Qualitative Health Research Applied to Clinical and Educational Settings

A special issue of Healthcare (ISSN 2227-9032). This special issue belongs to the section "Healthcare Quality and Patient Safety".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 86002

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Guest Editor
Nursing Science, Physiotherapy and Medicine Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Almeria, 04120 Almería, Spain
Interests: clinical nursing; social and health sciences; qualitative research
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Healthcare will focus on qualitative health research. Health is the body’s ability to resist becoming ill, a force that opposes suffering and favors recovery. Epidemiological, genetic, and clinical research represents an advance in the knowledge, diagnosis, treatment, and care of diseases. However, beyond scientific and technical advances, responding to the question, “what can I do for my health?” entails a commitment to ourselves and to society. Instead of becoming exclusive of specialists and technologies, taking charge of our health brings us closer to a free, dignified, and responsible life. For this reason, it is vital to know how we experience disease and how couples, families, and health providers or educators live through it. The health sciences search for knowledge, techniques, and skills, but also training, health promotion, and ways to cope with disease. The health sciences involve living bodies that study and treat other living bodies, sometimes reduced to mere physical bodies. While we are committed to empirical–analytical research and scientific evidence, following E. Levinas, being cared for means attention, concern, and accompaniment, everything that “the face of the other demands of us”. This position concerns the health–disease process in general, with implications in the clinical and educational environments and in prevention and health promotion. This Special Issue welcomes theoretical and original articles, empirical reviews, and commentaries that provide information on qualitative research applied to all phases of the health–disease process. We emphasize the clinical experiences of patients, families, caregivers or healthcare providers. Ethnographic and phenomenological studies, critical theory, action research or grounded theory are of interest. Experiences in the teaching–learning process in the area of medicine, nursing, physiotherapy, podiatry, pharmacy, psychology, social sciences or sexology are welcome.

Dr. Jose Granero-Molina
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Qualitative research
  • Phenomenology
  • Ethnography
  • Critical theory
  • Participatory action research
  • Clinical nursing
  • Clinical medicine
  • Health psychology
  • Social sciences

Published Papers (23 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 279 KiB  
Article
Motivation and Barriers to Research among Nursing Professionals in Southeast Spain
by Carmen Ramón, Bruno José Nievas-Soriano, Jessica García-González, Raquel Alarcón-Rodríguez, Mar Requena-Mullor and David Lozano-Paniagua
Healthcare 2022, 10(4), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040675 - 2 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2588
Abstract
Background: Nursing research promotes quality care and is essential. Thus, it is important to acknowledge the main motivations and barriers that nursing professionals find in their work, the aim of this study was to establish the main aspects that motivate and make nursing [...] Read more.
Background: Nursing research promotes quality care and is essential. Thus, it is important to acknowledge the main motivations and barriers that nursing professionals find in their work, the aim of this study was to establish the main aspects that motivate and make nursing research difficult, for nursing professionals; Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 91 nursing professionals. A validated structured questionnaire composed of 42 items that defined five domains was used. Descriptive and bivariant analyses were performed; Results: the highest scores were obtained for the domain of Knowledge and Preparation (33.79 ± 3.38), while the domain of Available Resources and Support obtained lower mean values (22.60 ± 5.61). Significant differences were found in two domains: Knowledge and Preparation and Professional Development domains, when regarding the service in which the participants were working (p < 0.05); in the Available Resources and Support domain, when regarding sex (p < 0.05), in the Motivations domain, regarding the number of children (p < 0.05); Conclusions: nursing professionals show a positive attitude towards nursing research. The nurses find motivation in their work environment, in the economic incentives, or in the possibility to improve their curriculum vitae. The main barriers are the lack of time, the lack of institutional support, and the lack of training, especially in languages, such as English. These findings could be useful to design programs to overcome these barriers. Full article
13 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
Intersexuality/Differences of Sex Development through the Discourse of Intersex People, Their Relatives, and Health Experts: A Descriptive Qualitative Study
by María de las Nieves Moreno-Begines, Almudena Arroyo-Rodríguez, Álvaro Borrallo-Riego and María Dolores Guerra-Martín
Healthcare 2022, 10(4), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10040671 - 2 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2595
Abstract
Intersex/differences of sex development (DSD) conditions are divergences among genitalia, gonads, and chromosome patterns. These variances have been present for millennia and socially defined according to the cultural system established. The aim of this study is to describe the perspectives of adult intersex/DSD [...] Read more.
Intersex/differences of sex development (DSD) conditions are divergences among genitalia, gonads, and chromosome patterns. These variances have been present for millennia and socially defined according to the cultural system established. The aim of this study is to describe the perspectives of adult intersex/DSD people, their relatives, and intersex/DSD expert professionals in Spain. A descriptive qualitative study design was adopted. The study was carried out in several locations in Spain. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted and addressed to 12 participants (4 intersex/DSD people, 3 relatives, and 5 professional experts). A total of 4 spheres, 10 categories, and 26 subcategories were obtained. The number of verbatims obtained in each of the spheres described were intersex/DSD as a community (n = 54), health sphere approach (n = 77), law sphere approach (n = 12), and psychosocial approach (n = 73). Regarding intersex/DSD as a community sphere, there is a clear need of promoting education on sex and body diversity. With respect to the health sphere, it is mentioned the inadequacy of services and how this has a negative impact on the health of intersex/DSD people. Regarding the law sphere, it is highlighted the need of designing legislations at a national level which protect and defend the rights of intersex/DSD people. Regarding the psychosocial sphere, these people suffer from social isolation, secrecy, shame, self-identity questioning, and mental disorders that negatively impact their quality of life. Full article
15 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
Work-Related Health Burdens of Nurses in Germany: A Qualitative Interview Study in Different Care Settings
by Jasmin Lützerath, Hannah Bleier and Andrea Schaller
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020375 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3941
Abstract
Background: The growing need for nursing care is offset by a shortage of nurses, who are exposed to high physical and psychological demands in their daily work and have above-average absences that vary between different care settings. Based on the data on [...] Read more.
Background: The growing need for nursing care is offset by a shortage of nurses, who are exposed to high physical and psychological demands in their daily work and have above-average absences that vary between different care settings. Based on the data on sick days, the question arises: What are the subjective work-related health burdens of nurses in acute care hospitals, inpatient care facilities, and outpatient care services? Methods: Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted in different care settings between May and September 2021. Questions about the professional career, everyday working life and personal health, violence in the workplace, and organizational framework conditions were asked. Results: The experiences of the nurses highlighted that health-related burdens have varying manifestations in different care settings. This was reflected in three main categories: health, everyday working life, and experiences of violence. In particular, the different structural framework conditions that trigger stress and the occurrence of violence are important from the perspective of the nurses. Conclusions: The results of this exploratory study can serve as a baseline for obtaining further setting-specific quantitative data that can contribute to the development, implementation, and evaluation of target group-specific health promotion programs. Full article
14 pages, 1186 KiB  
Article
Five Qualitative Research Concepts Grounded in Anthropological Methods for Teaching Design in Healthcare
by Constanza Miranda, Julián Goñi and Nicole Labruto
Healthcare 2022, 10(2), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10020360 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3178
Abstract
Biomedical engineering, engineering, and design in health programs around the world have involved human-centered design as part of their undergraduate curriculum. The disparities evidenced during the COVID-19 pandemic and the rapid developments of biotech startups have highlighted the importance of preparing professionals in [...] Read more.
Biomedical engineering, engineering, and design in health programs around the world have involved human-centered design as part of their undergraduate curriculum. The disparities evidenced during the COVID-19 pandemic and the rapid developments of biotech startups have highlighted the importance of preparing professionals in the health areas for undertaking rigorous, empathetic, and ethical research. In addition to working with human-driven information, students in the health areas are challenged to deal with technical developments that involve legal and ethical concerns deeply rooted in sociopolitical issues and human rights. Concerned with how to achieve a better understanding of behavior in designing for healthcare, this article describes the rationale behind teaching qualitative research in healthcare for biomedical engineering and engineering design education. Through portraying different healthcare designs resulting from an engineering design course, it describes the instruction of qualitative-driven concepts taught to biomedical engineering, design, and premed undergraduate students. Using a design-based research approach, we look to increase the chances of adoption of the presented qualitative research concepts in educational design in health programs. We deliver five tested research tools that better prepare students to carry out more rigorous, respectful, and aware qualitative research in health areas for the development of novel solutions. Full article
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11 pages, 1481 KiB  
Article
Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics Associated with Improvements in Quality of Life for Participants with Opioid Use Disorder
by Assaf Gottlieb, Christine Bakos-Block, James R. Langabeer and Tiffany Champagne-Langabeer
Healthcare 2022, 10(1), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10010167 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1926
Abstract
Background: The Houston Emergency Opioid Engagement System was established to create an access pathway into long-term recovery for individuals with opioid use disorder. The program determines effectiveness across multiple dimensions, one of which is by measuring the participant’s reported quality of life (QoL) [...] Read more.
Background: The Houston Emergency Opioid Engagement System was established to create an access pathway into long-term recovery for individuals with opioid use disorder. The program determines effectiveness across multiple dimensions, one of which is by measuring the participant’s reported quality of life (QoL) at the beginning of the program and at successive intervals. Methods: A visual analog scale was used to measure the change in QoL among participants after joining the program. We then identified sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with changes in QoL. Results: 71% of the participants (n = 494) experienced an increase in their QoL scores, with an average improvement of 15.8 ± 29 points out of a hundred. We identified 10 factors associated with a significant change in QoL. Participants who relapsed during treatment experienced minor increases in QoL, and participants who attended professional counseling experienced the largest increases in QoL compared with those who did not. Conclusions: Insight into significant factors associated with increases in QoL may inform programs on areas of focus. The inclusion of counseling and other services that address factors such as psychological distress were found to increase participants’ QoL and success in recovery. Full article
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15 pages, 469 KiB  
Article
Aspects of Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections Associated with Urinary Bladder Catheterisation and Their Implementation in Nursing Practice
by Jitka Krocová and Radka Prokešová
Healthcare 2022, 10(1), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10010152 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 5939
Abstract
In the case of the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) related to healthcare provision, high-quality and comprehensively provided nursing care is essential. Implementation of preventive strategies is based on recommended procedures, and the introduction of whole sets of measures has been [...] Read more.
In the case of the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) related to healthcare provision, high-quality and comprehensively provided nursing care is essential. Implementation of preventive strategies is based on recommended procedures, and the introduction of whole sets of measures has been shown to be effective. The objective of this research is to find out whether the providers of acute bed care have implemented the steps of CAUTI prevention, and specifically which measures leading to improved quality of care in the area of urinary infections are already in place. To determine this, we carried out quantitative research. Data were collected using a questionnaire-based investigation; we used two non-standardised and one standardised questionnaire, and the respondents were general nurses in management positions (n = 186). The results revealed that result-related CAUTI indicators are monitored by only one-third of the respondents, and records of catheterisation indication are not kept by 17.3% of general nurses. The results of the research showed deficiencies in the monitoring of CAUTI outcome and process indicators, and a weakness of the implemented preventive measures is the maintenance of catheterisation documentation. Periodic CAUTI prevention training is not implemented as recommended. It is positive that there are well-working teams of HAI prevention experts in hospitals. Full article
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14 pages, 841 KiB  
Article
Hemophilia Patient Experience in a Physical Therapy-Guided Health Education Intervention: A Mixed-Method Design
by Alicia López-Casaus, Carolina Jiménez-Sánchez, Paula Cordova-Alegre, Fani Alfaro-Gervon, Laura Esteban-Repiso and Raquel Lafuente-Ureta
Healthcare 2021, 9(12), 1728; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9121728 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2390
Abstract
People with hemophilia usually have negative joint consequences due to their illness. Evidence suggests that exercise and therapeutic education bring some benefits. An important factor that affects health interventions was the experience and degree of satisfaction. Thus, it is relevant to analyze qualitative [...] Read more.
People with hemophilia usually have negative joint consequences due to their illness. Evidence suggests that exercise and therapeutic education bring some benefits. An important factor that affects health interventions was the experience and degree of satisfaction. Thus, it is relevant to analyze qualitative and quantitative data to obtain a complete view of the patient’s experience. As a result, a concurrent nested mixed method with quantitative predominance study design was carried out. Nine people with hemophilia of Hemoaralar with a homogeneous environment participated in this study. The items evaluated were the level of satisfaction through the GCPC-UN-ESU survey and the experience with healthcare interventions through a focus group. A high level of satisfaction was obtained, but some divergences between quantitative and qualitative data were found. Further research about physical therapy and this type of intervention in people with hemophilia should be considered to better address the impact of living with the disease. Full article
11 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Alexithymia and Insecure Attachment among Male Intimate Partner Violence Aggressors in the Dominican Republic
by Luis Vergés-Báez, David Lozano-Paniagua, Mar Requena-Mullor, Jessica García-González, Rafael García-Álvarez and Raquel Alarcón-Rodríguez
Healthcare 2021, 9(12), 1626; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9121626 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
The complexity of intimate partner violence and the impossibility of understanding it from single factors have been studied from different biological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 187 men involved in legal proceedings for problems of violence in their [...] Read more.
The complexity of intimate partner violence and the impossibility of understanding it from single factors have been studied from different biological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 187 men involved in legal proceedings for problems of violence in their intimate partner relationships in the Dominican Republic in order to explore whether insecure attachment represents a risk factor for alexithymia in men with violent behaviors. The attachment style was determinate by the Casullo and Fernández-Liporace Attachment Styles Scale, and alexithymia was assayed using the Latin American Consensual Toronto Alexithymia Scale (LAC TAS-20), a modification of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). Chi-square test and multiple binary logistic regression analysis were performed to explore the phenomena of alexithymia and attachment styles in the context of a confinement center for male intimate partner offenders in the Dominican Republic. The results showed that insecure attachment represents a risk factor for alexithymia, being highest for avoidant attachment in the population studied. The results also highlight the influence of other factors such as education and maternal–familial relationships as a factor risk for alexithymia. Full article
16 pages, 283 KiB  
Article
In Service of the Society? Medical Associations as Agents of Social Change—Implications for Health Policy and Education in Israel
by Baruch Levi, Nadav Davidovitch and Keren Dopelt
Healthcare 2021, 9(10), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9101264 - 25 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
This study aims to explore what medical associations in Israel do to promote public health, what values underpin their activities, and how their actions can be interpreted. For this purpose, an analysis of both individual and organizational levels was applied in an effort [...] Read more.
This study aims to explore what medical associations in Israel do to promote public health, what values underpin their activities, and how their actions can be interpreted. For this purpose, an analysis of both individual and organizational levels was applied in an effort to yield a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between society and the medical profession. In-depth interviews with senior physicians were conducted, combined with a review of policy and public initiatives of medical associations between 2008 and 2018. The findings of this study reveal that medical associations engage in a range of social and policy initiatives designed to promote public health, but, at the same time, they tend to construct socially related health issues as medical problems in a manner that fits their sectorial agendas. This may reflect organized medicine’s efforts to extend its dominance over society through the application of the biomedical model to social issues. It is necessary to integrate biosocial training with medical education to ensure that future physicians are equipped with the skills needed to implement social medicine. Full article
15 pages, 299 KiB  
Article
Do Clinical Trials Meet Current Care Needs? Views of Digestive Oncology Specialists in Galicia (Spain) Using the Delphi Method
by Ana Fernández Montes, Nieves Martinez-Lago, Juan de la Cámara Gomez, Elena María Brozos Vázquez, Sonia Candamio Folgar, Marta Carmona Campos, Antía Cousillas Castiñeiras, Marta Covela Rúa, Elena Gallardo Martín, Paula González Villarroel, Begoña Graña Suarez, Mónica Jorge Fernández, María Luz Pellón Augusto, Guillermo Quintero Aldana, Carlos Romero Reinoso, Mercedes Salgado Fernández, Francisca Vázquez Rivera, Ana Ayuso Álvarez, Dante R. Culqui, José Carlos Méndez Méndez and RIGhT-sens Working Groupadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Healthcare 2021, 9(6), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060665 - 3 Jun 2021
Viewed by 2046
Abstract
Background: In recent years, abundant scientific evidence has been generated based on clinical trials (CT) in the field of oncology. The general objective of this paper is to find out the extent to which decision making is based on knowledge of the most [...] Read more.
Background: In recent years, abundant scientific evidence has been generated based on clinical trials (CT) in the field of oncology. The general objective of this paper is to find out the extent to which decision making is based on knowledge of the most recent CT. Its specific objectives are to pinpoint difficulties with decision making based on the CT performed and find out the motivations patients and clinicians have when taking part in a CT. Methodology: Combined, prospective study, based on the Delphi method. A lack of correspondence between the people who take part in CT and patients who come for consultation has been identified. A need for training in analysing and interpreting CT has also been identified and a lack of trust in the results of CT financed by the pharmaceutical industry itself has been perceived. Conclusions: There is a difficulty in selecting oncological treatment due to the lack of correspondence between the patients included in the CT and patients seen in consultation. In this process, real world data studies may be highly useful, as they may provide this group with greater training in interpreting CT and their results. Full article
9 pages, 565 KiB  
Article
Development and Evaluation of Psychometric Properties Regarding the Whole Person Health Scale for Employees of Hospital to Emphasize the Importance of Health Awareness of the Workers in the Hospital
by Chih-Ju Liu, Shih-Hsuan Pi, Chun-Kai Fang and Te-Yu Wu
Healthcare 2021, 9(5), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9050610 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 1830
Abstract
(1) Background: Whole person health (WPH) is important among employees in hospitals. It will affect their performance and attitude toward patient care and organization. This project was designed to develop and assess the validity and reliability of utilizing the Whole Person Health Scale [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Whole person health (WPH) is important among employees in hospitals. It will affect their performance and attitude toward patient care and organization. This project was designed to develop and assess the validity and reliability of utilizing the Whole Person Health Scale for Employees of a Hospital (WPHS-EH) to determine overall employee health. (2) Methods: A mixed-methods focus group and cross-sectional survey was adopted. Employees held six focus groups, with 62 employees from different departments in medical center in Taiwan. After analyzing the interview content, five experts tested its validity, and the 14-item WPHS-EH scale was analyzed. This was followed by an additional 900 participants questionnaire survey, response rate: 94.9%. Descriptive statistics, Cronbach’s alpha, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and items analysis were used. Additionally, the scale was implemented to conducted confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) test for validity. (3) Results: Three dimensions were extracted from the questionnaires by EFA: “hospital circumstance and system”, “professional and interpersonal interaction” and “workload and harm”. The Cronbach’s alpha of the WPHS-EH scale was 0.82, while the three sub-dimensions were all significantly correlated with total scores. CFA confirmed the scale construct validity, with a good model fit. (4) Conclusions: The WPHS-EH is a reliable measurement tool to assess the effects of hospitals’ Whole Person Health among employees. The intent of the WPHS-EH was to provide a reliable scale to analyze the work environment for hospital staff and useful information to healthcare administrators interested in improving the staff’s whole person health. Full article
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20 pages, 873 KiB  
Article
Dietetic Students’ Drivers and Barriers to Healthy Eating While Studying to Be a Healthcare Professional (a Pilot Study)
by Marie Trahearn, Dave Merryweather and Farzad Amirabdollahian
Healthcare 2021, 9(5), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9050579 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3186
Abstract
Background: For Dietetics students, starting university means developing the knowledge and skills required to be a healthcare practitioner. This pilot study aimed to explore the perceptions and views of the students on their drivers and barriers of healthy eating while studying Dietetics at [...] Read more.
Background: For Dietetics students, starting university means developing the knowledge and skills required to be a healthcare practitioner. This pilot study aimed to explore the perceptions and views of the students on their drivers and barriers of healthy eating while studying Dietetics at university. Methods: A qualitative study was undertaken with a purposive sample of six final year Dietetic students at a UK university. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used to elicit students’ experiences and perceptions of barriers to healthy eating. Interview data were analysed thematically. Results: Five themes emerged from the interview data including studying Dietetics, placement, influence of significant others, food security, and social and cultural aspects of the university life, with several sub-themes, and perspectives about the future beyond the university life. Conclusions: The findings suggest a potential need for Dietetics course providers to consider the range of barriers to healthy eating that students may encounter whilst studying and how these may undermine their ability to develop healthy eating practices and effective professional skills. Further research is required that explores the extent of barriers to healthy eating and examine whether these impinge upon effective practice. Full article
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11 pages, 266 KiB  
Article
Teaching First Aid to Prospective Teachers as a Way to Promote Child Healthcare
by María del Carmen Olmos-Gómez, Francisca Ruiz-Garzón, Paula Pais-Roldán and Rafael López-Cordero
Healthcare 2021, 9(4), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9040367 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2157
Abstract
This article aimed to analyze, through a qualitative study (i.e., semi-structured interview), the opinions and knowledge of fourth-year future teachers at a Spanish public university (University of Granada) regarding training and the need for first aid (FA) at school. With a sample of [...] Read more.
This article aimed to analyze, through a qualitative study (i.e., semi-structured interview), the opinions and knowledge of fourth-year future teachers at a Spanish public university (University of Granada) regarding training and the need for first aid (FA) at school. With a sample of 70 subjects in their last year of training, our conclusion is that although they are aware of the importance of first aid for their professional development, there is no such training in their careers, and thus they have great difficulty understanding how to react to emergency situations on the job. Full article
12 pages, 632 KiB  
Article
Primary School Teachers’ Perspective of Sexual Education in Spain. A Qualitative Study
by Fernando Jesús Plaza-del-Pino, Isabelle Soliani, Cayetano Fernández-Sola, Joaquín Jesús Molina-García, María Isabel Ventura-Miranda, María Ángeles Pomares-Callejón, Olga María López-Entrambasaguas and María Dolores Ruiz-Fernández
Healthcare 2021, 9(3), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030287 - 5 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5910
Abstract
Sexual education is a part of the teaching-learning process that addresses cognitive, psychological, physical and social aspects of sexuality. The purpose of sexual education is to provide people with knowledge, abilities, attitudes and values that will help them to have good sexual health, [...] Read more.
Sexual education is a part of the teaching-learning process that addresses cognitive, psychological, physical and social aspects of sexuality. The purpose of sexual education is to provide people with knowledge, abilities, attitudes and values that will help them to have good sexual health, well-being and dignity. The objective of this study was to explore the perspective of primary school teachers regarding Sexual Education in school. A descriptive qualitative study was designed based on content thematic analysis. Fifteen open-ended interviews with primary school teachers were carried out, followed by inductive data analysis using ATLAS.ti software. Two key themes emerged from the analysis: “In search of a comprehensive approach to Sexual Education” and “Barriers to Sexual Education in schools: From the lack of training to fear of the families”. We conclude that despite the efforts to implement a comprehensive approach to Sexual Education that recognises sexuality as a right, primary school teachers face difficulties in delivering Sexual Education in schools due to a lack of training and the fear that parents will reject their children being spoken to about sexuality. Full article
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11 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Anxiety Levels of Nursing Students Because of e-Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Jessica García-González, Wei Ruqiong, Raquel Alarcon-Rodriguez, Mar Requena-Mullor, Can Ding and Maria Isabel Ventura-Miranda
Healthcare 2021, 9(3), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030252 - 1 Mar 2021
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 8917
Abstract
The continued expand of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, confinement measures and an urgent change in the education of nursing students from traditional education to distance learning throughout the country affect the mental health of university students. This study analyzed state-trait anxiety [...] Read more.
The continued expand of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, confinement measures and an urgent change in the education of nursing students from traditional education to distance learning throughout the country affect the mental health of university students. This study analyzed state-trait anxiety levels of nursing students because of e-Learning during two periods of the COVID-19 confinement. A mixed follow-up study was used, which evaluates the same cohort cross-sectionally but with a longitudinal component. A sample of 460 nursing students of the Nursing Degree at the University of Lorca (Murcia) and University of Almería (Spain) completed an online anxiety level questionnaire using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) during the first and fourth weeks of the COVID-19 confinement. Total anxiety levels increased in the fourth week, as compared to the first week (first week: 50.4 ± 20.8 and fourth week: 59.9 ± 10.6 (p < 0.001)). The linear regression model showed that the significant predictors for STAI anxiety in nursing students were being in the last year of the degree program, being female, and spending confinement in a house without a garden. In general, most nursing students were emotionally affected by high levels of anxiety of state-trait during the COVID-19 outbreak. Full article
15 pages, 316 KiB  
Article
Engaging Mothers on the Growth of School-Age Children in a Rural South African Health and Demographic Site: A Qualitative Insight
by Perpetua Modjadji
Healthcare 2021, 9(2), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9020225 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2621
Abstract
A qualitative study was conducted to explore mothers’ insights on the growth of school-age children in a rural Health and Demographic site of Limpopo Province, in South Africa. The participants were selected using purposive sampling. Data were collected from seven focus group discussions, [...] Read more.
A qualitative study was conducted to explore mothers’ insights on the growth of school-age children in a rural Health and Demographic site of Limpopo Province, in South Africa. The participants were selected using purposive sampling. Data were collected from seven focus group discussions, which were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. NVivo10 was used to analyse interview transcripts, following qualitative thematic analysis. Fifty-four mothers aged between 27 and 52 years were interviewed. Unfavourable sociodemographic status with poor living conditions of mothers were observed, particularly in terms of unemployment, minimal tertiary education, and rural locality. The perceptions of mothers on child growth linked growth of their children to various factors such as poverty and socioeconomic status, genetic/family heredity, and household environment. Mothers further related child growth to purchasing power and decisions regarding types of food, food unavailability, affordability issues, feeding beliefs and practices; and child food preferences, school feeding schemes, and maternal and societal cultural beliefs and practices. Despite their concerns, mothers perceived that their children were growing well, but differently. It is worth noting that the views of mothers on child growth were up to their aptitude level and might have been restricted due to their level of education and rural locality. Hence, there is a need for novel information, education, and communication strategies to effectively reach mothers, especially in rural areas, regarding the importance of identifying children with growth failure and its prevention. Mothers should be able to identify when a child is affected by growth failure and to seek healthcare, in order to prevent children from progressing to severe forms. This study informs on the timing of nutritional interventions for children and context-specific health promotion and health education programs to improve the knowledge of mothers on child growth. Full article
11 pages, 259 KiB  
Article
Current Issues on Research Conducted to Improve Women’s Health
by Charalampos Siristatidis, Vasilios Karageorgiou and Paraskevi Vogiatzi
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9010092 - 17 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2225
Abstract
There are varied lessons to be learned regarding the current methodological approaches to women’s health research. In the present scheme of growing medical literature and inflation of novel results claiming significance, the sheer amount of information can render evidence-based practice confusing. The factors [...] Read more.
There are varied lessons to be learned regarding the current methodological approaches to women’s health research. In the present scheme of growing medical literature and inflation of novel results claiming significance, the sheer amount of information can render evidence-based practice confusing. The factors that classically determined the impact of discoveries appear to be losing ground: citation count and publication rates, hierarchy in author lists according to contribution, and a journal’s impact factor. Through a comprehensive literature search on the currently available data from theses, opinion, and original articles and reviews on this topic, we seek to present to clinicians a narrative synthesis of three crucial axes underlying the totality of the research production chain: (a) critical advances in research methodology, (b) the interplay of academy and industry in a trial conduct, and (c) review- and publication-associated developments. We also provide specific recommendations on the study design and conduct, reviewing the processes and dissemination of data and the conclusions and implementation of findings. Overall, clinicians and the public should be aware of the discourse behind the marketing of alleged breakthrough research. Still, multiple initiatives, such as patient review and strict, supervised literature synthesis, have become more widely accepted. The “bottom-up” approach of a wide dissemination of information to clinicians, together with practical incentives for stakeholders with competing interests to collaborate, promise to improve women’s healthcare. Full article
14 pages, 300 KiB  
Article
Emotions, Feelings, and Experiences of Social Workers While Attending to Vulnerable Groups: A Qualitative Approach
by María Dolores Ruiz-Fernández, Rocío Ortiz-Amo, Elena Andina-Díaz, Isabel María Fernández-Medina, José Manuel Hernández-Padilla, Cayetano Fernández-Sola and Ángela María Ortega-Galán
Healthcare 2021, 9(1), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9010087 - 17 Jan 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5126
Abstract
Social workers in the community setting are in constant contact with the suffering experienced by the most vulnerable individual. Social interventions are complex and affect social workers’ emotional well-being. The aim of this study was to identify the emotions, feelings, and experiences social [...] Read more.
Social workers in the community setting are in constant contact with the suffering experienced by the most vulnerable individual. Social interventions are complex and affect social workers’ emotional well-being. The aim of this study was to identify the emotions, feelings, and experiences social workers have while attending to individuals in situations of vulnerability and hardship. A qualitative methodology based on hermeneutic phenomenology was used. Six interviews and two focus group sessions were conducted with social workers from the community social services and health services of the Andalusian Public Health System in the province of Almería (Spain). Atlas.ti 8.0 software was used for discourse analysis. The professionals highlighted the vulnerability of certain groups, such as the elderly and minors, people with serious mental problems, and people with scarce or no economic resources. Daily contact with situations of suffering generates a variety of feelings and emotions (anger, sadness, fear, concern). Therefore, more attention should be paid to working with the emotions of social workers who are exposed to tense and threatening situations. Peer support, talking, and discussions of experiences are pointed out as relevant by all social workers. Receiving training and support (in formal settings) in order to learn how to deal with vulnerable groups could be positive for their work and their professional and personal quality of life. Full article
12 pages, 1417 KiB  
Article
Patient-Related Factors of Medialization Laryngoplasty with Autologous Thyroid Cartilage
by Yao-Te Tsai, Ming-Shao Tsai, Geng-He Chang, Li-Ang Lee, Ming-Yu Yang, Yao-Hsu Yang, Chin-Yuan Wu and Cheng-Ming Hsu
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040521 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1545
Abstract
(1) Background: Medialization laryngoplasty with autologous thyroid cartilage (MLATC) is a surgical treatment for glottal closure insufficiency (GCI) resulted from unilateral vocal fold paralysis/paresis (UVFP) and vocal fold atrophy. We aimed to survey the influence of patient-related factors on the outcomes after MLATC. [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Medialization laryngoplasty with autologous thyroid cartilage (MLATC) is a surgical treatment for glottal closure insufficiency (GCI) resulted from unilateral vocal fold paralysis/paresis (UVFP) and vocal fold atrophy. We aimed to survey the influence of patient-related factors on the outcomes after MLATC. (2) Methods: The study enrolled 35 patients with GCI who underwent MLATC. Patient voice data were recorded before and after MLATC by using multiple acoustic parameters and subjective assessment in a computerized speech laboratory. GCI patients were characterized into subgroups based on three factors: age, ≥60 vs. <60 years; sex, men vs. women; and BMI, ≥24 vs. <24. (3) Results: When the subgroups were compared, men did not have better results after surgery than women. Patients ages < 60 years did not exhibit any significantly different outcome compared with those aged ≥ 60 years. Patients with BMI ≥ 24 did not have any significantly different outcome compared with those with BMI < 24. The subgroups of age, sex, and BMI had no significant difference in cumulative voice recovery and summation of GRBAS (G = grade, R = roughness, B = breathiness, A = asthenia, and S = strain). (4) Conclusions: MLATC is a good alternative surgery with long-term improvement in GCI patients. There is no evidence that age, sex, or BMI affect the functional outcome. Full article
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11 pages, 392 KiB  
Article
Impact of Internet Use on Elderly Health: Empirical Study Based on Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) Data
by Jing Wang, Changyong Liang and Keqing Li
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040482 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4513
Abstract
In the current era, the rapid spread of Internet technology has combined with various traditional industries; this provides new research perspectives and solutions for current problems, such as those in the elderly care industry. Elderly health is an important social problem in various [...] Read more.
In the current era, the rapid spread of Internet technology has combined with various traditional industries; this provides new research perspectives and solutions for current problems, such as those in the elderly care industry. Elderly health is an important social problem in various countries, and governments have turned to the internet for new methods and better solutions. However, internet-use behavior has a certain influence on the elderly’s health status. This study investigates the effects of internet use on the elderly’s physical health, mental health, and self-rated health, along with the moderating role of individual cognitive ability in the above relationship. This study uses data from the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) in 2012 and 2015 as samples for analysis via the hierarchical regression method. The sample is from China and had 2821 and 3185 valid respondents in 2012 and 2015, respectively. Results show that internet use significantly affects the physical and mental health of the elderly and does not significantly affect self-rated health. In addition, individual cognitive ability plays a negative moderating role between internet use and physical and mental health. Finally, on the basis of results analysis and discussion, this study provides new recommendations to achieve targeted health improvements. Full article
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20 pages, 551 KiB  
Article
Stress, Burnout, and Low Self-Efficacy of Nursing Professionals: A Qualitative Inquiry
by Luis Miguel Dos Santos
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040424 - 23 Oct 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 11195
Abstract
Nursing professionals face a high level of stress and burnout due to overloaded responsibilities, which may cause a low level of self-efficacy. From the perspective of nursing professionals, the research aims to understand what are the sources of stress and burnout which would [...] Read more.
Nursing professionals face a high level of stress and burnout due to overloaded responsibilities, which may cause a low level of self-efficacy. From the perspective of nursing professionals, the research aims to understand what are the sources of stress and burnout which would reduce the self-efficacy and the unbalanced patient ratio and how would nursing professionals describe their experiences, sources of stress and burnout, and self-efficacy. Based on the snowball sampling strategy, 60 nursing professionals were invited for qualitative research data collection. Based on the lens of the self-efficacy approach, the results indicated that the environmental factors, including workplace bullying, family stress, misunderstanding of public members, and personal development and career enhancement took important roles in increasing their stress and burnout and in reducing their self-efficacy. The outcomes of this study discovered the social status and discrimination toward nursing professionals. Government leaders, policymakers, and researchers should take this research as an opportunity to reform their policy for human resource management and education for the respectfulness of medical and nursing professionals in the public health system. Full article
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10 pages, 1421 KiB  
Article
Learning Assessment from a Lecture about Fundamentals on Basic Life Support among Undergraduate Students of Health Sciences
by Luis Fernando Barbosa Tavares, Rodrigo Daminello Raimundo, Claudio Leone, Cyntia Souza Carvalho Castanha, Adriana Gonçalves de Oliveira, Blanca Elena Guerrero Daboin, Joseane Elza Tonussi Mendes and Luiz Carlos de Abreu
Healthcare 2020, 8(4), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040379 - 1 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2227
Abstract
Introduction: Cardiac arrest is one of the leading public health problems worldwide and in Brazil. A victim of cardiorespiratory arrest needs prompt basic life support (BLS) to increase survival. Objective: To evaluate the performance of a synthesis lecture on BLS given [...] Read more.
Introduction: Cardiac arrest is one of the leading public health problems worldwide and in Brazil. A victim of cardiorespiratory arrest needs prompt basic life support (BLS) to increase survival. Objective: To evaluate the performance of a synthesis lecture on BLS given to university students in Health Sciences. Methods: A total of 422 undergraduate students in Nursing, Physiotherapy, and Medicine participated in this study. Data were collected by applying a pre-test through a BLS questionnaire based on the American Heart Association guidelines. Results: Students obtained a minimum grade of 40% of the pre-test questions. The score increased to 75% in the post-test; the students with the best performance in the pre-test maintained a higher total number of correct answers in the post-test. There was also better performance in those with previous training in BLS. The students from the first year of medical school were the ones who benefited the most from the lecture. Conclusion: Regardless of the grade course, the Health Science students showed a significant improvement in their level of knowledge after attending the synthesis lecture, indicating its adequacy to promote initial learning about BLS. Full article
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13 pages, 266 KiB  
Article
Understanding Violence against Women Irregular Migrants Who Arrive in Spain in Small Boats
by María del Mar Jiménez-Lasserrotte, Esperanza López-Domene, José Manuel Hernández-Padilla, Cayetano Fernández-Sola, Isabel María Fernández-Medina, Karim El Marbouhe El Faqyr, Iria Dobarrio-Sanz and José Granero-Molina
Healthcare 2020, 8(3), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8030299 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3929
Abstract
African irregular migrants risk their lives crossing the Mediterranean Sea in small boats hoping to reach Europe. Women irregular migrants (WIMs) are an especially vulnerable group that suffer from violence and sexual aggression, but little is known about their actual experiences. The objective [...] Read more.
African irregular migrants risk their lives crossing the Mediterranean Sea in small boats hoping to reach Europe. Women irregular migrants (WIMs) are an especially vulnerable group that suffer from violence and sexual aggression, but little is known about their actual experiences. The objective of our study is to describe and understand the violence against WIMs who arrive in Spain in small boats. A qualitative study based on Gadamer’s phenomenology was used. The data collection included twenty-six in-depth interviews with WIMs. Three main themes arose: “Poverty and discrimination push WIMs into migrating”; “WIMs as a paradigm of extreme vulnerability”, and “WIMs in small boats should raise the alarm”. WIMs who arrive to Europe in small boats have a history of violence, rape, prostitution, forced pregnancy, and human trafficking. Emergency care must include gynecological examinations and must make detecting sexual violence and human trafficking of WIMs part of their care protocols. Full article
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