Electromagnetic Radiation and Acoustic Emissions Associated with Multiscale Failure

A special issue of Foundations (ISSN 2673-9321). This special issue belongs to the section "Earth Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 12154

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Civil Engineering Department, Ashdod Campus, Sami Shamoon College of Engineering, Jabotinsky 84, Ashdod 77245, Israel
Interests: rock physics; applied geophysics; multi-scale failure

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Guest Editor
1. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of West Attica, Ancient Olive Grove Campus, GR-12241 Aigaleo, Greece
2. Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, Metaxa and Vasileos Pavlou, GR-15236 Penteli, Greece
Interests: digital signal processing; complex systems time series analysis; nonlinear dynamics; criticality; precursors of extreme events; physics of earthquakes; seismo-electromagnetics; biosignal analysis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The most important barrier to the creation of a comprehensive methodology of multi-scale failure assessment is the limited osmosis between scientists of different disciplines investigating these phenomena from different points of view. Aiming at overcoming this restriction via collaboration and knowledge exchange, this Special Issue of Foundations will bring together scientists and engineers from both academia and industry who have studied fracture-related phenomena at different scales and/or from different points of view. It is expected to result not only in an improved understanding between different scholars, but also in beneficial results for the society at large. 
Researchers are welcome to contribute to all areas associated with multi-scale fracturing, especially in the  fields of acoustic emission and electromagnetic radiation induced by multi-scale fracturing. 

Kind regards,

Dr. Vladimir Frid
Prof. Dr. Stelios M. Potirakis
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • fracture
  • failure
  • electromagnetic radiation
  • acoustic emission
  • rock-burst
  • earthquake

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 4952 KiB  
Article
Nonlinear Soliton-like Oscillations and Waves during Geomaterial Destruction Based on Electromagnetic Radiation Signals
by Victor Dmitrievich Borisov
Foundations 2022, 2(3), 798-812; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations2030054 - 19 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1061
Abstract
The work is devoted to the results of processing electromagnetic radiation signals obtained during laboratory loading of marble and diabase samples using a technique for determining the parameters of microcracks, developed and published by the author earlier. As a result of such processing, [...] Read more.
The work is devoted to the results of processing electromagnetic radiation signals obtained during laboratory loading of marble and diabase samples using a technique for determining the parameters of microcracks, developed and published by the author earlier. As a result of such processing, certain patterns were found in the nature of the evolution of the oscillatory process ensemble of microcracks. For example, solitary non-linear waves almost always preceded a sequence of High Frequency traces. Equations for straight lines approximating High Frequency traces in logarithmic coordinates, close to the equation of the Gutenberg–Richter law. Due to the similarity of seismic processes at different scale levels, the results of modeling at the microscale level can be used to describe seismic processes at the macroscale level, for example, to study the processes occurring immediately before destruction and at the time of destruction in order to search for repeatability and regularities. The regularities obtained can be used in the development of a predictive criterion that makes it possible to predict the time of one or another geophysical (seismic) event. Full article
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18 pages, 18318 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Electromagnetic Radiation and the Acoustic Emission Response of Multi-Scale Rock-like Material Failure and Their Application
by Zhonghui Li, Yueyu Lei, Enyuan Wang, Vladimir Frid, Dexing Li, Xiaofei Liu and Xuekun Ren
Foundations 2022, 2(3), 763-780; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations2030052 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1236
Abstract
In order to explore the evolution characteristics of multi-scale rock-like material failure, we studied the acoustic emission (AE) and electromagnetic radiation (EMR) characteristics of different scale rock-like materials by using the AE-EMR experimental system of coal and rock failure, and the AE and [...] Read more.
In order to explore the evolution characteristics of multi-scale rock-like material failure, we studied the acoustic emission (AE) and electromagnetic radiation (EMR) characteristics of different scale rock-like materials by using the AE-EMR experimental system of coal and rock failure, and the AE and EMR response law of rockburst in mining sites was analyzed. The results show that under uniaxial loading, the stress–strain curve of the specimen has a compaction stage, linear elastic stage, elastic–plastic stage and failure stage. The cumulative AE count, AE energy and stress level of the specimen have an exponential relationship during loading and compression. The cumulative EMR counts of loading and unloading showed a trend of first decreasing and then increasing with the increase in stress level. Electromagnetic radiation and microseismic hypocentral distance show an abnormal change trend when rockburst occurs, and this abnormal phenomenon can be used as a precursor feature signal for rockburst monitoring and early warning. Full article
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17 pages, 4345 KiB  
Article
Analyzing the Synchronous Acoustic and Electric Response of Coal Burst Failure: Validation through the On-Site Application
by Yingjie Zhao, Dazhao Song, Menghan Wei, Majid Khan, Zhenlei Li, Liming Qiu and Shan Yin
Foundations 2022, 2(3), 746-762; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations2030051 - 09 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1039
Abstract
The accurate monitoring and early warning of coal and rock dynamic disasters become challenging in complex geological environments. Mostly, the signal information contains interferences, which misguides the technician, and thus leads to inaccurate monitoring results. To reduce the influence of interference signals, the [...] Read more.
The accurate monitoring and early warning of coal and rock dynamic disasters become challenging in complex geological environments. Mostly, the signal information contains interferences, which misguides the technician, and thus leads to inaccurate monitoring results. To reduce the influence of interference signals, the synchronous response of the acoustic emission (AE) and electromagnetic emission (EME) signals before the failure of coal specimens during uniaxial loading was investigated in this study. Additionally, the coupling relationship between M value, AE energy/AE ringing count per unit time, and the damage of coal is established, and the early warning index of AE and EME (R value) was computed and verified through the field investigations. The results show that a strong synchronization of the acoustoelectric signals occurs only after the specimen enters the strain strengthening area. The analysis of the obtained results showed that the M value of the AE-EME synchronous response signal represents a strong degree of damage occurring in the coal body, however, this is still subject to false alarms. In contrast, the analysis of the R value accurately helped in determining the damage evaluation, thus, it can be regarded as one of the precursors of the imminent failure of coal. With R > 1, the specimen is closed to the failure state, thereby dangerous regions are identified with a dense concentration of R > 1 events. The obtained R value index through on-site AE and EME monitoring corresponds closely with the stress distribution cloud map of the roadway. It is inferred that the anti-interference ability and the reliability of the R value index are stronger than the routine early warning indicators of the single-AE or EME energy. Full article
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25 pages, 42196 KiB  
Article
An Amateur-Radio-Based Open-Source (HW/SW) VLF/LF Receiver for Lower Ionosphere Monitoring, Examples of Identified Perturbations
by Filopimin Malkotsis, Dimitrios Z. Politis, Dionisis Dimakos and Stelios M. Potirakis
Foundations 2022, 2(3), 639-663; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations2030044 - 05 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3493
Abstract
The ground-based monitoring of the lower ionosphere by studying the perturbations of the subionospheric propagation of very-low-frequency/low-frequency (VLF/LF) signals is important in the research of a wide variety of geophysical and Sun/space extreme phenomena. Such perturbations are identified as anomalies in the signal [...] Read more.
The ground-based monitoring of the lower ionosphere by studying the perturbations of the subionospheric propagation of very-low-frequency/low-frequency (VLF/LF) signals is important in the research of a wide variety of geophysical and Sun/space extreme phenomena. Such perturbations are identified as anomalies in the signal received from the VLF/LF transmitters operating worldwide for military purposes, time code broadcasting, etc. Especially for the study of local ionosphere-influencing phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, typhoons, etc., the monitoring of several subionospheric propagation paths is necessary. However, it is very difficult to find in the market (or reproduce) hardware (HW) for wide-band VLF/LF receivers that could receive many different transmitters, while the involved software (SW) is mainly proprietary. Aiming to provide a low-cost and easy-to-build alternative for the scientists involved in this research field, we suggest a VLF/LF receiver setup based on amateur radio open-source HW and SW. Its key components are the so-called “mini-whip” active antenna and the freeware “SpectrumLab” and “GPS2Time”. The full HW schematics and all settings of the employed SW configuration for the proposed VLF/LF receiver setup are provided in the article. To check the reliability of the proposed receiver setup, two almost identical VLF/LF radio receivers were installed in the prefecture of Attica in Greece, in June and September of 2021, respectively. Examples of ionospheric perturbations due to different phenomena (solar flares, earthquakes, and a magnetic storm) are provided to show the ability of the proposed receiver setup to provide reliable data for ionosphere-related research. Full article
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17 pages, 5140 KiB  
Article
Attenuation of the Acoustic Activity in Cement Beams under Constant Bending Load Closely Approaching the Fracture Load
by Dimos Triantis, Andronikos Loukidis, Ilias Stavrakas, Ermioni D. Pasiou and Stavros K. Kourkoulis
Foundations 2022, 2(3), 590-606; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations2030040 - 24 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1344
Abstract
The acoustic activity in beam-shaped specimens made of cement is studied, assuming that the beams are loaded in three-point bending under a step-wise loading scheme. Attention is focused to the attenuation of the acoustic activity during the constant-load stage of each specific loading [...] Read more.
The acoustic activity in beam-shaped specimens made of cement is studied, assuming that the beams are loaded in three-point bending under a step-wise loading scheme. Attention is focused to the attenuation of the acoustic activity during the constant-load stage of each specific loading step. The experimental data are analyzed in terms of the interevent time intervals between any two successive acoustic hits (using the F-function concept) and, further, in terms of the power of the acoustic hits (in terms of the recently introduced P-function). It is indicated that while the mechanical load is kept constant, the acoustic activity attenuates steadily, and during the early steps of this attenuation phase, the temporal evolution of both the F- and P-functions is excellently described by an exponential law. Moreover, it is proven that for both the F- and P-functions, the relaxation exponents decrease monotonically with increasing load. This decrease becomes quite abrupt for loads exceeding about 80% of the fracture load, providing an interesting and promising pre-failure indicator, i.e., a warning signal that the specimen is entering into the stage of impending macroscopic fracture. The specific conclusions are in very satisfactory agreement, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with similar ones drawn by considering the temporal evolution of the respective b-value. Full article
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20 pages, 5325 KiB  
Article
Integrated Interpretation of the Results of Long-Term Geotechnical Monitoring in Underground Tunnels Using the Electromagnetic Radiation Method
by Kirill V. Romanevich, Mikhail O. Lebedev, Semen V. Andrianov and Sergey N. Mulev
Foundations 2022, 2(3), 561-580; https://doi.org/10.3390/foundations2030038 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1889
Abstract
Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) technology makes it possible to evaluate changes in the stress-strain state (SSS) in the “tunnel lining-enclosing rock mass” system at a high level of interference, and to create schemes of long-term EMR control in tunnels (geotechnical monitoring systems). The issues [...] Read more.
Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) technology makes it possible to evaluate changes in the stress-strain state (SSS) in the “tunnel lining-enclosing rock mass” system at a high level of interference, and to create schemes of long-term EMR control in tunnels (geotechnical monitoring systems). The issues of the variations in EMR signals are extremely important for monitoring systems: based on anomalous deviations from the normal regime one can draw conclusions about changes in the SSS, leading to geodynamic phenomena (e.g., rock bursts). This article presents data obtained during laboratory studies on samples and field studies in transport tunnels. Also, some results of long-term geotechnical monitoring by a set of methods is presented: EMR and tensometry of the tunnel lining, both methods are in the automatic mode. The ability of an EMR control system to respond to earthquakes affecting tunnel structures is shown. An analysis of long-term EMR studies was conducted, which showed the periodic oscillation of the “tunnel lining-enclosing rock mass” system. In a stable compressed state, minima of EMR pulses are recorded; when the rock mass and lining material are stretched, charges are separated on the edges of micro-defects and EMR increases; complete separation of the edges of micro-defects leads to the termination of intense EMR. The same occurs in the opposite direction during the compression of micro-defects and micro-fractures in the rock mass and concrete lining. The periods of compression and expansion are closely related to temperature fluctuations. The results differ in detail and, therefore, in to be more confident, additional studies are needed in various host rock massifs and types of tunnel lining. Full article
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