.47), somatic anxiety (t = −5.28, p ≤ 0.001, Cohen’s d = 1.65), and cognitive anxiety (t = −6.62, p ≤ 0.001, Cohen’s d = 2.07) in the intervention group compared to the control group and with large to very large effect sizes. Mindfulness is a factor that enhances athletes’ ability to cope with high sport pressure and the healthy management of competition (e.g., fear of failure), or with their daily life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
15 pages, 338 KiB  
Article
The Personality and Resilience of Competitive Athletes as BMW Drivers—Data from India, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Spain
by Samir Rawat, Abhijit P. Deshpande, Radu Predoiu, Andrzej Piotrowski, Romualdas Malinauskas, Alexandra Predoiu, Zermena Vazne, Rafael Oliveira, Ryszard Makarowski, Karol Görner, Camelia Branet, Mihai Lucian Ciuntea, Doru Vasile Marineanu, Néstor Vicente-Salar and Davide de Gennaro
Healthcare 2023, 11(6), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11060811 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1603
Abstract
Background: Individual differences in personality and resilience are related to a variety of social behaviors. The current study sought to answer the question of whether BMW drivers exhibit different personality profiles and resilience levels compared with drivers of other car brands. Participants and [...] Read more.
Background: Individual differences in personality and resilience are related to a variety of social behaviors. The current study sought to answer the question of whether BMW drivers exhibit different personality profiles and resilience levels compared with drivers of other car brands. Participants and procedure: An international study was carried out in India, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Spain on a sample of 448 athletes using the 20-item Mini-IPIP and the Resilience Scale. The results of BMW drivers (n = 91) were compared with the results of drivers of other German car brands (n = 357). Results: BMW drivers were characterized by higher neuroticism compared with drivers of other German car brands. They also showed higher resiliency, both in terms of total score and scores on the subscales of: personal coping competences and tolerance of negative emotions, tolerance of failures and perceiving life as a challenge, and optimistic attitude towards life and capacity for self-mobilization in difficult situations. The greatest difference was observed for the factor of tolerance of failures and perceiving life as a challenge. Using the Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner (DSCF) pairwise comparison test, gender differences between athletes (as BMW drivers and drivers of other German car brands, respectively) were discussed. Additionally, the results of the main logistic regression analyses emphasized that neuroticism represents a better predictor of BMW preference in the case of athletes (as drivers) than the scores obtained for resilience. Conclusions: BMW drivers differed from drivers of other German car brands only with regard to neuroticism. A higher level of neuroticism can affect mental health and the overall quality of life in athletes; aggression and distress management are essential. Athletes (as BMW drivers) also showed differences in resiliency levels. Understanding the mechanisms of behavior among BMW drivers is possible through considering their personality and individual differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
11 pages, 306 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Association of VDR rs2228570 Polymorphism with Elite Track and Field Athletes’ Competitive Performance
by Celal Bulgay, Işık Bayraktar, Hasan Huseyin Kazan, Damla Selin Yıldırım, Erdal Zorba, Onur Akman, Mehmet Ali Ergun, Mesut Cerit, Korkut Ulucan, Özgür Eken, Halil İbrahim Ceylan, Georgian Badicu, Wilhelm Robert Grosz and Raluca Mijaică
Healthcare 2023, 11(5), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11050681 - 25 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1866
Abstract
The present study aimed to examine the vitamin D receptor (VDR), rs2228570 polymorphism, and its effect on elite athletes’ performance. A total of 60 elite athletes (31 sprint/power and 29 endurance) and 20 control/ physically inactive, aged 18–35, voluntarily participated in [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to examine the vitamin D receptor (VDR), rs2228570 polymorphism, and its effect on elite athletes’ performance. A total of 60 elite athletes (31 sprint/power and 29 endurance) and 20 control/ physically inactive, aged 18–35, voluntarily participated in the study. The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) score scale was used to determine the performance levels of the athletes’ personal best (PB). Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed by the genomic DNA isolated from the peripheral blood of the participants. Sports type, sex, and competitive performance were chosen as the parameters to compare within and between the groups by linear regression models. The results showed no statistically significant difference between the CC, TC, and TT genotypes within and between the groups (p > 0.05). Additionally, our results underlined that there were no statistically significant differences for the association of rs2228570 polymorphism with PBs within the groups of the (p > 0.05) athletes. The genetic profile in the selected gene was similar in elite endurance, sprint athletes, and in controls, suggesting that rs2228570 polymorphism does not determine competitive performance in the analyzed athlete cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
12 pages, 294 KiB  
Article
Physiological Features of Olympic-Distance Amateur Triathletes, as Well as Their Associations with Performance in Women and Men: A Cross–Sectional Study
by José Geraldo Barbosa, Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira, Rodrigo Luiz Vancini, Vinicius Ribeiro dos Anjos, Lavínia Vivan, Aldo Seffrin, Pedro Forte, Katja Weiss, Beat Knechtle and Marilia Santos Andrade
Healthcare 2023, 11(4), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11040622 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1544
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to verify the physiological and anthropometric determinants of triathlon performance in female and male athletes. This study included 40 triathletes (20 male and 20 female). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to assess body composition, and an [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to verify the physiological and anthropometric determinants of triathlon performance in female and male athletes. This study included 40 triathletes (20 male and 20 female). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to assess body composition, and an incremental cardiopulmonary test was used to assess physiological variables. A questionnaire about physical training habits was also completed by the athletes. Athletes competed in the Olympic-distance triathlon race. For the female group, the total race time can be predicted by V̇O2max (β = −131, t = −6.61, p < 0.001), lean mass (β = −61.4, t = −2.66, p = 0.018), and triathlon experience (β = −886.1, t = −3.01, p = 0.009) (r2 = 0.825, p < 0.05). For the male group, the total race time can be predicted by maximal aerobic speed (β = −294.1, t = −2.89, p = 0.010) and percentage of body fat (β = 53.6, t = 2.20, p = 0.042) (r2 = 0.578, p < 0.05). The variables that can predict the performance of men are not the same as those that can predict the triathlon performance of women. These data can help athletes and coaches develop performance-enhancing strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
13 pages, 1070 KiB  
Article
Does Inspiratory Muscle Training Affect Static Balance in Soccer Players? A Pilot Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
by Silvana Loana de Oliveira-Sousa, Martha Cecilia León-Garzón, Mariano Gacto-Sánchez, Alfonso Javier Ibáñez-Vera, Luis Espejo-Antúnez and Felipe León-Morillas
Healthcare 2023, 11(2), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11020262 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2100
Abstract
Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) is effective in improving postural stability and balance in different clinical populations. However, there is no evidence of these effects in soccer players. A single-blind, two-arm (1:1), randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study on 14 soccer players was performed with the [...] Read more.
Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) is effective in improving postural stability and balance in different clinical populations. However, there is no evidence of these effects in soccer players. A single-blind, two-arm (1:1), randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study on 14 soccer players was performed with the main aim of assessing the effect of IMT on static balance, and secondarily, of examining changes in the respiratory muscle function. The experimental group (EG) received an IMT program with progressive intensity, from 20% to 80%, of the maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP). The sham group (SG) performed the same program with a fixed load of 20% of the MIP. Static balance and respiratory muscle function variables were assessed. A two-factor analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to assess differences after training. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Significant increases were observed in the EG on length of sway under eyes open (from 2904.8 ± 640.0 to 3522.4 ± 509.0 mm, p = 0.012) and eyes closed (from 3166.2 ± 641.3 to 4173.3 ± 390.8 mm, p = 0.004). A significant increase in the maximal voluntary ventilation was observed for both groups (EG p = 0.005; SG p = 0.000). No significant differences existed between the groups. IMT did not improve the static balance in a sample of soccer players. Conducting a high-scale study is feasible and could refine the results and conclusions stemming from the current pilot study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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13 pages, 678 KiB  
Article
Agility Skills, Speed, Balance and CMJ Performance in Soccer: A Comparison of Players with and without a Hearing Impairment
by Hakan Yapici, Yusuf Soylu, Mehmet Gulu, Mehmet Kutlu, Sinan Ayan, Nuray Bayar Muluk, Monira I. Aldhahi and Sameer Badri AL-Mhanna
Healthcare 2023, 11(2), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11020247 - 13 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1979
Abstract
This study investigates the differences in agility, speed, jump and balance performance and shooting skills between elite hearing-impaired national team soccer players (HISP) and without-hearing-impairment elite soccer players (woHISP). Players were divided into two groups, the HISP group (n = 13; 23.5 [...] Read more.
This study investigates the differences in agility, speed, jump and balance performance and shooting skills between elite hearing-impaired national team soccer players (HISP) and without-hearing-impairment elite soccer players (woHISP). Players were divided into two groups, the HISP group (n = 13; 23.5 ± 3.1 years) and the woHISP group (n = 16; 20.6 ± 1.4 years), and were tested in three sessions, seven apart, for metrics including anthropometrics, speed (10 m, 20 m and 30 m), countermovement jump (CMJ), agility (Illinois, 505, zigzag), T test (agility and shooting skills), and balance. The results showed that 30 m, 20 m and 10 m sprint scores, agility/ skills (sec), shooting skills (goals), zigzag, Illinois, and 505 agility skills, and countermovement jump scores were significantly lower among players with hearing impairments (p < 0.05). There were no significant T test differences between HISP and woHISP (p > 0.05). The HISP showed right posterolateral and posteromedial, and left posterolateral and posteromedial scores that were lower than the woHISP group (p < 0.05). Anterior scores were not significantly different between each leg (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the HISP group showed higher performance scores for speed (10 m, 20 m and 30 m), CMJ, agility (Illinois, 505, zigzag) and T test (sec and goals), but not balance. Hearing-impaired soccer players are determined by their skill, training, and strategy, not their hearing ability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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18 pages, 2288 KiB  
Article
Chronic Training Induces Metabolic and Proteomic Response in Male and Female Basketball Players: Salivary Modifications during In-Season Training Programs
by Simone Luti, Rosamaria Militello, Gabriella Pinto, Anna Illiano, Angela Amoresano, Giovanni Chiappetta, Riccardo Marzocchini, Pietro Amedeo Modesti, Simone Pratesi, Luigia Pazzagli, Alessandra Modesti and Tania Gamberi
Healthcare 2023, 11(2), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11020241 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1610
Abstract
The aim of this study was to characterize the salivary proteome and metabolome of highly trained female and male young basketball players, highlighting common and different traits. A total of 20 male and female basketball players (10 female and 10 male) and 20 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to characterize the salivary proteome and metabolome of highly trained female and male young basketball players, highlighting common and different traits. A total of 20 male and female basketball players (10 female and 10 male) and 20 sedentary control subjects (10 female and 10 male) were included in the study. The athletes exercised at least five times per week for 2 h per day. Saliva samples were collected mid-season, between 9:00 and 11:00 a.m. and away from sport competition. The proteome and metabolome were analyzed by using 2DE and GC–MS techniques, respectively. A computerized 2DE gel image analysis revealed 43 spots that varied in intensity among groups. Between these spots, 10 (23.2%) were differentially expressed among male athletes and controls, 22 (51.2%) between female basketball players and controls, 11 spots (25.6%) between male and female athletes, and 13 spots (30.2%) between male and female controls. Among the proteins identified were Immunoglobulin, Alpha-Amylase, and Dermcidin, which are inflammation-related proteins. In addition, several amino acids, such as glutamic acid, lysine, ornithine, glycine, tyrosine, threonine, and valine, were increased in trained athletes. In this study, we highlight that saliva is a useful biofluid to assess athlete performance and confirm that the adaptation of men and women to exercise has some common features, but also some different sex-specific behaviors, including differential amino acid utilization and expression of inflammation-related proteins, which need to be further investigated. Moreover, in the future, it will be interesting to examine the influence of sport-type on these differences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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17 pages, 531 KiB  
Article
Comparison between Olympic Weightlifting Lifts and Derivatives for External Load and Fatigue Monitoring
by Joaquim Paulo Antunes, Rafael Oliveira, Victor Machado Reis, Félix Romero, João Moutão and João Paulo Brito
Healthcare 2022, 10(12), 2499; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10122499 - 10 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2719
Abstract
Load management is an extremely important subject in fatigue control and adaptation processes in almost all sports. In Olympic Weightlifting (OW), two of the load variables are intensity and volume. However, it is not known if all exercises produce fatigue of the same [...] Read more.
Load management is an extremely important subject in fatigue control and adaptation processes in almost all sports. In Olympic Weightlifting (OW), two of the load variables are intensity and volume. However, it is not known if all exercises produce fatigue of the same magnitude. Thus, this study aimed to compare the fatigue prompted by the Clean and Jerk and the Snatch and their derivative exercises among male and female participants, respectively. We resorted to an experimental quantitative design in which fatigue was induced in adult individuals with weightlifting experience of at least two years through the execution of a set of 10 of the most used lifts and derivatives in OW (Snatch, Snatch Pull, Muscle Snatch, Power Snatch, and Back Squat; Clean and Jerk, Power Clean, Clean, High Hang Clean, and Hang Power Clean). Intensity and volume between exercises were equalized (four sets of three repetitions), after which one Snatch Pull test was performed where changes in velocity, range of motion, and mean power were assessed as fatigue measures. Nine women and twelve men participated in the study (age, 29.67 ± 5.74 years and 28.17 ± 5.06 years, respectively). The main results showed higher peak velocity values for the Snatch Pull test when compared with Power Snatch (p = 0.008; ES = 0.638), Snatch (p < 0.001; ES = 0.998), Snatch Pull (p < 0.001, ES = 0.906), and Back Squat (p < 0.001; ES = 0.906) while the differences between the Snatch Pull test and the derivatives of Clean and Jerk were almost nonexistent. It is concluded that there were differences in the induction of fatigue between most of the exercises analyzed and, therefore, coaches and athletes could improve the planning of training sessions by accounting for the fatigue induced by each lift. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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18 pages, 2005 KiB  
Article
What Does Provide Better Effects on Balance, Strength, and Lower Extremity Muscle Function in Professional Male Soccer Players with Chronic Ankle Instability? Hopping or a Balance Plus Strength Intervention? A Randomized Control Study
by Hadi Mohammadi Nia Samakosh, João Paulo Brito, Seyed Sadredin Shojaedin, Malihe Hadadnezhad and Rafael Oliveira
Healthcare 2022, 10(10), 1822; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10101822 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2386
Abstract
Chronic ankle instability (CAI) has a higher frequency in soccer due to the rapid changes in body movement. Thus, this study compared the effects of eight weeks of a hopping protocol and a combined protocol of balance plus strength in a within-between group [...] Read more.
Chronic ankle instability (CAI) has a higher frequency in soccer due to the rapid changes in body movement. Thus, this study compared the effects of eight weeks of a hopping protocol and a combined protocol of balance plus strength in a within-between group analysis. Thirty-six male professional soccer players participated in this study and were randomly allocated in three groups: control group (CG, n = 12), hopping group (HG, n = 12), and balance plus strength group (BSG, n = 12). Strength, static and dynamic balance, and function were assessed at baseline and eight weeks post intervention. First, Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) and FAAM sport scales were applied. Then, a dynamometer was used to measure strength of the muscles around the hip, knee, and ankle joints. The Bass stick measured static balance and the Y balance test measured dynamic balance. Additionally, functional tests were carried out by Triple Hop, the Figure 8 hop, and vertical jump. A repeated measures ANOVA [(3 groups) × 2 moments] was used to compare the within and between group differences. In general, all tests improved after eight weeks of training with both protocols. Specifically, the BSG improved with large ES for all tests, while the HG improved all test with small to large effect sizes (ES). Furthermore, HG showed higher values for vertical jump (p < 0.01, ES = 1.88) and FAAMSPORT (p < 0.05, ES = 0.15) than BSG. BSG showed higher values for hip abduction (p < 0.05, ES = 2.77), hip adduction (p < 0.05, ES = 0.87), and ankle inversion (p < 0.001, ES = 1.50) strength tests, while HG showed higher values for knee flexion [ES = 0.86, (0.02, 1.69)] and ankle plantarflexion [ES = 0.52, (−0.29, 1.33)]. Balance plus strength protocol showed more positive effects than the hopping protocol alone for soccer players with CAI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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9 pages, 629 KiB  
Article
Effect of Low-Intensity Aerobic Training Combined with Blood Flow Restriction on Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Vascular Responses in Recreational Runners
by Hyoung Jean Beak, Wonil Park, Ji Hye Yang and Jooyoung Kim
Healthcare 2022, 10(9), 1789; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10091789 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1900
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of low-intensity aerobic training combined with blood flow restriction (LABFR) on body composition, physical fitness, and vascular functions in recreational runners. The participants were 30 healthy male recreational runners, randomized between the LABFR (n = 15) and [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of low-intensity aerobic training combined with blood flow restriction (LABFR) on body composition, physical fitness, and vascular functions in recreational runners. The participants were 30 healthy male recreational runners, randomized between the LABFR (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups. The LABFR group performed five sets of a repeated pattern of 2 min running at 40% VO2max and 1 min passive rest, while wearing the occlusion cuff belts on the proximal end of the thigh. The frequency was three times a week for the period of eight weeks. The control group performed the identical running protocol without wearing the occlusion cuff belts. At the end of the training, the participants’ body composition (fat mass, body fat, muscle mass, and right and left thigh circumference), physical fitness (power and VO2max), and vascular responses (flow-mediated dilation (FMD), brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), ankle brachial index (ABI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP)) were measured. The results showed a significant time × group interaction effect on muscle mass (F = 53.242, p = 0.001, ηp2 = 0.664) and right thigh circumference (F = 4.544, p = 0.042, ηp2 = 0.144), but no significant variation in any other factors, including fat mass, body fat, left thigh circumference, FMD, baPWV, ABI, SBP, and DBP (p > 0.05). Overall, our results suggested that eight-week LABFR exerted a positive effect on the body composition, especially muscle mass and thigh circumference, of recreational runners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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17 pages, 340 KiB  
Article
Coping Strategies and Perceiving Stress among Athletes during Different Waves of the COVID-19 Pandemic—Data from Poland, Romania, and Slovakia
by Ryszard Makarowski, Radu Predoiu, Andrzej Piotrowski, Karol Görner, Alexandra Predoiu, Rafael Oliveira, Raluca Anca Pelin, Alina Daniela Moanță, Ole Boe, Samir Rawat and Gayatri Ahuja
Healthcare 2022, 10(9), 1770; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10091770 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2799
Abstract
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has affected numerous aspects of human functioning. Social contacts, work, education, travel, and sports have drastically changed during the lockdown periods. The pandemic restrictions have severely limited professional athletes’ ability to train [...] Read more.
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has affected numerous aspects of human functioning. Social contacts, work, education, travel, and sports have drastically changed during the lockdown periods. The pandemic restrictions have severely limited professional athletes’ ability to train and participate in competitions. For many who rely on sports as their main source of income, this represents a source of intense stress. To assess the dynamics of perceived stress as well as coping strategies during different waves of the COVID-19 pandemic, we carried out a longitudinal study using the Perception of Stress Questionnaire and the Brief COPE on a sample of 2020 professional athletes in Poland, Romania, and Slovakia. The results revealed that in all three countries, the highest intrapsychic stress levels were reported during the fourth wave (all, p < 0.01) and the highest external stress levels were reported before the pandemic (p < 0.05). To analyze the data, analyses of variance were carried out using Tukey’s post hoc test and η2 for effect size. Further, emotional tension was the highest among Polish and Slovak athletes in the fourth wave, while the highest among Romanian athletes was in the pre-pandemic period. The coping strategies used by the athletes in the fourth wave were more dysfunctional than during the first wave (independent t test and Cohen’s d were used). The dynamics of the coping strategies—emotion focused and problem focused—were also discussed among Polish, Romanian, and Slovak athletes. Coaches and sports psychologists can modify the athletes’ perceived stress while simultaneously promoting effective coping strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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15 pages, 1472 KiB  
Article
Analyzing the within and between Players Variability of Heart Rate and Locomotor Responses in Small-Sided Soccer Games Performed Repeatedly over a Week
by Ana Filipa Silva, Francisco Tomás González-Fernández, Rodrigo Aquino, Zeki Akyildiz, Luiz Palucci Vieira, Mehmet Yıldız, Sabri Birlik, Hadi Nobari, Gibson Praça and Filipe Manuel Clemente
Healthcare 2022, 10(8), 1412; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10081412 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1629
Abstract
Background: Small-sided games (SSGs) are drill-based and constrained exercises designed to promote a technical/tactical and physiological/physical stimulus on players while preserving some dynamics of the real game. However, as a dynamic game, they can offer some variability making the prediction of the stimulus [...] Read more.
Background: Small-sided games (SSGs) are drill-based and constrained exercises designed to promote a technical/tactical and physiological/physical stimulus on players while preserving some dynamics of the real game. However, as a dynamic game, they can offer some variability making the prediction of the stimulus hardest for the coach. Aim: The purpose of this study was to analyze the between-session and within-player variability of heart rates and locomotor responses of young male soccer players in 3v3 and 5v5 small-sided game formats. Methods: This study followed a repeated-measures study design. Twenty soccer players were enrolled in a study design in which the SSG formats 3v3 and 5v5 were performed consecutively across four days. Twenty under-17 male youth soccer players (16.8 ± 0.4 years old) voluntarily participated in this study. Participants were monitored using a Polar Team Pro for measuring the heart rate mean and maximum, distances covered at different speed thresholds, and peak speed. Results: Between-players variability revealed that maximum heart rate was the outcome with a smaller coefficient of variation (3v3 format: 3.1% to 11.1%; 5v5 format: 6.6% to 15.2%), while the distance covered at Z5 (3v3 format: 82.5% to 289.8%; 5v5 format: 94.0% to 221.1%). The repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the four games tested were different in the within-player variability considering the maximum heart rate (p = 0.032), total distance (p < 0.001), and distances at zone 1, 2, and 5 of speed (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The smaller small-sided game tested promotes greater within-player variability in locomotor demands while promoting smaller within-player variability heart rate responses. Possibly, 5v5 is more recommended to stabilize the locomotor demands, while the 3v3 is recommended to stabilize the heart rate stimulus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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15 pages, 1379 KiB  
Article
Quantification of Pre-Season and In-Season Training Intensity across an Entire Competitive Season of Asian Professional Soccer Players
by Hadi Nobari, Akhilesh Kumar Ramachandran, João Paulo Brito and Rafael Oliveira
Healthcare 2022, 10(8), 1367; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10081367 - 23 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1960
Abstract
The aim of this study was to quantify the training load in two microcycles (Ms) from pre- and another two from in-season and to analyze playing position influences on the load experienced by professional soccer players. Nineteen Asian athletes, including four central defenders, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to quantify the training load in two microcycles (Ms) from pre- and another two from in-season and to analyze playing position influences on the load experienced by professional soccer players. Nineteen Asian athletes, including four central defenders, four wide defenders, six central midfielders, three wide midfielders, and two strikers participated in this study. The micro-electromechanical system was used to collect training duration, total distance, and data from Zone 1 (0–3.9 km·h−1), Zone 2 (4–7.1 km·h−1), Zone 3 (7.2–14.3 km·h−1), Zone 4 (14.4–19.7 km·h−1), and Zone 5 (>19.8 km·h−1), heart rate maximum (HRmax), and average (HRavg). The load was reduced on the last day of the Ms, with the exception of Zone 5, in M1, where higher values were found on the last day. Significant differences were observed between central and wide defenders for distance covered in Zone 4 (effect-size: ES = −4.83) in M2 and M4 (ES = 4.96). Throughout all the Ms, a constant HRmax (165–188 bpm) and HRavg (119–145 bpm) were observed. There was a tendency to decrease the load on the last day of the Ms. In general, there were higher external training loads in Ms from the pre-season than in-season. Wide defenders and wide midfielders showed higher distances covered with high-intensity running. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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15 pages, 6165 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Measurements of External Load between Professional Soccer Players
by Roghayyeh Gholizadeh, Hadi Nobari, Lotfali Bolboli, Marefat Siahkouhian and João Paulo Brito
Healthcare 2022, 10(6), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10061116 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1669
Abstract
Background: The excessive and rapid increases in training load (TL) may be responsible for most non-contact injuries in soccer. This study’s aims were to describe, week(w)-by-week, the acute (AW), chronic (CW), acute:chronic workload ratio (wACWR), total distance (wTD), duration training (wDT), sprint total [...] Read more.
Background: The excessive and rapid increases in training load (TL) may be responsible for most non-contact injuries in soccer. This study’s aims were to describe, week(w)-by-week, the acute (AW), chronic (CW), acute:chronic workload ratio (wACWR), total distance (wTD), duration training (wDT), sprint total distance (wSTD), repeat sprint (wRS), and maximum speed (wMS) between starter and non-starter professional soccer players based on different periods (i.e., pre-, early-, mid-, and end-season) of a full-season (Persian Gulf Pro League, 2019–2020). Methods: Nineteen players were divided according to their starting status: starters (n = 10) or non-starters (n = 9). External workload was monitored for 43 weeks: pre- from w1–w4; early- from w5–w17; mid- from w18–w30, and end-season from w31–w43. Results: In starters, AW, CW, and wACWR were greater than non-starters (p < 0.05) throughout the periods of early- (CW, p ≤ 0.0001), mid- (AW, p = 0.008; CW, p ≤ 0.0001; wACWR, p = 0.043), or end-season (AW, p = 0.035; CW, p = 0.017; wACWR, p = 0.010). Starters had a greater wTD (p ≤ 0.0001), wSTD (p ≤ 0.0001 to 0.003), wDT (p ≤ 0.0001 to 0.023), wRS (p ≤ 0.0001 to 0.018), and wMS (p ≤ 0.0001) than non-starters during early-, mid-, and end-season. Conclusion: Starters experienced more CW and AW during the season than non-starters, which underlines the need to design tailored training programs accounting for the differences between playing status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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12 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
Effects of Aquatic Training and Bicycling Training on Leg Function and Range of Motion in Amateur Athletes with Meniscal Allograft Transplantation during Intermediate-Stage Rehabilitation
by Yake Chen, Yonghwan Kim and Moonyoung Choi
Healthcare 2022, 10(6), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10061090 - 11 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1831
Abstract
Meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) is a treatment modality for restoring knee function in patients with irreversible meniscal injury. Strengthening programs to promote functional recovery are treated with caution during the intermediate rehabilitation phase following MAT. This study analyzed the effects of aquatic training [...] Read more.
Meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) is a treatment modality for restoring knee function in patients with irreversible meniscal injury. Strengthening programs to promote functional recovery are treated with caution during the intermediate rehabilitation phase following MAT. This study analyzed the effects of aquatic training (AQT) and bicycling training (BCT) during the intermediate stage of rehabilitation in amateur athletes that underwent MAT. Participants (n = 60) were divided into AQT (n = 30) and BCT (n = 30) groups. Both groups performed training three times per week from 6 to 24 weeks following surgery. International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form (IKDC) score, knee joint range of motion (ROM), isokinetic knee strength, and Y-balance test (YBT) performance were evaluated. All measured variables for the AQT and BCT groups improved significantly after training compared with pre-training values. The IKDC score and YBT were significantly higher for AQT than for BCT. The knee flexion ROM and isokinetic muscle strength were significantly improved in the BCT group compared to those in the AQT group. The AQT group exhibited greater improvement in dynamic balance, whereas BCT provided greater improvement in isokinetic muscle strength. AQT and BCT were effective in reducing discomfort and improving knee symptoms and functions during intermediate-stage rehabilitation following MAT in amateur athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
9 pages, 271 KiB  
Article
The Performance, Physiology and Morphology of Female and Male Olympic-Distance Triathletes
by Paulo J. Puccinelli, Claudio A. B. de Lira, Rodrigo L. Vancini, Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle, Thomas Rosemann and Marilia S. Andrade
Healthcare 2022, 10(5), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10050797 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2510
Abstract
Sex differences in triathlon performance have been decreasing in recent decades and little information is available to explain it. Thirty-nine male and eighteen female amateur triathletes were evaluated for fat mass, lean mass, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory [...] Read more.
Sex differences in triathlon performance have been decreasing in recent decades and little information is available to explain it. Thirty-nine male and eighteen female amateur triathletes were evaluated for fat mass, lean mass, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory compensation point (RCP), and performance in a national Olympic triathlon race. Female athletes presented higher fat mass (p = 0.02, d = 0.84, power = 0.78) and lower lean mass (p < 0.01, d = 3.11, power = 0.99). VO2 max (p < 0.01, d = 1.46, power = 0.99), maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) (p < 0.01, d = 2.05, power = 0.99), velocities in VT (p < 0.01, d = 1.26, power = 0.97), and RCP (p < 0.01, d = 1.53, power = 0.99) were significantly worse in the female group. VT (%VO2 max) (p = 0.012, d = 0.73, power = 0.58) and RCP (%VO2 max) (p = 0.005, d = 0.85, power = 0.89) were higher in the female group. Female athletes presented lower VO2 max value, lower lean mass, and higher fat mass. However, females presented higher values of aerobic endurance (%VO2 max), which can attenuate sex differences in triathlon performance. Coaches and athletes should consider that female athletes can maintain a higher percentage of MAV values than males during the running split to prescribe individual training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
8 pages, 476 KiB  
Article
Impact of HIIT Sessions with and without Cognitive Load on Cortical Arousal, Accuracy and Perceived Exertion in Amateur Tennis Players
by Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez, Santos Villafaina, Tomás García-Calvo and Juan Pedro Fuentes-García
Healthcare 2022, 10(5), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10050767 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1595
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercises, with and without cognitive load, on the accuracy, critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) on recreational tennis players. A total of [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercises, with and without cognitive load, on the accuracy, critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) on recreational tennis players. A total of 32 players of tennis at recreational level (25 men and 7 women) were enrolled in this cross-sectional the study. Participants had to perform, randomly, two HIIT sessions. In one of them, cognitive load was induced by conducting an incongruent Stroop during rests. After training accuracy of tennis serve, CFFT, and RPE were measured. Results showed that accuracy after baseline and HIIT without cognitive load were significantly higher than after HIIT with cognitive load. RPE significantly increased (p-value < 0.001) after HIIT sessions in both, with and without cognitive load. However, significant differences were not observed between the two sessions in the RPE (p-value = 0.405). Furthermore, differences were not obtained in the CFFT neither within nor between sessions (p-value > 0.05). Therefore, HIIT with and without cognitive load increased the RPE in recreational tennis players. Furthermore, HIIT sessions with cognitive load significant altered tennis serve accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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11 pages, 285 KiB  
Article
In-Season Microcycle Quantification of Professional Women Soccer Players—External, Internal and Wellness Measures
by Renato Fernandes, Halil İbrahim Ceylan, Filipe Manuel Clemente, João Paulo Brito, Alexandre Duarte Martins, Hadi Nobari, Victor Machado Reis and Rafael Oliveira
Healthcare 2022, 10(4), 695; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040695 - 07 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2412
Abstract
Although data currently exists pertaining to the intensity in the women’s football match, the knowledge about training is still scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify external (locomotor activity) and internal (psychophysiological) intensities, as well as the wellness profile of [...] Read more.
Although data currently exists pertaining to the intensity in the women’s football match, the knowledge about training is still scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify external (locomotor activity) and internal (psychophysiological) intensities, as well as the wellness profile of the typical microcycle from professional female soccer players during the 2019/20 in-season. Ten players (24.6 ± 2.3 years) from an elite Portuguese women soccer team participated in this study. All variables were collected in 87 training session and 15 matches for analysis from the 2019–2020 in-season. Global positioning variables such total distance, high-speed running, acceleration, deceleration and player load were recorded as intensity while Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) and session-RPE were recorded as internal measures. The Hooper Index (HI) was collected as a wellness parameter. The results showed that internal and external intensity measures were greater in matches compared to trainings during the week (match day minus [MD-], MD-5, MD-4, MD-2), p < 0.05 with very large effect size (ES). In the same line, higher internal and external intensity values were found in the beginning of the week while the lowest values were found in MD-2 (p < 0.05, with very large ES). Regarding wellness, there was no significant differences in the HI parameters between the training days and match days (p > 0.05). This study confirmed the highest intensity values during MD and the lowest on the training session before the MD (MD-2). Moreover, higher training intensities were found in the beginning of the training week sessions which were then reduced when the MD came close. Wellness parameters showed no variation when compared to intensity measures. This study confirmed the hypothesis regarding internal and external intensity but not regarding wellness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
12 pages, 874 KiB  
Article
The Association between Rapid Weight Loss and Body Composition in Elite Combat Sports Athletes
by Marius Baranauskas, Ingrida Kupčiūnaitė and Rimantas Stukas
Healthcare 2022, 10(4), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040665 - 01 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3014
Abstract
Rapid Weight Loss (RWL) is a rapid reduction in weight over a short period of time seeking to attain the norm required for a competition in a particular weight category. RWL has a negative health impact on athletes including the significant muscle damage [...] Read more.
Rapid Weight Loss (RWL) is a rapid reduction in weight over a short period of time seeking to attain the norm required for a competition in a particular weight category. RWL has a negative health impact on athletes including the significant muscle damage induced by RWL. This study aimed to identify the association between RWL and body composition among competitive combat athletes (n = 43) in Lithuania. Our focus was laid on the disclosure of their RWL practice by using a previously standardized RWL Questionnaire. The body composition of the athletes was measured by means of the standing-posture 8-12-electrode multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and the electrical signals of 5, 50, 250, 550 and 1000 kHz. This non-experimental cross-sectional study resulted in preliminary findings on the prevalence and profile of RWL among combat athletes in Lithuania. 88% of the athletes surveyed in our study had lost weight in order to compete, with the average weight loss of 4.6 ± 2% of the habitual body mass. The athletes started to resort to weight cycling as early as 9 years old, with a mean age of 12.8 ± 2.1 years. The combination of practiced weight loss techniques such as skipping meals (adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR) 6.3; 95% CI: 1.3–31.8), restricting fluids (AOR 5.5; 95% CI: 1.0–31.8), increased exercise (AOR 3.6; 95% CI: 1.0–12.5), training with rubber/plastic suits (AOR 3.2; 95% CI: 0.9–11.3) predicted the risk of RWL aggressiveness. RWL magnitude potentially played an important role in maintaining the loss of muscle mass in athletes during the preparatory training phase (β –0.01 kg, p < 0.001). Therefore, an adequate regulatory programme should be integrated into the training plans of high-performance combat sports athletes to keep not only the athletes but also their coaches responsible for a proper weight control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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14 pages, 308 KiB  
Article
External Match Load in Amateur Soccer: The Influence of Match Location and Championship Phase
by Mauro Miguel, Rafael Oliveira, João Paulo Brito, Nuno Loureiro, Javier García-Rubio and Sergio Jose Ibáñez
Healthcare 2022, 10(4), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040594 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1887
Abstract
Assessment of the physical dimension implicit in the soccer match is crucial for the improvement and individualization of training load management. This study aims to: (a) describe the external match load at the amateur level, (b) analyze the differences between playing positions, (c) [...] Read more.
Assessment of the physical dimension implicit in the soccer match is crucial for the improvement and individualization of training load management. This study aims to: (a) describe the external match load at the amateur level, (b) analyze the differences between playing positions, (c) verify whether the home/away matches and if (d) the phase (first or second) of the championship influence the external load. Twenty amateur soccer players (21.5 ± 1.9 years) were monitored using the global positioning system. The external load was assessed in 23 matches, where 13 were part of the first phase of the competition (seven home and six away matches) and the other 10 matches belonged to the second (and final) phase of the championship (five home and five away matches). A total of 173 individual match observations were analyzed. The results showed significant differences between playing positions for all the external load measures (p < 0.001). There were higher values observed in the total distance covered for central defenders (p = 0.037; ES = 0.70) and in high-intensity decelerations for forwards (p = 0.022; ES = 1.77) in home matches than in away matches. There were higher values observed in the total distance (p = 0.026; ES = 0.76), relative distance (p = 0.016; ES = 0.85), and moderate-intensity accelerations (p = 0.008; ES = 0.93) for central defenders, in very high-speed running distance for forwards (p = 0.011; ES = 1.97), and in high-intensity accelerations (p = 0.036; ES = 0.89) and moderate-intensity decelerations (p = 0.006; ES = 1.11) for wide midfielders in the first phase than in the second phase of the championship. Match location and championship phase do not appear to be major contributing factors to influence the external load while the playing position should be used as the major reference for planning the external training load. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
12 pages, 978 KiB  
Article
Change of Direction Speed and Reactive Agility in Prediction of Injury in Football; Prospective Analysis over One Half-Season
by Dragan Mijatovic, Dragan Krivokapic, Sime Versic, Goran Dimitric and Natasa Zenic
Healthcare 2022, 10(3), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10030440 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2846
Abstract
Agility is an important factor in football (soccer), but studies have rarely examined the influences of different agility components on the likelihood of being injured in football. This study aimed to prospectively evaluate the possible influences of sporting factors, i.e., flexibility, reactive agility [...] Read more.
Agility is an important factor in football (soccer), but studies have rarely examined the influences of different agility components on the likelihood of being injured in football. This study aimed to prospectively evaluate the possible influences of sporting factors, i.e., flexibility, reactive agility (RAG), and change of direction speed (CODS), on injury occurrence over one competitive half-season, in professional football players. Participants were 129 football professional players (all males, 24.4 ± 4.7 years), who underwent anthropometrics, flexibility, and RAG and CODS (both evaluated on non-dominant and dominant side) at the beginning of second half-season 2019/20 (predictors). Over the following half-season, occurrence of injury was registered (outcome). To identify the differences between groups based on injury occurrence, t-test was used. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were calculated to identify the associations between predictors and outcome. Results showed incidence of 1.3 injuries per 1000 h of training/game per player, with higher likelihood for injury occurrence during game than during training (Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.1, 95%CI: 1.63–5.88) Univariate logistic regression showed significant associations between players’ age (OR = 1.65, 95%CI: 1.25–2.22), playing time (OR = 2.01, 95%CI: 1.560–2.58), and RAG (OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.09–1.35, and OR = 1.18, 95%CI: 1.04–1.33 for RAG on dominant- and non-dominant side, respectively), and injury occurrence. The multivariate logistic regression model identified higher risk for injury in those players with longer playing times (OR = 1.81, 95%CI: 1.55–2.11), and poorer results for RAG for the non-dominant side (OR = 1.15, 95%CI: 1.02–1.28). To target those players who are more at risk of injury, special attention should be paid to players who are more involved in games, and those who with poorer RAG. Development of RAG on the non-dominant side should be beneficial for reducing the risk of injury in this sport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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14 pages, 1081 KiB  
Article
Are Subjective Intensities Indicators of Player Load and Heart Rate in Physical Education?
by Juan M. García-Ceberino, María G. Gamero, Sergio J. Ibáñez and Sebastián Feu
Healthcare 2022, 10(3), 428; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10030428 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1470
Abstract
Physical education teachers need valid, low-cost, subjective techniques as an alternative to high-cost new technologies to monitor students’ intensity monitoring. This study aimed to investigate the correlations between both objective and subjective external (eTL) and internal (iTL) intensities. A total of 95 primary [...] Read more.
Physical education teachers need valid, low-cost, subjective techniques as an alternative to high-cost new technologies to monitor students’ intensity monitoring. This study aimed to investigate the correlations between both objective and subjective external (eTL) and internal (iTL) intensities. A total of 95 primary education students participated in this study. In this regard, 40 played soccer, and 55 performed basketball tasks, recording a total of 3956 units of analysis. The intensities caused by the different soccer and basketball tasks were measured using objective techniques (inertial devices and heart rate monitors) and subjective techniques (a sheet of task analysis and ratings of perceived exertion). Matrix scatter plots were made to show the values of two variables for a dataset. In this regard, adjustment lines were plotted to determine the trend of the correlations. Then, Spearman’s correlation was calculated to measure the association between two variables. Despite the low correlation levels obtained, the main results showed significant positive correlations between the intensities. This means that the high intensity values recorded by objective techniques also implied high intensity values recorded by subjective techniques, and vice versa. Negative correlations (r Rho = −0.19; p = 0.00) were only found between the following eTL variables: task eTL per minute (subjective technique) and player load per minute (objective technique). This negative correlation occurred when students played in the same 3 vs. 3 game situation without variability in subjective eTL (M ± SD, 28.00 ± 0.00). Therefore, subjective eTL and iTL techniques could be proposed as a suitable alternative for planning and monitoring the intensities supported by students in physical education classes. Moreover, these subjective techniques are easy to use in schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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18 pages, 1963 KiB  
Article
Relationships between Sex and Adaptation to Physical Exercise in Young Athletes: A Pilot Study
by Gabriella Pinto, Rosamaria Militello, Angela Amoresano, Pietro Amedeo Modesti, Alessandra Modesti and Simone Luti
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020358 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1645
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare the redox, hormonal, metabolic, and lipid profiles of female and male basketball players during the seasonal training period, compared to their relative sedentary controls. 20 basketball players (10 female and 10 male) and 20 sedentary [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to compare the redox, hormonal, metabolic, and lipid profiles of female and male basketball players during the seasonal training period, compared to their relative sedentary controls. 20 basketball players (10 female and 10 male) and 20 sedentary controls (10 female and 10 male) were enrolled in the study. Oxidative stress, adiponectin level, and metabolic profile were determined. Male and female athletes showed an increased antioxidant capacity (27% for males; 21% for females) and lactate level (389% for males; 460% for females) and reduced salivary cortisol (25% for males; 51% for females) compared to the sedentary controls. Moreover, a peculiar metabolite (in particular, amino acids and urea), hormonal, and lipidic profile were highlighted in the two groups of athletes. Female and male adaptations to training have several common traits, such as antioxidant potential enhancement, lactate increase, and activation of detoxifying processes, such as the urea cycle and arachidonic pathways as a response to inflammation. Moreover, we found different lipid and amino acid utilization related to sex. Deeper investigation could help coaches in developing training programs based on the athletes’ sex in order to reduce the drop-out rate of sporting activity by girls and fight the gender stereotypes in sport that also have repercussions in social fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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15 pages, 1107 KiB  
Article
It Is Not Just Stress: A Bayesian Approach to the Shape of the Negative Psychological Features Associated with Sport Injuries
by Aurelio Olmedilla Zafra, Bruno Martins, F. Javier Ponseti-Verdaguer, Roberto Ruiz-Barquín and Alejandro García-Mas
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020236 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2799
Abstract
The main objective of this study is to extend the stress and injury model of Andersen and Williams to other “negative” psychological variables, such as anxiety and depression, encompassed in the conceptual model of Olmedilla and García-Mas. The relationship is studied of this [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study is to extend the stress and injury model of Andersen and Williams to other “negative” psychological variables, such as anxiety and depression, encompassed in the conceptual model of Olmedilla and García-Mas. The relationship is studied of this psychological macro-variable with two other variables related to sports injuries: the search for social support and the search for connections between risk and the environment of athletes. A combination of classic methods and probabilistic approaches through Bayesian networks is used. The study samples comprised 455 traditional and indoor football players (323 male and 132 female) of an average age of 21.66 years (±4.46). An ad hoc questionnaire was used for the corresponding sociodemographic data and data relating to injuries. The variables measured were the emotional states of: stress, depression and anxiety, the attitude towards risk-taking in different areas, and the evaluation of the perception of social support. The results indicate that the probabilistic analysis conducted gives a boost to the classic model focused on stress, as well as the conceptual planning derived from the Global Model of Sports Injuries (GMSI), supporting the possibility of extending the stress model to other variables, such as anxiety and depression (“negative” triad). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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10 pages, 821 KiB  
Article
Twelve-Week Lower Trapezius-Centred Muscular Training Regimen in University Archers
by Chien-Nan Liao, Chun-Hao Fan, Wei-Hsiu Hsu, Chia-Fang Chang, Pei-An Yu, Liang-Tseng Kuo, Bo-Ling Lu and Robert Wen-Wei Hsu
Healthcare 2022, 10(1), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10010171 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3023 | Correction
Abstract
Archery is a fine-motor-skill sport, in which success results from multiple factors including a fine neuromuscular tuning. The present study hypothesised that lower trapezius specific training can improve archers’ performance with concomitant changes in muscle activity and shoulder kinematics. We conducted a prospective [...] Read more.
Archery is a fine-motor-skill sport, in which success results from multiple factors including a fine neuromuscular tuning. The present study hypothesised that lower trapezius specific training can improve archers’ performance with concomitant changes in muscle activity and shoulder kinematics. We conducted a prospective study in a university archery team. Athletes were classified into exercise and control groups. A supervised lower trapezius muscle training program was performed for 12 weeks in the exercise group. The exercise program focused on a lower trapezius-centred muscular training. Performance in a simulated game was recorded as the primary outcome, and shoulder muscle strength, kinematics, and surface electromyography were measured and analysed. In the exercise group, the average score of the simulation game increased from 628 to 639 after the training regimens (maximum score was 720), while there were no such increases in the control group. The lower trapezius muscle strength increased from 8 to 9 kgf after training regimens and shoulder horizontal abductor also increased from 81 to 93 body weight% for the exercise group. The upper/lower trapezius ratio decreased from 2.2 to 1.1 after training. The lower trapezius exercise training regimen could effectively improve the performance of an archer with a simultaneous increase in shoulder horizontal abductor and lower trapezius muscle strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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13 pages, 325 KiB  
Article
Physical Fitness and Performance in Talented & Untalented Young Chinese Soccer Players
by Alfredo Irurtia, Víctor M. Torres-Mestre, Álex Cebrián-Ponce, Marta Carrasco-Marginet, Albert Altarriba-Bartés, Marc Vives-Usón, Francesc Cos and Jorge Castizo-Olier
Healthcare 2022, 10(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10010098 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2078
Abstract
Sports performance is a complex process that involves many factors, including ethnic and racial differences. China’s youth soccer is in a process of constant development, although information about the characteristics of its players and their methodological systems is scarce. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Sports performance is a complex process that involves many factors, including ethnic and racial differences. China’s youth soccer is in a process of constant development, although information about the characteristics of its players and their methodological systems is scarce. The aim of this retrospective study was to characterize the physical fitness and the competitive performance of 722 Chinese players of three sports categories (8.0–9.9, 10.0–11.9 and 12.0–13.9 years), who were classified by their coaches as talented (n = 204) or untalented (n = 518). Players were assessed for anthropometry (body height, body mass, body mass index), lung capacity (Forced Vital Capacity), jumping performance (Squat Jump, Countermovement Jump and Abalakov tests), sprinting performance (10 m and 30 m Sprint tests), agility performance (Repeated Side-Step test) and flexibility (Sit & Reach test). A descriptive, comparative, correlational and multivariate analysis was performed. Competitive ranking was created in order to act as dependent variable in multiple linear regression analysis. Results indicate that Chinese players classified as talented have better motor performance than untalented ones. However, these differences are neither related nor determine the competitive performance of one group or the other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
10 pages, 284 KiB  
Article
Variability of External Intensity Comparisons between Official and Friendly Soccer Matches in Professional Male Players
by Hadi Nobari, João Paulo Brito, Jorge Pérez-Gómez and Rafael Oliveira
Healthcare 2021, 9(12), 1708; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9121708 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2253
Abstract
The aims of this study were to compare the external intensity between official (OMs) and friendly matches (FMs), and between first and second halves in the Iranian Premier League. Twelve players participated in this study (age, 28.6 ± 2.7 years; height, 182.1 ± [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to compare the external intensity between official (OMs) and friendly matches (FMs), and between first and second halves in the Iranian Premier League. Twelve players participated in this study (age, 28.6 ± 2.7 years; height, 182.1 ± 8.6 cm; body mass, 75.3 ± 8.2 kg). External intensity was measured by total duration, total distance, average speed, high-speed running distance, sprint distance, maximal speed and body load. In general, there was higher intensity in OMs compared with FMs for all variables. The first half showed higher intensities than the second half, regardless of the type of the match. Specifically, OMs showed higher values for total sprint distance (p = 0.012, ES = 0.59) and maximal speed (p < 0.001, ES = 0.27) but lower value for body load (p = 0.038, ES = −0.42) compared to FMs. The first half of FMs only showed lower value for body load (p = 0.004, ES = −0.38) than FMs, while in the second half of OMs, only total distance showed a higher value than FMs (p = 0.013, ES = 0.96). OMs showed higher demands of high intensity, questioning the original assumption of FMs demands. Depending on the period of the season that FMs are applied, coaches may consider requesting higher demands from their teams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Other

11 pages, 2771 KiB  
Review
The Effect of Velocity Loss on Strength Development and Related Training Efficiency: A Dose–Response Meta–Analysis
by Xing Zhang, Siyuan Feng and Hansen Li
Healthcare 2023, 11(3), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare11030337 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2648
Abstract
The velocity loss method is often used in velocity–based training (VBT) to dynamically regulate training loads. However, the effects of velocity loss on maximum strength development and training efficiency are still unclear. Therefore, we conducted a dose–response meta–analysis aiming to fill this research [...] Read more.
The velocity loss method is often used in velocity–based training (VBT) to dynamically regulate training loads. However, the effects of velocity loss on maximum strength development and training efficiency are still unclear. Therefore, we conducted a dose–response meta–analysis aiming to fill this research gap. A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies on VBT with the velocity loss method via PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, EBSCO, and Cochrane. Controlled trials that compared the effects of different velocity losses on maximum strength were considered. One–repetition maximum (1RM) gain and 1RM gain per repetition were the selected outcomes to indicate the maximum strength development and its training efficiency. Eventually, nine studies with a total of 336 trained males (training experience/history ≥ 1 year) were included for analysis. We found a non–linear dose–response relationship (reverse U–shaped) between velocity loss and 1RM gain (pdose–response relationship < 0.05, pnon–linear relationship < 0.05). Additionally, a negative linear dose–response relationship was observed between velocity loss and 1RM gain per repetition (pdose–response relationship < 0.05, pnon–linear relationship = 0.23). Based on our findings, a velocity loss between 20 and 30% may be beneficial for maximum strength development, and a lower velocity loss may be more efficient for developing and maintaining maximum strength. Future research is warranted to focus on female athletes and the interaction of other parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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10 pages, 261 KiB  
Review
Isotonic and Isometric Exercise Interventions Improve the Hamstring Muscles’ Strength and Flexibility: A Narrative Review
by Akhmad Fajri Widodo, Cheng-Wen Tien, Chien-Wei Chen and Shih-Chiung Lai
Healthcare 2022, 10(5), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10050811 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6834
Abstract
Background: Hamstring weakness has been associated with an increased risk of hamstring strain, a common sports injury that occurs when athletes perform actions such as quick sprints. The hamstring complex comprises three distinct muscles: the long and short heads of the bicep femoris, [...] Read more.
Background: Hamstring weakness has been associated with an increased risk of hamstring strain, a common sports injury that occurs when athletes perform actions such as quick sprints. The hamstring complex comprises three distinct muscles: the long and short heads of the bicep femoris, the semimembranosus, and the semitendinosus. Methods: The researchers collected the data from different electronic databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Web of Science. Results: Many studies have been conducted on the numerous benefits of hamstring strength, in terms of athletic performance and injury prevention. Isotonic and isometric exercises are commonly used to improve hamstring strength, with each exercise type having a unique effect on the hamstring muscles. Isotonic exercise improves the muscles’ strength, increasing their ability to resist any force, while isometric training increases strength and the muscles’ ability to produce power by changing the muscle length. Conclusions: These exercises, when performed at low intensity, but with high repetition, can be used by the healthy general population to prepare for training and daily exercise. This can improve hamstring muscle strength and flexibility, leading to enhanced performance and reduced injury risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)

Other

10 pages, 647 KiB  
Case Report
Bone Turnover Alterations after Completing a Multistage Ultra-Trail: A Case Study
by Carlos Castellar-Otín, Miguel Lecina and Francisco Pradas
Healthcare 2022, 10(5), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10050798 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1550
Abstract
A series of case studies aimed to assess bone and stress fractures in a 768-km ultra-trail race for 11 days. Four nonprofessional male athletes completed the event without diagnosing any stress fracture. Bone turnover markers (osteocalcin (OC), serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type [...] Read more.
A series of case studies aimed to assess bone and stress fractures in a 768-km ultra-trail race for 11 days. Four nonprofessional male athletes completed the event without diagnosing any stress fracture. Bone turnover markers (osteocalcin (OC), serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and serum turnover calcium (Ca2+)) were assessed before (pre) and after the race (post) and on days two and nine during the recovery period (rec2 and rec9), respectively. Results showed: post-pre-OC = −45.78%, BALP = −61.74%, CTX = +37.28% and Ca2+ = −3.60%. At rec2 and rec9, the four parameters did not return to their pre-run levels: OC, −48.31%; BALP, −61.66%; CTX, +11.93% and Ca2+, −3.38%; and OC = −25.12%, BALP = −54.65%, CTX = +93.41% and Ca2+ = +3.15%), respectively. Our results indicated that the ultra-trail race induced several changes in bone turnover markers, uncoupling of bone metabolism, increased bone resorption: OC and BALP and suppressed bone formation: CTX and Ca2+. Bone turnover markers can help determine the response of bone to extreme effort and might also help predict the risk of stress fractures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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5 pages, 1414 KiB  
Case Report
The Influence of Aerobic Type Exercise on Active Crohn’s Disease Patients: The Incidence of an Elite Athlete
by Konstantinos Papadimitriou
Healthcare 2022, 10(4), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040713 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1561
Abstract
A lifestyle factor which contributes to the remission of Crohn’s disease (CD) is physical activity. The effect seems to positively impact the disease’s symptoms, improving the quality of life, especially on patients in remission. Due to the lack of clinical studies about the [...] Read more.
A lifestyle factor which contributes to the remission of Crohn’s disease (CD) is physical activity. The effect seems to positively impact the disease’s symptoms, improving the quality of life, especially on patients in remission. Due to the lack of clinical studies about the effects of physical activity on active CD patients, the purpose of the present case study was to record the influence of swimming training (aerobic type of exercise) on an athlete with active CD. In this study participated a 22-year-old male, who is an elite swimmer and who was diagnosed in 2019 with CD. The research was conducted over the last three years (2019–2022). Both the athlete and doctor consented to the clinical examinations by the author. According to the present study, immediate medical examination and the prescription of anti-TNF-α therapy is probably the most appropriate solution for someone who is diagnosed with CD symptoms. Moreover, patient participation in any sport activity is discouraged because of the potential danger of exacerbation of the symptoms. Therefore, for the sake of patient safety, physical activity should only be encouraged when the disease is in remission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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17 pages, 1183 KiB  
Systematic Review
How to Improve the Reactive Strength Index among Male Athletes? A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis
by André Rebelo, João R. Pereira, Diogo V. Martinho, João P. Duarte, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva and João Valente-dos-Santos
Healthcare 2022, 10(4), 593; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040593 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4073
Abstract
The reactive strength index (RSI) describes the individual’s capability to quickly change from an eccentric muscular contraction to a concentric one and can be used to monitor, assess, and reduce the risk of athlete’s injury. The purpose of this review is to compare [...] Read more.
The reactive strength index (RSI) describes the individual’s capability to quickly change from an eccentric muscular contraction to a concentric one and can be used to monitor, assess, and reduce the risk of athlete’s injury. The purpose of this review is to compare the effectiveness of different training programs on RSI. Electronic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science from database inception to 11 February 2022. This meta-analysis was conducted in accordance with the recommendations of the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). The search returned 5890 records, in which 39 studies were included in the systematic review and 30 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results from the randomized studies with the control group revealed that plyometric training improved RSI in adult athletes (0.84, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.32) and youth athletes (0.30, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.47). Evidence withdrawn from randomized studies without a control group revealed that resistance training also improved the RSI (0.44, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.79) in youth athletes but not in adults. Interventions with plyometric training routines have a relatively large, statistically significant overall effect in both adult and youth athletes. This supports the implementation of this type of interventions in early ages to better cope with the physical demands of the various sports. The impact of resistance training is very low in adult athletes, as these should seek to have a more power-type training to see improvements on the RSI. More interventions with sprint and combined training are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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1 pages, 152 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Liao et al. Twelve-Week Lower Trapezius-Centred Muscular Training Regimen in University Archers. Healthcare 2022, 10, 171
by Chien-Nan Liao, Chun-Hao Fan, Wei-Hsiu Hsu, Chia-Fang Chang, Pei-An Yu, Liang-Tseng Kuo, Bo-Ling Lu and Robert Wen-Wei Hsu
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020378 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1379
Abstract
The authors would like to make the following corrections to the published paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
16 pages, 473 KiB  
Systematic Review
Reference Values for External and Internal Training Intensity Monitoring in Young Male Soccer Players: A Systematic Review
by Rafael Oliveira, João Paulo Brito, Adrián Moreno-Villanueva, Matilde Nalha, Markel Rico-González and Filipe Manuel Clemente
Healthcare 2021, 9(11), 1567; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9111567 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2595
Abstract
Training intensity monitoring is a daily practice in soccer which allows soccer academies to assess the efficacy of its developmental interventions and management strategies. The current systematic review’s purpose is to: (1) identify and summarize studies that have examined external and internal training [...] Read more.
Training intensity monitoring is a daily practice in soccer which allows soccer academies to assess the efficacy of its developmental interventions and management strategies. The current systematic review’s purpose is to: (1) identify and summarize studies that have examined external and internal training intensity monitoring, and to (2) provide references values for the main measures for young male soccer players. A systematic review of EBSCO, PubMed, Scielo, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. From the 2404 studies initially identified, 8 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures were extracted and analyzed. From them, the following range intervals were found for training: rated perceived exertion (RPE) 2.3–6.3 au; session-RPE, 156–394 au; total distance, 3964.5–6500 m and; distance >18 km/h, 11.8–250 m. Additionally, a general tendency to decrease the intensity in the day before the match was Found. This study allowed to provide reference values of professional young male players for the main internal and external measures. All together, they can be used by coaches, their staff, or practitioners in order to better adjust training intensity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Athletes’ Performance and Avoiding Health Issues)
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