Geoheritage and Geotourism Resources: Education, Recreation, Sustainability II

A special issue of Geosciences (ISSN 2076-3263). This special issue belongs to the section "Geoheritage, Geoparks and Geotourism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 33498

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Geology and Geoenvironment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15772 Athens, Greece
Interests: palaeoecology; sedimentology; palaeoenvironment; geoheritage; geotourism; geoconservation; geoeducation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Geology and Geoenvironment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece
Interests: ore minerals; critical metals; magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits; mineralogy of hydrothermal alterations in porphyry-epithermal systems; mineralogy and genesis of gemstones
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Historical Geology and Palaeontology, Faculty of Geology and Geo-Environment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, 15784 Athens, Greece
Interests: paleoclimatology; paleoceanographic proxies; micropaleontology; integrated stratigraphy; marine geology; ocean dynamics; sea-level changes; marginal seas; astronomical frequencies in paleoclimates; extreme geological events
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, interest in the geoenvironment has steadily increased. Concepts such as "geosites," "geoparks," and "geodiversity" are intrinsically linked to several areas' newfound local economic and cultural growth. Significant geosites are recognized globally for their geopark activity and benefit from the exchange of information, skills, experience, and personnel among geoparks. Geotourism is a type of tourism that allows visitors to learn about the geological features of the areas they visit, as well as other natural and human resources. Geoeducation is at the heart of geoparks' interest and operation, as they are regarded as ideal locations for educational activities.

In this second volume, we aim to bring together a collection of papers that demonstrate the importance of geoeducation for the promotion and preservation of geological heritage and geoethical values. In addition to research articles covering all possible geological heritage approaches, we also encourage the submission of papers that focus on new cases and highlight current challenges or knowledge gaps, as well as long-term review articles.

Although there is a wide range of topics that encompass this field, some relevant examples include:

  • Scientific studies of geoheritage presenting geosites occurring in different geological and geomorphological contexts;
  • Techniques for the enhancement of geoheritage;
  • Significance of geoheritage in human life;
  • Geosciences education for sustainability;
  • Educational programmes;
  • Sustainable geotourism, which highlight problems connected with the management of geological heritage;
  • Sustainable use of natural and cultural heritage and resources;
  • Valorization of geoheritage for sustainable and innovative tourism development.

Prof. Dr. Hara Drinia
Prof. Dr. Panagiotis Voudouris
Prof. Dr. Assimina Antonarakou
Guest Editors

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Geosciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • geoheritage
  • geoconservation
  • geosite
  • geotope
  • geoeducation
  • geotoursim
  • sustainability
  • geopark
  • public awareness

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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7 pages, 193 KiB  
Editorial
Geoheritage and Geotourism Resources: Education, Recreation, Sustainability II
by Hara Drinia, Panagiotis Voudouris and Assimina Antonarakou
Geosciences 2023, 13(11), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences13110350 - 17 Nov 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1453
Abstract
In recent years, the world’s fascination with the geoenvironment has experienced a remarkable surge [...] Full article

Research

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24 pages, 3005 KiB  
Article
Conservation and Education in Spanish Geoparks: Exploratory Analysis of Land Stewardship Experiences and Valuation Proposal through Outdoor Education
by Emilio Iranzo-García, Katia Hueso-Kortekaas and Ghaleb Fansa-Saleh
Geosciences 2023, 13(9), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences13090276 - 13 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1342
Abstract
Advances in research on environmental problems and public awareness of them have led to renewed concern about the need to establish mechanisms and figures to protect and manage sites so that geoecological processes remain outside the dynamics of anthropic occupation. This research has [...] Read more.
Advances in research on environmental problems and public awareness of them have led to renewed concern about the need to establish mechanisms and figures to protect and manage sites so that geoecological processes remain outside the dynamics of anthropic occupation. This research has been approached from an inductive and qualitative perspective based on case studies to examine the articulation of the Spanish geoparks, their dynamics, and the experiences of private valorization in them. Geological heritage is seen as a lever for the promotion of the territory. In all cases, although the geological–geomorphological–paleontological–environmental resources must be significant, this designation aims to enhance the value of all assets, both natural and cultural, conceiving the geopark not as a figure of environmental protection but as a “figure to promote local development”. A total of 48 land stewardship initiatives were identified in 11 of the 15 Spanish geoparks. The most significant presence of initiatives was found in the geoparks of Catalonia, followed by the Lanzarote Geopark. No nature-based schools are located within geoparks, except for Wild Me in Central Catalonia. However, the presence of nature-based schools in biosphere reserves (BRs) seems to be more common. Framing alternative proposals, such as nature-based schools in these areas and using land stewardship in their operation, can become an opportunity to protect a region’s geological and cultural heritage and improve local communities’ quality of life through sustainable and responsible economic and tourism activities. Early-years education in the natural environment facilitates the acquisition of long-term pro-environmental skills, competencies, and behaviors that last into adulthood and act as multipliers for others. Full article
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15 pages, 18668 KiB  
Article
Ghost Mines for Geoheritage Enhancement in the Umbria Region (Central Italy)
by Laura Melelli, Massimo Palombo and Sabrina Nazzareni
Geosciences 2023, 13(7), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences13070208 - 11 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1054
Abstract
The paper proposes a method to valorize abandoned mines whose traces were lost in the territory and in the collective memory. We selected two case studies in the Umbria region (central Italy) that were used as examples. The evidence of the presence of [...] Read more.
The paper proposes a method to valorize abandoned mines whose traces were lost in the territory and in the collective memory. We selected two case studies in the Umbria region (central Italy) that were used as examples. The evidence of the presence of lignite mines on the Upper Tiber River Valley (northern Umbria) has been completely erased, and since they were located in rural areas, they represent an interesting challenge regarding recovering the memory of the places and proposing a no-longer-existent site as a geosite. The recovery and valorization of historical documents of the two lignite mines (Caiperino–Terranera and Carsuga) and their conversion into a digital format was carried out before constructing a geolocalized database in a GIS environment. This framework is the starting point for a promising dissemination process via a digital media app, using multimedia contents as video, 3D models and the principles of augmented reality (AR) to enhance the touristic or didactic experience and promote the cultural heritage of the territory by keeping the memory of ’ghost places’. Full article
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36 pages, 14590 KiB  
Article
Geo-Archaeo-Routes” on the Island of Lemnos: The “Nalture” Experience as a Holistic Geotouristic Approach within the Geoethical Perspective
by Maria V. Triantaphyllou, Nikolaos Firkasis, Theodora Tsourou, Emmanuel Vassilakis, Evangelos Spyrou, Olga Koukousioura, Argyro Oikonomou and Athanasios Skentos
Geosciences 2023, 13(5), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences13050143 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2670
Abstract
The geosites of Lemnos represent local touristic products that, beyond their high aesthetic value, display significant scientific links to the geological past as well as prehistory and history, archaeology, mythology and religious heritage of the island. The unique wealth of Lemnos geosites in [...] Read more.
The geosites of Lemnos represent local touristic products that, beyond their high aesthetic value, display significant scientific links to the geological past as well as prehistory and history, archaeology, mythology and religious heritage of the island. The unique wealth of Lemnos geosites in combination with the abundance of archaeological sites, cultural monuments and museums composes the basis of what we define here as “Geo-Archaeo-Routes”: certain routes that can be geographically defined, offered, guided and finally followed by the touristic masses. The outcome of the performed quantitative Lemnos geosite assessment enables decision making, thus providing a toolbox useful for sustainable Geo-Archaeo-tourism development at a local level and forms the basis for designing “Geo-Archaeo-Routes”. “Geo-Archaeo-Routes” are particularly favorable of environmentally friendly alternative types of tourism, attracting naturalists, hikers, fans of cultural or religious tourism and many others who represent a major part of the touristic needs of the 21st century. The established hiking and road “Geo-Archaeo-Routes” on Lemnos Island may represent a distinctive touristic product as they offer a high level of “nalture” entertainment, blending “nature with culture” in the framework of a holistic geotouristic approach. Full article
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27 pages, 9732 KiB  
Article
Geological Uniqueness and Potential Geotouristic Appeal of Murge and Premurge, the First Territory in Puglia (Southern Italy) Aspiring to Become a UNESCO Global Geopark
by Marcello Tropeano, Massimo A. Caldara, Vincenzo De Santis, Vincenzo Festa, Mario Parise, Luisa Sabato, Luigi Spalluto, Ruggero Francescangeli, Vincenzo Iurilli, Giuseppe A. Mastronuzzi, Marco Petruzzelli, Filippo Bellini, Marianna Cicala, Elio Lippolis, Fabio M. Petti, Matteo Antonelli, Stefano Cardia, Jacopo Conti, Rafael La Perna, Maria Marino, Antonella Marsico, Enrico Sacco, Antonello Fiore, Oronzo Simone, Salvatore Valletta, Umberto S. D’Ettorre, Vincenzo De Giorgio, Isabella S. Liso and Eliana Stiglianoadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Geosciences 2023, 13(5), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences13050131 - 30 Apr 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3375
Abstract
At the end of November 2021, a large area of Puglia (an administrative region in Southern Italy) was officially nominated as new aUGGp (aspiring UNESCO Global Geopark) by the Italian National Commission of UNESCO. This area comprises the northwestern part of the Murge [...] Read more.
At the end of November 2021, a large area of Puglia (an administrative region in Southern Italy) was officially nominated as new aUGGp (aspiring UNESCO Global Geopark) by the Italian National Commission of UNESCO. This area comprises the northwestern part of the Murge territory, where a Cretaceous sector of the Apulia Carbonate Platform crops out, and part of the adjacent Premurge territory, where the southwestward lateral continuation of the same platform (being flexed toward the Southern Apennines Chain) is covered by thin Plio-Quaternary foredeep deposits. The worldwide geological uniqueness of the aspiring Geopark (Murge aUGGp) is that the area is the only in situ remnant of the Adria Plate, the old continental plate almost entirely squeezed between the Africa and Eurasia Plates. In such a context, the Murge area (part of the Apulia Foreland) is a virtually undeformed sector of Adria, while other territories of the plate are and/or were involved in the subduction/collision processes. In the aspiring Geopark, the crust of Adria is still rooted to its mantle, and the Cretaceous evolution of the continent is widely recorded in the Murge area thanks to the shallow-water carbonate succession of one of the largest peri-Tethys carbonate platforms (the Apulia Carbonate Platform). The aspiring Geopark also comprises the Premurge area, which represents the outer Southern Apennines foredeep, whose Plio-Quaternary evolution is spectacularly exposed thanks to an “anomalous” regional middle-late Quaternary uplift. Despite the presence of numerous geological singularities of international importance, it would be important, from a geotourist point of view, to propose a regional framework of the geology of the aUGGp before introducing visitors to the significance of the individual geosites, whose importance could be amplified if included in the geoevolutionary context of the Murge aUGGp. Full article
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25 pages, 9682 KiB  
Article
Nisyros Aspiring UNESCO Global Geopark: Crucial Steps for Promoting the Volcanic Landscape’s Unique Geodiversity
by Paraskevi Nomikou, Dimitrios Panousis, Elisavet Nikoli, Varvara Antoniou, Dimitrios Emmanouloudis, Georgios Pehlivanides, Marios Agiomavritis, Panagiotis Nastos, Emma Cieslak-Jones and Aris Batis
Geosciences 2023, 13(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences13030070 - 1 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2135
Abstract
Nisyros Geopark, an island geopark in the Southeastern Aegean Sea, Greece, is here presented as an official candidate for the UNESCO Global Geoparks designation, featuring outstanding geological, natural and cultural characteristics tightly connected to its volcanic origin. It covers a total area of [...] Read more.
Nisyros Geopark, an island geopark in the Southeastern Aegean Sea, Greece, is here presented as an official candidate for the UNESCO Global Geoparks designation, featuring outstanding geological, natural and cultural characteristics tightly connected to its volcanic origin. It covers a total area of 481 km2 and includes Nisyros, an active volcano and the main island, the surrounding islets of Pachia, Strongyli, Pergousa, Kandeliousa and the marine region among them. It features 24 geosites and a network of well-established walking trails. Furthermore, there are two internationally designated Natura 2000 areas covering its entire surface and also exceptional archaeological and cultural sites, including fortresses, remnants of ancient habituations and numerous churches and monasteries. It is the only area in the broader region of the Eastern Mediterranean that hosts all these features within such a restricted area. The initial efforts of the management body of Nisyros Geopark and its scientific team to promote its unique geodiversity included the complete design, construction and launch of the official website, the mobile application “Nisyros Volcano App’’, a modern informative leaflet regarding the region of the hydrothermal craters (Lakki), a Geopark guidebook and a series of panels and signs for the geosites. Full article
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19 pages, 2880 KiB  
Article
Prospective Study on Geosciences On-Line Education: UNESCO Global Geoparks in Spain and Portugal
by Jesús Enrique Martínez-Martín, Pilar Ester Mariñoso, Emmaline M. Rosado-González and Artur A. Sá
Geosciences 2023, 13(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences13020022 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1478
Abstract
UNESCO Global Geoparks (UGGps) stand out as territories of excellence for the development of educational activities in the international arena. Their didactic potential, their multidisciplinarity and their importance for the development of non-formal and informal teaching activities have drawn the attention of institutions, [...] Read more.
UNESCO Global Geoparks (UGGps) stand out as territories of excellence for the development of educational activities in the international arena. Their didactic potential, their multidisciplinarity and their importance for the development of non-formal and informal teaching activities have drawn the attention of institutions, organizations and governments of many countries. This, to such an extent, that the number of UGGps continues to increase year after year, having currently reached 177 territories spread over 46 countries. All of them work every day developing different activities and educational proposals aimed at the creation of the so-called “Quality Education”, the fourth objective of the SDGs of the 2030 Agenda. The diversity of didactic plans, their adaptability and their accessibility mean that each UGGp is unique and different from the rest, maintaining the key values that make up this group of territories. This study describes the different educational proposals and activities that the Spanish and Portuguese UGGps show on their official websites, with the aim of analyzing their level of visibility before visiting the territories and highlighting their relevance in the education development framework. Full article
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20 pages, 23479 KiB  
Article
Virtual Fossils for Widening Geoeducation Approaches: A Case Study Based on the Cretaceous Sites of Figueira da Foz (Portugal) and Tamajón (Spain)
by Senay Ozkaya de Juanas, Fernando Barroso-Barcenilla, Mélani Berrocal-Casero and Pedro Miguel Callapez
Geosciences 2023, 13(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences13010016 - 1 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1776
Abstract
Accessible palaeontological sites conform highly adequate out-of-school environments for meaningful learning experiences regarding formal and non-formal teaching of geosciences. With a perspective of international cooperation, two correlative Cenomanian–Turonian (Upper Cretaceous) outcrops from the Iberian Peninsula have been chosen as the focus of this [...] Read more.
Accessible palaeontological sites conform highly adequate out-of-school environments for meaningful learning experiences regarding formal and non-formal teaching of geosciences. With a perspective of international cooperation, two correlative Cenomanian–Turonian (Upper Cretaceous) outcrops from the Iberian Peninsula have been chosen as the focus of this project—the sections of Figueira da Foz (Portugal) and Tamajón (Spain)—along with the Palaeontological and Archaeological Interpretation Centre of Tamajón (CIPAT). Virtualization of fossil samples and sites has been undertaken by means of phase-shift scanning, photogrammetry, and small object scanning by structured light and laser triangulation, resulting in three-dimensional virtual models of the main fossil tracks and invertebrate fossil samples. These virtual fossils have allowed the development of transdisciplinary didactic activities for different educational levels and the general public, which have been presented as file cards where the age of participants, objectives, multiple intelligences, European Union key competences, needed resources, development, and further observations are specified. This work aims to contribute to improving the design and development of didactic sequences for out-of-school education at these sites, organizing effective transdisciplinary teaching tools, and developing awareness, values, and responsibility towards geoheritage. Full article
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14 pages, 4694 KiB  
Article
Frasassi Caves and Surroundings: A Special Vehicle for the Geoeducation and Dissemination of the Geological Heritage in Italy
by Piero Farabollini and Fabrizio Bendia
Geosciences 2022, 12(11), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences12110418 - 12 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
One of the most fascinating aspects of the work of geologist lies in knowing how to read the physical landscape as an expression of the geological and geomorphological phenomena that shaped the Earth’s relief over time. The necessity to disseminate these vast areas [...] Read more.
One of the most fascinating aspects of the work of geologist lies in knowing how to read the physical landscape as an expression of the geological and geomorphological phenomena that shaped the Earth’s relief over time. The necessity to disseminate these vast areas of knowledges and skills starts from here, with the aim to enhance the concept of geodiversity and to raise awareness for its protection and promotion. This work aims to share some examples of projects realized following the subscription of agreement between different public authorities in the Apennine territory of Marche Region in Italy, such as the Geology Section of the University of Camerino (MC), “Consorzio Frasassi” (which manages the underground karst complex of Frasassi caves) and municipality of Genga (AN), where Frasassi caves are located. Thanks to this partnership, our research group realized didactic geological notebooks for school groups visiting the caves and interactive museum laboratories in 3D, showing the geological evolution of the area. This sharing of knowledge will contribute to educate communities about the importance of the geological heritage. At the same time, this project can serve as motivation to establishing the same type of collaborations in those territories where similar projects can be replicated. Full article
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13 pages, 948 KiB  
Article
Large-Scale Accessibility as a New Perspective for Geoheritage Assessment
by Yuri A. Fedorov, Anna V. Mikhailenko and Dmitry A. Ruban
Geosciences 2022, 12(11), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences12110414 - 10 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1317
Abstract
The exploitation of geoheritage resources depends on their accessibility. The latter is usually established for geosites, whereas reaching the areas where geosites concentrate also deserves attention. Here, a novel, multi-criteria, score-based approach for assessing the large-scale accessibility of geoheritage-rich areas is proposed. The [...] Read more.
The exploitation of geoheritage resources depends on their accessibility. The latter is usually established for geosites, whereas reaching the areas where geosites concentrate also deserves attention. Here, a novel, multi-criteria, score-based approach for assessing the large-scale accessibility of geoheritage-rich areas is proposed. The study takes into account various information about external and internal public transportation, road infrastructure, local services (including accommodation opportunities), and general settings. This approach is applied to the Russian South, where there are three geoheritage-rich areas, namely Lower Don, Abrau, and Mountainous Adygeya. Using new criteria, these areas differ by their large-scale accessibility, which is excellent in Lower Don and moderate in Abrau and Mountainous Adygeya. It is established that the co-occurrence of geoheritage-rich areas and popular tourist destinations does not guarantee excellent accessibility. The findings of the present study seem to be important for the development of optimal geoheritage resources policy, as well as for planning research and educational activities, such as the currently realized geochemical investigations and the regular field educational campaigns in the Russian South. Full article
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25 pages, 4285 KiB  
Article
The Geosites of the Sacred Rock of Acropolis (UNESCO World Heritage, Athens, Greece): Cultural and Geological Heritage Integrated
by Hara Drinia, Fani Tripolitsiotou, Theodora Cheila and George Zafeiropoulos
Geosciences 2022, 12(9), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences12090330 - 30 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5116
Abstract
Athens, the capital of Greece, is notable for its distinctive environment. Numerous archaeological and historical monuments contribute to the city’s cultural wealth. These cultural monuments should include geological monuments, which are part of Athens’ natural heritage. The Acropolis of Athens is one of [...] Read more.
Athens, the capital of Greece, is notable for its distinctive environment. Numerous archaeological and historical monuments contribute to the city’s cultural wealth. These cultural monuments should include geological monuments, which are part of Athens’ natural heritage. The Acropolis of Athens is one of the world’s most recognizable and admired monuments, renowned for its archaeological, historical, and touristic significance. The Acropolis Rock is also a spectacular geological heritage monument. This article is about the Acropolis monuments, which are of great geological interest in addition to their cultural value. In recognizing each monument’s unique geological features and quantitatively evaluating them, in terms of educational, touristic, cultural, and accessibility value, we document their special value in geoeducation and geotourism, not only for the public, but also for the scientific community. The potential for exploiting these geosites, in terms of geotourism, is very high and important not only for strengthening the local economy, but also for raising visitor awareness of environmental, geological, and geoconservation issues. However, the lack of understanding of geological heritage in relation to cultural heritage is underlined. The need for strategic educational planning and integration of geo-environmental education into school practice is evident. Full article
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19 pages, 1261 KiB  
Article
Perception of the Geological-Mining Heritage to Promote Geotourism in Guayaquil, Ecuador
by Gricelda Herrera-Franco, Boris Apolo-Masache, Paulo Escandón-Panchana, Kelly Jácome-Francis, Fernando Morante-Carballo, Josep Mata-Perelló and Paúl Carrión-Mero
Geosciences 2022, 12(9), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences12090322 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2452
Abstract
Biodiversity is an essential component of nature, relegating the aspects of geodiversity, which provides geological and landscape variety to a territory. However, the importance of geodiversity and its social, economic, educational, scientific, and technological impact on a region, are not well understood. This [...] Read more.
Biodiversity is an essential component of nature, relegating the aspects of geodiversity, which provides geological and landscape variety to a territory. However, the importance of geodiversity and its social, economic, educational, scientific, and technological impact on a region, are not well understood. This article measures the geoheritage values of Guayaquil, a port city in Ecuador, via surveys and analyses of variables, with the aim of proposing guidelines or strategies that promote the knowledge and diffusion of that geoheritage. Our methodology included (i) a review of historical landmarks of Guayaquil and their relationship with geodiversity, (ii) a survey and data tabulation, (iii) an analysis of the local population’s perception of the city’s geoheritage, and (iv) the development of geodiversity strategies using computer tools. Our results determined that people approach areas of interest because of each site’s biodiversity and the available information about the site. Once there, they can obtain knowledge about the city’s geology, geodiversity, and urban geotourism. Therefore, geoheritage is an essential consideration in establishing educational plans, initiatives, and promotion strategies. Furthermore, the identification of a city’s heritage values following geoeducation, and the recognition by society of the city’s geosites and their historical–scientific significance, will provide a basis for using geotourism in a context of sustainability. Full article
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17 pages, 5857 KiB  
Article
Enhancement of Geoheritage and Development of Geotourism: Comparison and Inferences from Different Experiences of Communication through Art
by Laura Valentini, Veronica Guerra and Maurizio Lazzari
Geosciences 2022, 12(7), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences12070264 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1627
Abstract
Geoheritage is a geotourism resource that could lead to the sustainable development of society, and could contribute to information on geological and geomorphological characteristics, education, public awareness on geoconservation, and landscape protection. Understanding this cultural wealth is still limited, since the information available [...] Read more.
Geoheritage is a geotourism resource that could lead to the sustainable development of society, and could contribute to information on geological and geomorphological characteristics, education, public awareness on geoconservation, and landscape protection. Understanding this cultural wealth is still limited, since the information available is often specialized. Communication addressed to the emotional sphere can profoundly engage people, and technical information can be transmitted more effectively. For several years, our research group dealt with geoheritage and geotourism in central Italy. This work aimed to investigate different communication methods, such as publications, announcements through social media, conferences, live performances, and field excursions aimed at the emotional involvement of the public. Furthermore, the emotional response of the public was explored through a digital survey. These communication methodologies enabled a broad public reach, without any distinction based on social origin, cultural background, or age. Narrating the landscape through different forms of art creates a personal relationship with the audience. The emotional participation of the people demonstrates the effectiveness of the method in transmitting scientific and cultural themes, such as the origin of the geological landforms, the culture and the traditions that the site generated, and the problems pertaining to its protection and conservation. Full article
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Review

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12 pages, 2392 KiB  
Review
Worldwide Trends in Methods and Resources Promoting Geoconservation, Geotourism, and Geoheritage
by Michael E. Quesada-Valverde and Adolfo Quesada-Román
Geosciences 2023, 13(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences13020039 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2476
Abstract
This study aims to provide a systematic analysis of the literature of methods and resources supporting geoconservation and geotourism worldwide, while identifying current and future trends in the field. This paper offers a comprehensive bibliometric analysis which comprises the period of 2011–2021 after [...] Read more.
This study aims to provide a systematic analysis of the literature of methods and resources supporting geoconservation and geotourism worldwide, while identifying current and future trends in the field. This paper offers a comprehensive bibliometric analysis which comprises the period of 2011–2021 after an in-depth systematic literature review of 169 papers, using Web of Science. The volume of research on these topics is growing rapidly, especially in Italy, Poland, Brazil, Russia, and China; these constitute the most productive countries. The main identified geomorphological environments are sedimentary, volcanic, aeolian, coastal, fluvial, and karstic. We discovered that the main methods for evaluating geoconservation and geotourism are geomorphological mapping, the study of economic values for geotourism, field work as a research tool, geoheritage management, documentation, exploration, and inventories of geoheritage at a regional level. The main determined resources are UNESCO Geoparks, educational activities, digital tools, geomanagement, economic values, geoitineraries, and geoeducation programs. To our knowledge, this is the first study dealing with methods and resources publicizing geoconservation and geotourism, worldwide. Knowing about the most successful methods and resources for promoting geoconservation and geotourism can definitely be useful for future endeavors in countries where geoheritage studies are starting to be developed. Full article
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12 pages, 1493 KiB  
Review
The Status of Geoethical Thinking in the Educational System of Greece: An Overview
by Spyros Mosios, Efthymios Georgousis and Hara Drinia
Geosciences 2023, 13(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences13020037 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1469
Abstract
In recent years, the concern about geoethics in Greece has begun to grow. This review aims to present the current geoethical thinking in Greece’s educational system through a thorough research of all educational levels’ curricula and the actions developed on this topic in [...] Read more.
In recent years, the concern about geoethics in Greece has begun to grow. This review aims to present the current geoethical thinking in Greece’s educational system through a thorough research of all educational levels’ curricula and the actions developed on this topic in the Greek geoscientific community. In the Greek educational reality, geoeducation is not widespread, and geoethics is used in limited school curricula. The research highlighted a significant lack of initiatives to promote geoethical thinking and the values related to geological heritage and the need to protect it. Full article
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