Bioactive Gel Films and Coatings Applied in Active Food Packaging

A special issue of Gels (ISSN 2310-2861). This special issue belongs to the section "Gel Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 24618

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Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Agricultural Sciences, University of Patras, 30100 Agrinio, Greece
Interests: chemical technology; nanostructures in food technology; polymers and biopolymers composites and nanocomposites; biopolymers hydrogels; bioactive nanostructures; nanomaterials; microemulsions; nanoemulsions; active packaging; control release; food processing and preservation
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Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
Interests: process engineering; porous materials; material characterization; kinetics; mesoporous materials; chemical engineering; catalyst characterization; BET surface area measurement; hydrogen production; stable isotopes; biomass
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, the trends in circular economy and sustainability have driven nanotechnology towards the development of novel and innovative applications in the food packaging sector, which is rather recent compared with their use in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Bioactive films and coatings based on natural biopolymers such as chitosan, sodium alginate and gelatin, and containing antioxidant and antimicrobial agents such as micro- and nanoemulsions of phytochemicals and nanostructured materials such as quantum dots, ZnO nanoparticles, nanoclays, silicas, zeolites and activated carbons, are finding application in various sectors of the food industry, especially in the development of novel edible active packaging films and coatings. These bioactive films and coating materials enhance solubility, improve bioavailability, facilitate controlled release, and protect bioactive components during manufacture and storage. This Special Issue intends to provide an overview of bioactive gel films and coatings applied in active food packaging.

Note: If you would like to contribute a related paper, please consider our 2nd Edition: Bioactive Gel Films and Coatings Applied in Active Food Packaging (2nd Edition)

Prof. Dr. Aris E. Giannakas
Prof. Dr. Constantinos E. Salmas
Prof. Dr. Charalampos Proestos
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • biopolymers
  • edible films and coatings
  • essential oils
  • natural extracts
  • emulsions
  • nanoemulsions
  • nanoparticles
  • active packaging

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 192 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for Special Issue: Gel Films and Coatings Applied in Active Food Packaging
by Aris E. Giannakas
Gels 2023, 9(9), 743; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels9090743 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1194
Abstract
Nowadays, the global trends of bioeconomy and sustainability require the use of biobased raw materials in all scientific and application fields to reduce the global carbon dioxide fingerprint [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Gel Films and Coatings Applied in Active Food Packaging)

Research

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14 pages, 2460 KiB  
Article
Physical, Chemical, Barrier, and Antioxidant Properties of Pectin/Collagen Hydrogel-Based Films Enriched with Melissa officinalis
by Saurabh Bhatia, Ahmed Al-Harrasi, Aysha Salim Alhadhrami, Yasir Abbas Shah, Sabna Kotta, Javed Iqbal, Md Khalid Anwer, Anjana Karunakaran Nair, Esra Koca and Levent Yurdaer Aydemir
Gels 2023, 9(7), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels9070511 - 25 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1458
Abstract
The essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis (MOEO) exhibits a wide range of therapeutic properties, including antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. The current research aimed to analyze the mechanical, barrier, chemical, and antioxidant properties of pectin and collagen-based films. Hydrogel-based films loaded with [...] Read more.
The essential oil extracted from Melissa officinalis (MOEO) exhibits a wide range of therapeutic properties, including antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. The current research aimed to analyze the mechanical, barrier, chemical, and antioxidant properties of pectin and collagen-based films. Hydrogel-based films loaded with varying concentrations of MOEO (0.1%, 0.15%, and 0.2%) were prepared by solvent-casting method, and their physicochemical as well as antioxidant properties were examined. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of major components in MOEO such as 2,6-octadienal, 3,7-dimethyl, citral, caryophyllene, geranyl acetate, caryophyllene oxide, citronellal, and linalool. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results revealed the interaction between components of the essential oil and polymer matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that films loaded with the highest concentration (0.2%) of MOEO showed more homogeneous structure with fewer particles, cracks, and pores as compared to control film sample. MOEO-incorporated films exhibited higher elongation at break (EAB) (30.24–36.29%) and thickness (0.068–0.073 mm); however, they displayed lower tensile strength (TS) (3.48–1.25 MPa) and transparency (87.30–82.80%). MOEO-loaded films demonstrated superior barrier properties against water vapors. According to the results, the incorporation of MOEO into pectin–collagen composite hydrogel-based films resulted in higher antioxidant properties, indicating that MOEO has the potential to be used in active food packaging material for potential applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Gel Films and Coatings Applied in Active Food Packaging)
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14 pages, 2447 KiB  
Article
Fabrication, Characterization, and Antioxidant Potential of Sodium Alginate/Acacia Gum Hydrogel-Based Films Loaded with Cinnamon Essential Oil
by Saurabh Bhatia, Ahmed Al-Harrasi, Yasir Abbas Shah, Halima Waleed Khalifa Altoubi, Sabna Kotta, Priyanka Sharma, Md. Khalid Anwer, Deepa Sreekanth Kaithavalappil, Esra Koca and Levent Yurdaer Aydemir
Gels 2023, 9(4), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels9040337 - 15 Apr 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2644
Abstract
Several studies have reported the advantages of incorporating essential oils in hydrogel-based films for improving their physiochemical and antioxidant attributes. Cinnamon essential oil (CEO) has great potential in industrial and medicinal applications as an antimicrobial and antioxidant agent. The present study aimed to [...] Read more.
Several studies have reported the advantages of incorporating essential oils in hydrogel-based films for improving their physiochemical and antioxidant attributes. Cinnamon essential oil (CEO) has great potential in industrial and medicinal applications as an antimicrobial and antioxidant agent. The present study aimed to develop sodium alginate (SA) and acacia gum (AG) hydrogel-based films loaded with CEO. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and texture analysis (TA) were performed to analyze the structural, crystalline, chemical, thermal, and mechanical behaviour of the edible films that were loaded with CEO. Moreover, the transparency, thickness, barrier, thermal, and color parameters of the prepared hydrogel-based films loaded with CEO were also assessed. The study revealed that as the concentration of oil in the films was raised, the thickness and elongation at break (EAB) increased, while transparency, tensile strength (TS), water vapor permeability (WVP), and moisture content (MC) decreased. As the concentration of CEO increased, the hydrogel-based films demonstrated a significant improvement in their antioxidant properties. Incorporating CEO into the SA–AG composite edible films presents a promising strategy for producing hydrogel-based films with the potential to serve as food packaging materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Gel Films and Coatings Applied in Active Food Packaging)
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15 pages, 1157 KiB  
Article
Chitosan-Based Green Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Pod Extract Gel Film: Characterization and Application in Food Packaging
by Essam Mohamed Elsebaie, Mona Metwally Mousa, Samah Amin Abulmeaty, Heba Ali Yousef Shaat, Soher Abd-Elfttah Elmeslamy, Galila Ali Asker, Asmaa Antar Faramawy, Hala Ali Yousef Shaat, Wesam Mohammed Abd Elrahman, Hanan Salah Eldeen Eldamaty, Amira Lotfy Abd Allah and Mohamed Reda Badr
Gels 2023, 9(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels9020077 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
This work focuses on studying the preparation, characterization (physical, mechanical, optical, and morphological properties as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities) and packaging application of chitosan (CH)-based gel films containing varying empty green pea pod extract (EPPE) concentrations (0, 1, 3, and 5% [...] Read more.
This work focuses on studying the preparation, characterization (physical, mechanical, optical, and morphological properties as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial activities) and packaging application of chitosan (CH)-based gel films containing varying empty green pea pod extract (EPPE) concentrations (0, 1, 3, and 5% w/w). The experiments revealed that adding EPPE to CH increased the thickness (from 0.132 ± 0.08 to 0.216 ± 0.08 mm), density (from 1.13 ± 0.02 to 1.94 ± 0.02 g/cm3), and opacity (from 0.71 ± 0.02 to 1.23 ± 0.04), while decreasing the water vapour permeability, water solubility, oil absorption ratio, and whiteness index from 2.34 to 1.08 × 10−10 g−1 s−1 pa−1, from 29.40 ± 1.23 to 18.75 ± 1.94%, from 0.31 ± 0.006 to 0.08 ± 0.001%, and from 88.10 ± 0.43 to 77.53 ± 0.48, respectively. The EPPE films had better tensile strength (maximum of 26.87 ± 1.38 MPa), elongation percentage (maximum of 58.64 ± 3.00%), biodegradability (maximum of 48.61% after 3 weeks), and migration percentages than the pure CH-gel film. With the addition of EPPE, the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the film improved. SEM revealed that as EPPE concentration increased, agglomerates formed within the films. Moreover, compared to control samples, packing corn oil in CH-based EPPE gel films slowed the rise of thiobarbituric acid and peroxide values. As an industrial application, CH-based EPPE films have the potential to be beneficial in food packaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Gel Films and Coatings Applied in Active Food Packaging)
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23 pages, 5368 KiB  
Article
Kiwi Fruits Preservation Using Novel Edible Active Coatings Based on Rich Thymol Halloysite Nanostructures and Chitosan/Polyvinyl Alcohol Gels
by Constantinos E. Salmas, Aris E. Giannakas, Dimitrios Moschovas, Eleni Kollia, Stavros Georgopoulos, Christina Gioti, Areti Leontiou, Apostolos Avgeropoulos, Anna Kopsacheili, Learda Avdylaj and Charalampos Proestos
Gels 2022, 8(12), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8120823 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2776
Abstract
The concept of this study is the replacement of previous fossil-based techniques for food packaging and food shelf-life extension, with novel more green processes and materials following the spirit of circular economy and the global trend for environmentally positive fingerprints. A novel adsorption [...] Read more.
The concept of this study is the replacement of previous fossil-based techniques for food packaging and food shelf-life extension, with novel more green processes and materials following the spirit of circular economy and the global trend for environmentally positive fingerprints. A novel adsorption process to produce thymol-halloysite nanohybrids is presented in this work. The high dispersion of this thymol-halloysite nanostructure in chitosan biopolymer is one of the goals of this study. The incorporation of this biodegradable matrix with poly-vinyl-alcohol produced a very promising food-packaging film. Mechanical, water-oxygen barrier, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties were measured. Transparency levels were also tested using a UV-vis instrument. Moreover, the developed films were tested in-vivo for the preservation and the extension of the shelf-life of kiwi fruits. In all cases, results indicated that the increased fraction of thymol from thyme oil significantly enhances the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the prepared chitosan-poly-vinyl- alcohol gel. The use of the halloysite increases the mechanical and water-oxygen barrier properties and leads to a control release process of thymol which extends the preservation and the shelf-life of kiwi fruits. Finally, the results indicated that the halloysite improves the properties of the chitosan/poly-vinyl-alcohol films, and the thymol makes them further advantageous. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Gel Films and Coatings Applied in Active Food Packaging)
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14 pages, 1892 KiB  
Article
The Use of Biopolymers as a Natural Matrix for Incorporation of Essential Oils of Medicinal Plants
by Roxana Gheorghita Puscaselu, Andrei Lobiuc, Ioan Ovidiu Sirbu and Mihai Covasa
Gels 2022, 8(11), 756; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8110756 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
The benefits of using biopolymers for the development of films and coatings are well known. The enrichment of these material properties through various natural additions has led to their applicability in various fields. Essential oils, which are well-known for their beneficial properties, are [...] Read more.
The benefits of using biopolymers for the development of films and coatings are well known. The enrichment of these material properties through various natural additions has led to their applicability in various fields. Essential oils, which are well-known for their beneficial properties, are widely used as encapsulating agents in films based on biopolymers. In this study, we developed biopolymer-based films and tested their properties following the addition of 7.5% and 15% (w/v) essential oils of lemon, orange, grapefruit, cinnamon, clove, chamomile, ginger, eucalyptus or mint. The samples were tested immediately after development and after one year of storage in order to examine possible long-term property changes. All films showed reductions in mass, thickness and microstructure, as well as mechanical properties. The most considerable variations in physical properties were observed in the 7.5% lemon oil sample and the 15% grapefruit oil sample, with the largest reductions in mass (23.13%), thickness (from 109.67 µm to 81.67 µm) and density (from 0.75 g/cm3 to 0.43 g/cm3). However, the microstructure of the sample was considerably improved. Although the addition of lemon essential oil prevented the reduction in mass during the storage period, it favored the degradation of the microstructure and the loss of elasticity (from 16.7% to 1.51% for the sample with 7.5% lemon EO and from 18.28% to 1.91% for the sample with 15% lemon EO). Although the addition of essential oils of mint and ginger resulted in films with a more homogeneous microstructure, the increase in concentration favored the appearance of pores and modifications of color parameters. With the exception of films with added orange, cinnamon and clove EOs, the antioxidant capacity of the films decreased during storage. The most obvious variations were identified in the samples with lemon, mint and clove EOs. The most unstable samples were those with added ginger (95.01%), lemon (92%) and mint (90.22%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Gel Films and Coatings Applied in Active Food Packaging)
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14 pages, 2049 KiB  
Article
Effect of Composite Chitosan/Sodium Alginate Gel Coatings on the Quality of Fresh-Cut Purple-Flesh Sweet Potato
by Chit-Swe Chit, Ibukunoluwa Fola Olawuyi, Jong Jin Park and Won Young Lee
Gels 2022, 8(11), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8110747 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
In this study, single-layer coating using chitosan (Ch) and sodium alginate (SA) solutions and their gel coating (ChCSA) formed by layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic deposition using calcium chloride (C) as a cross linking agent were prepared to improve storage qualities and shelf-life of fresh-cut [...] Read more.
In this study, single-layer coating using chitosan (Ch) and sodium alginate (SA) solutions and their gel coating (ChCSA) formed by layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic deposition using calcium chloride (C) as a cross linking agent were prepared to improve storage qualities and shelf-life of fresh-cut purple-flesh sweet potatoes (PFSP). The preservative effects of single-layer coating in comparison with LbL on the quality parameters of fresh-cut PFSP, including color change, weight loss, firmness, microbial analysis, CO2 production, pH, solid content, total anthocyanin content (TAC), and total phenolic content (TPC) were evaluated during 16 days of storage at 5 °C. Uncoated samples were applicable as a control. The result established the effectiveness of coating in reducing microbial proliferation (~2 times), color changes (~3 times), and weight loss (~4 times) with negligible firmness losses after the storage period. In addition, TAC and TPC were better retained in the coated samples than in the uncoated samples. In contrast, quality deterioration was observed in the uncoated fresh cuts, which progressed with storage time. Relatively, gel-coating ChCSA showed superior effects in preserving the quality of fresh-cut PFSP and could be suggested as a commercial method for preserving fresh-cut purple-flesh sweet potato and other similar roots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Gel Films and Coatings Applied in Active Food Packaging)
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14 pages, 3523 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical, Morphological, and Functional Characterization of Edible Anthocyanin-Enriched Aloevera Coatings on Fresh Figs (Ficus carica L.)
by Sawsan Ali Al-Hilifi, Rawdah Mahmood Al-Ali, Orass T. Al-Ibresam, Nishant Kumar, Saeed Paidari, Anka Trajkovska Petkoska and Vipul Agarwal
Gels 2022, 8(10), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8100645 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2530
Abstract
In the present investigation, Aloe vera gel (AVG)-based edible coatings enriched with anthocyanin were prepared. We investigated the effect of different formulations of aloe-vera-based edible coatings, such as neat AVG (T1), AVG with glycerol (T2), Aloe vera with 0.2% anthocyanin + glycerol (T3), [...] Read more.
In the present investigation, Aloe vera gel (AVG)-based edible coatings enriched with anthocyanin were prepared. We investigated the effect of different formulations of aloe-vera-based edible coatings, such as neat AVG (T1), AVG with glycerol (T2), Aloe vera with 0.2% anthocyanin + glycerol (T3), and AVG with 0.5% anthocyanin + glycerol (T4), on the postharvest quality of fig (Ficus carica L.) fruits under refrigerated conditions (4 °C) for up to 12 days of storage with 2-day examination intervals. The results of the present study revealed that the T4 treatment was the most effective for reducing the weight loss in fig fruits throughout the storage period (~4%), followed by T3, T2, and T1. The minimum weight loss after 12 days of storage (3.76%) was recorded for the T4 treatment, followed by T3 (4.34%), which was significantly higher than that of uncoated fruit (~11%). The best quality attributes, such as the total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), and pH, were also demonstrated by the T3 and T4 treatments. The T4 coating caused a marginal change of 0.16 in the fruit titratable acidity, compared to the change of 0.33 in the untreated fruit control after 12 days of storage at 4 °C. Similarly, the total soluble solids in the T4-coated fruits increased marginally (0.43 °Brix) compared to the uncoated control fruits (>2 °Brix) after 12 days of storage at 4 °C. The results revealed that the incorporation of anthocyanin content into AVG is a promising technology for the development of active edible coatings to extend the shelf life of fig fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Gel Films and Coatings Applied in Active Food Packaging)
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22 pages, 5976 KiB  
Article
The Increase of Soft Cheese Shelf-Life Packaged with Edible Films Based on Novel Hybrid Nanostructures
by Aris E. Giannakas, Constantinos E. Salmas, Dimitrios Moschovas, Konstantinos Zaharioudakis, Stavros Georgopoulos, Georgios Asimakopoulos, Anastasios Aktypis, Charalampos Proestos, Anastasios Karakassides, Apostolos Avgeropoulos, Nikolaos E. Zafeiropoulos and George-John Nychas
Gels 2022, 8(9), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8090539 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2393
Abstract
This study presents, the development of a green method to produce rich in thymol natural zeolite (TO@NZ) nanostructures. This material was used to prepare sodium-alginate/glycerol/xTO@NZ (ALG/G/TO@NZ) nanocomposite active films for the packaging of soft cheese to extend its shelf-life. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), [...] Read more.
This study presents, the development of a green method to produce rich in thymol natural zeolite (TO@NZ) nanostructures. This material was used to prepare sodium-alginate/glycerol/xTO@NZ (ALG/G/TO@NZ) nanocomposite active films for the packaging of soft cheese to extend its shelf-life. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) instruments were used for the characterization of such nanostructures and films, to identify the thymol adsorbed amount, to investigate the thermal behaviour, and to confirm the dispersion of nanostructure powder into the polymer matrix. Water vapor transmission rate, oxygen permeation analyzer, tensile measurements, antioxidant measurements, and antimicrobial measurements were used to estimate the film’s water and oxygen barrier, mechanical properties, nanostructure’s nanoreinforcement activity, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The findings from the study revealed that ALG/G/TO@NZ nanocomposite film could be used as an active packaging film for foods with enhanced, mechanical properties, oxygen and water barrier, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, and it is capable of extending food shelf-life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Gel Films and Coatings Applied in Active Food Packaging)
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16 pages, 3733 KiB  
Article
The Future Packaging of the Food Industry: The Development and Characterization of Innovative Biobased Materials with Essential Oils Added
by Roxana Gheorghita Puscaselu, Andrei Lobiuc and Gheorghe Gutt
Gels 2022, 8(8), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8080505 - 14 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2048
Abstract
The need to replace conventional, usually single-use, packaging materials, so important for the future of resources and of the environment, has propelled research towards the development of packaging-based on biopolymers, fully biodegradable and even edible. The current study furthers the research on development [...] Read more.
The need to replace conventional, usually single-use, packaging materials, so important for the future of resources and of the environment, has propelled research towards the development of packaging-based on biopolymers, fully biodegradable and even edible. The current study furthers the research on development of such films and tests the modification of the properties of the previously developed biopolymeric material, by adding 10, respectively 20% w/v essential oils of lemon, grapefruit, orange, cinnamon, clove, mint, ginger, eucalypt, and chamomile. Films with a thickness between 53 and 102 µm were obtained, with a roughness ranging between 147 and 366 nm. Most films had a water activity index significantly below what is required for microorganism growth, as low as 0.27, while all essential oils induced microbial growth reduction or 100% inhibition. Tested for the evaluation of physical, optical, microbiological or solubility properties, all the films with the addition of essential oil in the composition showed improved properties compared to the control sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Gel Films and Coatings Applied in Active Food Packaging)
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22 pages, 4684 KiB  
Article
Edible Xanthan/Propolis Coating and Its Effect on Physicochemical, Microbial, and Sensory Quality Indices in Mackerel Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) Fillets during Chilled Storage
by Aly Farag El Sheikha, Ayman Younes Allam, Emel Oz, Mohammad Rizwan Khan, Charalampos Proestos and Fatih Oz
Gels 2022, 8(7), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8070405 - 25 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2340
Abstract
Worldwide aquaculture production is increasing, but with this increase comes quality and safety related problems. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop potent technologies to extend the shelf life of fish. Xanthan gum is commonly used in the food industry because of [...] Read more.
Worldwide aquaculture production is increasing, but with this increase comes quality and safety related problems. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop potent technologies to extend the shelf life of fish. Xanthan gum is commonly used in the food industry because of its high-water solubility, stability of its aqueous solutions in a wide pH range, and high viscosity. One of its modern food applications is its use as a gelling agent in edible coatings building. Therefore, in this study, the effect of xanthan coating containing various concentrations (0, 1, 2%; w/v) of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) on physicochemical, microbial, and sensory quality indices in mackerel fillets stored at 2 °C for 20 days was evaluated. The pH, peroxide value, K-value, TVB-N, TBARS, microbiological and sensory characteristics were determined every 5 days over the storage period (20 days). Samples treated with xanthan (XAN) coatings containing 1 and 2% of EEP were shown to have the highest level of physicochemical protection and maximum level of microbial inhibition (p < 0.05) compared to uncoated samples (control) over the storage period. Furthermore, the addition of EEP to XAN was more effective in notably preserving (p < 0.05) the taste and odor of coated samples compared to control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Gel Films and Coatings Applied in Active Food Packaging)
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