SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Older People

A special issue of Geriatrics (ISSN 2308-3417).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2022) | Viewed by 7398

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Applied Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences & Nutrition, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK
Interests: health services research; dementia; cardiovascular diseases; healthy ageing
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Guest Editor
Division of Population Medicine, Cardiff University, Penarth CF64 2XX, UK
Interests: surgery in older people; stroke; patient-reported outcome measures and diabetes in older people
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It has been over two years since the first SARS-CoV-2 case was first identified. As we expected at that time, there are many consequences to this outbreak—both short- and long-term, and medical, social, economic, and lifestyle in nature. We would like to take this opportunity to thank the contributors to the Special Issues “SARS-CoV-2 in the Elderly—Series 1” and “SARS-CoV-2 in the Elderly—Series 2”. As COVID-19 has evolved into several new variants on one hand, and a variety of new and emerging therapies and vaccines have changed the trajectory of the illness outcome on the other, it is timely to launch the new edition of this Special Issue, “SARS-CoV-2 in Older People”. We are interested in publishing any type of article in fundamental sciences, medical sciences, pharmacological sciences (including drug discovery), and health service research (including service redesign, service evaluation, and quality improvement projects), as well as case reports and case series reporting novel learning points, management strategies, and clinical trials. We are also interested in geriatric nursing studies in relation to this crisis, as well as social science (social care or the interface between health and social care, other health-related issues due to social isolation, etc.) and health economics studies.

Prof. Dr. Phyo Kyaw Myint
Dr. Jonathan Hewitt
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Geriatrics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • SARS-CoV-2
  • elderly
  • long COVID-19
  • variants
  • emerging treatments

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Published Papers (4 papers)

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12 pages, 954 KiB  
Article
A Molecular and Epidemiological Investigation of a Large SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak in a Long-Term Care Facility in Luxembourg, 2021
by Corinna Ernst, Yolanda Pires-Afonso, Dritan Bejko, Conny Huberty, Thomas G. Dentzer, Anke Wienecke-Baldacchino, Eric Hugoson, Daniel Alvarez, Murielle Weydert, Anne Vergison and Joël Mossong
Geriatrics 2023, 8(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics8010019 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
In spring 2021, a long-term care facility (LTCF) of 154 residents in Luxembourg experienced a large severe, acute respiratory-syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak a few days after a vaccination campaign. We conducted an outbreak investigation and a serosurvey two months after the outbreak, [...] Read more.
In spring 2021, a long-term care facility (LTCF) of 154 residents in Luxembourg experienced a large severe, acute respiratory-syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak a few days after a vaccination campaign. We conducted an outbreak investigation and a serosurvey two months after the outbreak, compared attack rates (AR) among residents and staff, and calculated hospitalization and case-fatality rates (CFR). Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed to detect variants in available samples and results were compared to genomes published on GISAID. Eighty-four (55%) residents and forty-five (26%) staff members tested positive for SARS-CoV-2; eighteen (21%) residents and one (2.2%) staff member were hospitalized, and twenty-three (CFR: 27%) residents died. Twenty-seven (21% of cases) experienced a reinfection. Sequencing identified seventy-seven cases (97% of sequenced cases) with B.1.1.420 and two cases among staff with B.1.351. The outbreak strain B.1.1.420 formed a separate cluster from cases from other European countries. Convalescent and vaccinated residents had higher anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody concentrations than vaccinated residents without infection (98% vs. 52%, respectively, with >120 RU/mL, p < 0.001). We documented an extensive outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in an LTCF due to the presence of a specific variant leading to high CFR. Infection in vaccinated residents increased antibody responses. A single vaccine dose was insufficient to mitigate the outbreak. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Older People)
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13 pages, 305 KiB  
Article
Attitudes toward COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake: A Qualitative Study of Mostly Immigrant Racial/Ethnic Minority Older Adults
by Carla Valero-Martínez, Christopher Martínez-Rivera, Jenny Zhen-Duan, Marie Fukuda and Margarita Alegría
Geriatrics 2023, 8(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics8010017 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
(1) Background: Few qualitative studies address diverse older adults’ perceptions of COVID-19 vaccination in the United States, including non-English speakers and immigrant populations. This study aims to understand the attitudes of diverse, primarily immigrant older adults in the U.S. toward the COVID-19 vaccine [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Few qualitative studies address diverse older adults’ perceptions of COVID-19 vaccination in the United States, including non-English speakers and immigrant populations. This study aims to understand the attitudes of diverse, primarily immigrant older adults in the U.S. toward the COVID-19 vaccine and its influences on their vaccination decision-making. (2) Methods: The research team conducted semi-structured interviews (N = 100) in 2021 focused on understanding ethnically/racially diverse older adults’ perceptions of the COVID-19 vaccine. Interviews were recorded, coded, and analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. (3) Results: Thematic analyses identified three themes. (1) Older adults showed mixed attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine associated with information consumed and trust in healthcare systems; (2) health concerns and underlying medical conditions were the most influential factors of vaccine uptake; and (3) systemic barriers and trusted figures impacted vaccination decision-making of older adults. (4) Conclusions: Accessible information in diverse languages tailored to the community’s fears is needed to combat vaccine mistrust. Vaccine rollout programs need to tackle the fear of vaccine side effects. Attitudes of religious leaders, family members, and physicians considerably influenced vaccine uptake, suggesting their role as trusted members for vaccine messaging for older, primarily immigrant adults. Systemic barriers, namely lack of transportation and inaccessible vaccination sites, contributed to vaccine deterrence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Older People)
9 pages, 950 KiB  
Article
Determinants of 1-Year Adverse Event Requiring Re-Hospitalization in COVID-19 Oldest Old Survivors
by Chukwuma Okoye, Riccardo Franchi, Alessia Maria Calabrese, Virginia Morelli, Umberto Peta, Tessa Mazzarone, Igino Maria Pompilii, Giulia Coppini, Sara Rogani, Valeria Calsolaro and Fabio Monzani
Geriatrics 2023, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics8010010 - 10 Jan 2023
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Abstract
The incidence of “Long COVID” syndrome appears to be increasing, particularly in the geriatric population. At present, there are few data regarding the relationship between long COVID and the risk of re-hospitalization in the oldest old survivors. Patients older than 80 years consecutively [...] Read more.
The incidence of “Long COVID” syndrome appears to be increasing, particularly in the geriatric population. At present, there are few data regarding the relationship between long COVID and the risk of re-hospitalization in the oldest old survivors. Patients older than 80 years consecutively hospitalized for COVID-19 in our tertiary care hospital were enrolled and followed after discharge in a 12-month ambulatory program. A comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), including functional capabilities and physical and cognitive performances, was performed at 6-month follow-up. Frailty degree was assessed using a 30-item frailty index. The re-hospitalization rate was assessed at 12-month follow-up through a computerized archive and phone interviews. Out of 100 patients discharged after hospitalization for COVID-19 (mean [SD] age 85 [4.0] years), 24 reported serious adverse events requiring re-hospitalization within 12 months. The most frequent causes of re-hospitalization were acute heart failure (HF), pneumonia and bone fracture (15.3% each). By multivariate logistic analysis, after adjustment for potential confounders, history of chronic HF [aOR: 3.00 (CI 95%: 1.10–8.16), p = 0.031] or chronic renal failure [aOR: 3.83 (CI 95%: 1.09–13.43), p = 0.036], the burden of comorbidity [(CIRSc) aOR: 1.95 (CI 95%: 1.28–2.97), p = 0.002] and frailty [aOR: 7.77 (CI 95%: 2.13–28.27), p = 0.002] resulted as independent predictors of re-hospitalization. One-fourth of the oldest old patients previously hospitalized for COVID-19 suffered from adverse events requiring re-hospitalization, two-thirds of them within three months after discharge. Frailty, the burden of comorbidity, history of chronic HF or chronic renal failure, but not COVID-19 disease severity, independently predicted re-hospitalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Older People)
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14 pages, 1553 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Psychological Well-Being of Caregivers of People with Dementia or Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Pinar Soysal, Nicola Veronese, Lee Smith, Yaohua Chen, Burcu Akpinar Soylemez, Alessandra Coin, Dorota Religa, Tarja Välimäki, Mariana Alves and Susan D. Shenkin
Geriatrics 2023, 8(5), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics8050097 - 28 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1951
Abstract
The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on the psychological well-being of caregivers of people with dementia or mild cognitive impairment (PwD/MCI). Electronic databases were searched from inception to August 2022 for observational studies investigating [...] Read more.
The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on the psychological well-being of caregivers of people with dementia or mild cognitive impairment (PwD/MCI). Electronic databases were searched from inception to August 2022 for observational studies investigating the COVID-19 lockdown and psychological well-being of caregivers of PwD/MCI. Summary estimates of standardized mean differences (SMD) in psychological well-being scores pre- versus during COVID-19 were calculated using a random-effects model. Fifteen studies including 1702 caregivers (65.7% female, mean age 60.40 ± 12.9 years) with PwD/MCI were evaluated. Five studies found no change in psychological well-being parameters, including depression, anxiety, distress, caregiver burden, and quality of life. Ten studies found a worsening in at least one parameter: depression (six studies, n = 1368; SMD = 0.40; 95%CI: 0.09–0.71; p = 0.01, I2 = 86.8%), anxiety (seven studies, n = 1569; SMD = 1.35; 95%CI: 0.05–2.65; I2 = 99.2%), caregiver distress (six studies, n = 1320, SMD = 3.190; 95%CI: 1.42–4.95; p < 0.0001; I2 = 99.4%), and caregiver burden (four studies, n = 852, SMD = 0.34; 95%CI: 0.13–0.56; p = 0.001; I2 = 54.1%) (p < 0.05). There was an increase in depression, anxiety, caregiver burden, and distress in caregivers of PwD/MCI during the lockdown in the COVID pandemic. This could have longer term consequences, and it is essential that caregivers’ psychological well-being is assessed and supported, to benefit both themselves and those for whom they care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Older People)
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