Fractal and Fractional in Geotechnical Engineering

A special issue of Fractal and Fractional (ISSN 2504-3110). This special issue belongs to the section "Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 September 2024 | Viewed by 6333

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong 26680, China
Interests: experimental soil mechanics; granular material; geomechanics; microstructure

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Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, Hangzhou City University, Hangzhou 310015, China
Interests: tunnel and underground engineering; intelligent construction and maintenance of shield tunnel

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fractal theory offers an efficient approach to the micro-quantification of geomaterials that is envisaged to establish connections with the macro-mechanics of geomaterials and provide a new perspective for tackling challenging engineering problems in geotechnical engineering. The fractal dimension, in particular, has shown immense potential in a wide range of geotechnical applications, including the characterization and prediction of soil porosity, soil-water characteristic curve, permeability, soil strength, microscopic pore size distribution, and particle/pore shape. Moreover, fractional-order derivative has found its applications in soil constitutive models, as well as tunnel constructions, such as the forecasting of long-term deformation induced by soil creep, detection of cracks in shield tunnel segments, viscoelastic modeling of tunnel lining, and artificial intelligence framework for tunnels. These applications have proven the crucial role of fractional-order mechanics in the geotechnical engineering design field.

The aim of this Special Issue is to present Fractal and Fractional in Geotechnical Engineering. Therefore, high-quality review papers, full-length research articles, and technical notes from different disciplines are cordially welcome. Research topics include but are not limited to the following aspects:

  • Fractal phenomena and characteristics of geomaterials;
  • Determination method of fractal dimension in geomaterials;
  • Microstructure testing in geomaterials;
  • Interplay between fractal dimension and macro-mechanics of geomaterials;
  • Fractional-order mechanics;
  • Fractal-and-fractional-based soil constitutive models;
  • Analysis methods for geotechnical structures based on fractal and fractional;
  • Applications of fractal and fractional in tunnel constructions;
  • Artificial intelligence and image identification techniques for tunnels;
  • Quantitative description of rock joint roughness based on fractal theory;
  • Microstructure characteristics of foamed light soil under static or dynamic loads;
  • Gradation control of bituminous mixture and cold-recycled mixture in pavement engineering;
  • Disintegration and breaking characteristics of soft rock or special soils.

Dr. Shaoheng He
Dr. Zhi Ding
Dr. Panpan Guo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • fractal dimension
  • fractional-order mechanics
  • micro-to-Macro analysis
  • geomaterial
  • tunnel
  • rock
  • concrete
  • foamed light soil
  • bituminous mixture

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 1072 KiB  
Article
Fractal Operators and Convergence Analysis in Fractional Viscoelastic Theory
by Xiaobin Yu and Yajun Yin
Fractal Fract. 2024, 8(4), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract8040200 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 442
Abstract
This study delves into the convergence of operators and the viscoelastic properties of fractal ladder and tree structures. It proves the convergence of fractal stiffness operators through operator algebra, revealing a fundamental connection between operator sequence limits and fractal operator algebraic equations. Our [...] Read more.
This study delves into the convergence of operators and the viscoelastic properties of fractal ladder and tree structures. It proves the convergence of fractal stiffness operators through operator algebra, revealing a fundamental connection between operator sequence limits and fractal operator algebraic equations. Our findings demonstrate that, as the hierarchical levels of these structures increase, their viscoelastic responses increasingly align with the fractional viscoelastic behavior observed in infinite-level fractal structures. We explore the similarity in creep and relaxation behaviors between fractal ladders and trees, emphasizing the emergence of ultra-long characteristic times in steady-state creep and pronounced tailing effects in relaxation curves. This research provides novel insights into the design of fractional-order viscoelastic structures, presenting significant implications for materials science and mechanical engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractal and Fractional in Geotechnical Engineering)
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18 pages, 3066 KiB  
Article
A Fractal-Based Quantitative Method for the Study of Fracture Evolution of Coal under Different Confining Pressures
by Ancheng Wang and Lei Wang
Fractal Fract. 2024, 8(3), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract8030159 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 852
Abstract
To study the dynamic crack evolution process of loaded coal from the perspective of fractals, we carried out in situ industrial CT scanning tests of loaded coal under different confining pressures, visualizing loaded coal fracturing. Combined with fractal theory, the temporal and spatial [...] Read more.
To study the dynamic crack evolution process of loaded coal from the perspective of fractals, we carried out in situ industrial CT scanning tests of loaded coal under different confining pressures, visualizing loaded coal fracturing. Combined with fractal theory, the temporal and spatial evolution law of coal cracks is described quantitatively. The results provide two findings: (1) from the perspective of two-dimensional images and three-dimensional space, the evolution characteristics of cracks in coal under different confining pressures were basically the same in each loading stage. During the loading stages, the cracks exhibited a change rule of a slow reduction, initiation/development, rapid increase, expansion, and penetration. (2) The fractal dimension of coal was calculated by introducing fractal theory, and its change law was in good agreement with the dynamic changes of the cracks, which can explain the influence of the confining pressure on the loaded coal. The fractal dimension showed three stages: a slight decrease, a stable increase, and then a significant increase. The larger the confining pressure, the more obvious the limiting effect. Thus, our approach provides a more accurate method for evaluating the spatial and temporal evolution of cracks in loaded coal. This study can be used to predict the instability failure of loaded coal samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractal and Fractional in Geotechnical Engineering)
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21 pages, 5481 KiB  
Article
Analysis and Warning Prediction of Tunnel Deformation Based on Multifractal Theory
by Chengtao Yang, Rendong Huang, Dunwen Liu, Weichao Qiu, Ruiping Zhang and Yu Tang
Fractal Fract. 2024, 8(2), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract8020108 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1036
Abstract
To better analyze the fluctuation characteristics and development law of tunnel deformation data, multifractal theory is applied to tunnel deformation analysis. That is, the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) model is first utilized to carry out the multifractal characterization of tunnel deformation data. [...] Read more.
To better analyze the fluctuation characteristics and development law of tunnel deformation data, multifractal theory is applied to tunnel deformation analysis. That is, the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) model is first utilized to carry out the multifractal characterization of tunnel deformation data. Further, Mann–Kendall (M–K) analysis is utilized to construct the dual criterion (∆α indicator criterion and ∆f(α) indicator criterion) for the tunnel deformation early warning study. In addition, the particle swarm optimization long-short-term memory (PSO-LSTM) prediction model is used for predicting tunnel settlement. The results show that, in reference to the tunnel warning level criteria and based on the Z-value results of the indicator criterion, the warning level of all four sections is class II. At the same time, through the analysis of tunnel settlement predictions, the PSO-LSTM model has a better prediction effect and stability for tunnel settlement. The predicted results show a slow increase in tunnel settlement over the next 5 days. Finally, the tunnel warning level and the predicted results of tunnel settlement are analyzed in a comprehensive manner. The deformation will increase slowly in the future. Therefore, monitoring and measurement should be strengthened, and disaster preparedness plans should be prepared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractal and Fractional in Geotechnical Engineering)
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23 pages, 14115 KiB  
Article
Multifractal Characteristics of Smooth Blasting Overbreak in Extra-Long Hard Rock Tunnel
by Wanmao Zhang, Dunwen Liu, Yu Tang, Weichao Qiu and Ruiping Zhang
Fractal Fract. 2023, 7(12), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract7120842 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1106
Abstract
With the development of infrastructure construction in mountainous areas, the number of new extra-long tunnels is increasing. However, these tunnels often face the challenge of complex and variable surrounding rock grades, resulting in a large number of overbreak and underbreak due to the [...] Read more.
With the development of infrastructure construction in mountainous areas, the number of new extra-long tunnels is increasing. However, these tunnels often face the challenge of complex and variable surrounding rock grades, resulting in a large number of overbreak and underbreak due to the untimely adjustment of smooth blasting parameters. This study focuses on the optimization of the peripheral hole charging structure and blasting parameters for extra-long hard rock tunnels, aiming to improve the effectiveness of smooth blasting technology. The results of this study demonstrate a significant improvement in the effect of smooth blasting after implementing bidirectional polymerization blasting in the tunnel. A comparison between the bidirectional shaped charge and spaced decoupled charge blasting reveals that the former yields better results. To obtain accurate data on the tunnel section profile during excavation, a laser cross-section meter is used for measurement. Furthermore, this study quantitatively compares the optimization effect of smooth blasting parameters. The multifractal characteristics of the tunnel profile overbreak point sequences are analyzed under different smooth blasting schemes using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) method. It is found that both the spaced decoupled charge and the bidirectional shaped charge blasting exhibit multifractal features in the overbreak measurement point sequences. The calculation results of the multifractal features of the tunnel profile under different smooth blasting plans are in line with the actual situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractal and Fractional in Geotechnical Engineering)
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16 pages, 4550 KiB  
Article
The Formative Factors of a Rock Burst Based on Energy Calculations and the Experimental Verification of Butterfly-Shaped Plastic Zones
by Wenlong Zhang, Jicheng Feng, Jianju Ren, Ji Ma, Jianjun Shi and Junfeng Zhang
Fractal Fract. 2023, 7(11), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract7110829 - 20 Nov 2023
Viewed by 874
Abstract
The research on the formation factors of rock burst is one of the main research directions of rock mechanics in recent years, which is helpful to solve the problem of rock burst accidents. So, in this study, the calculation method of energy released [...] Read more.
The research on the formation factors of rock burst is one of the main research directions of rock mechanics in recent years, which is helpful to solve the problem of rock burst accidents. So, in this study, the calculation method of energy released during rock burst is first obtained by using different medium models, and then, the formation factors of rock bursts are obtained by comparing the calculation energy with the actual accident energy. The method of energy calculation utilizes the difference between elastoplastic and pure elastic models to innovatively quantify the specific values of energy released before and after the occurrence of the rock burst. It is considered that the stress and plastic zone state before the occurrence of rock burst have an important influence on the occurrence of the accident and are one of the formation factors, while the deviatoric stress field and butterfly-shaped plastic zone create conditions for greater energy release. In addition, the trigger stress constitutes another formation factor. The plastic zone state before rock failure is verified by the experimental test; the location distribution shape of acoustic emission (AE) events during the later stage of compression failure is approximately the same as theoretical result. The results also preliminarily indicated the fractal characteristics of acoustic emission events distribution before sample failure. The study obtained the formative factors of rock burst accident, which provides a new ideas and references for the research on the formation of rock bursts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractal and Fractional in Geotechnical Engineering)
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11 pages, 1036 KiB  
Article
Dilatancy Equation Based on the Property-Dependent Plastic Potential Theory for Geomaterials
by Xuefeng Li, Houying Zhu and Qi Yuan
Fractal Fract. 2023, 7(11), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/fractalfract7110824 - 15 Nov 2023
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
The dilatancy equation ignores the noncoaxiality of granular soil for the coaxial assumption of the direction of the stress and strain rate in conventional plastic potential theory, which is inconsistent with extensive laboratory tests. To reasonably describe the noncoaxial effects on dilatancy, the [...] Read more.
The dilatancy equation ignores the noncoaxiality of granular soil for the coaxial assumption of the direction of the stress and strain rate in conventional plastic potential theory, which is inconsistent with extensive laboratory tests. To reasonably describe the noncoaxial effects on dilatancy, the energy dissipation of plastic flow is derived based on the property-dependent plastic potential theory for geomaterials and integrates the noncoaxiality, the potential theory links the plastic strain of granular materials with its fabric, and the noncoaxiality is naturally related to the mesoscopic properties of materials. When the fabric is isotropic, the dilatancy equation degenerates into the form of the critical state theory, and when the fabric is anisotropic, it naturally describes the effects of noncoaxiality. In the plane stress state, a comparison between a simple shear test and prediction of the dilatancy equation shows that the equation can reasonably describe the effect of noncoaxiality on dilatancy with the introduction of microscopic fabric parameters, and its physical significance is clear. This paper can provide a reference for the theoretical description of the macro and micro mechanical properties of geomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fractal and Fractional in Geotechnical Engineering)
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