Diagnostics of Forest Pest Insects

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 10573

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Forest Protection, Slovenian Forestry Institute, Vecna Pot 2, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia
Interests: diagnostics of forest pests; forest entomology; invasive alien species; forest ecosystems; biodiversity

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

In the last decennia, global trade and climate change have increased the introduction of invasive alien species and increased the impact of eruptive forest pests on the forests over the world. The first step to take action against forest pests is to identify which species they are. In recent years, more and more effort is being focused on developing diagnostic tools for the identification of forest pests; however, despite this, taxonomists are being less and less valued for their work. This Special Issue will focus on the diagnostics of forest pest insects. We would like to invite authors to submit their articles dealing with cutting-edge diagnostic methods, less known forest pests which might be problematic in other continents or in their own continents, and global overviews of taxonomic groups of forest pests.

Dr. Maarten De Groot
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Forest Pests
  • climate change
  • invasive alien species
  • diagnostics of forest pest insects
  • diagnostic methods

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 2405 KiB  
Article
Metabolome and Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Effects of Host Shift on Dendrolimus houi Lajonquière Larvae
by Xinyuan Fang, Zhenghao Chen, Zhenhong Chen, Jian Chen, Zhenhui Zhao, Peilin Wu, Hongmin Wu, Feiping Zhang and Guanghong Liang
Forests 2023, 14(7), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14071307 - 26 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
Dendrolimus houi Lajonquière is one of the most prevalent pine caterpillars in southern China, causing overwhelming forest infestation. It can overcome the negative impact of host shift from the original host, Cryptomeria fortune, to other tree species to complete its life cycle. [...] Read more.
Dendrolimus houi Lajonquière is one of the most prevalent pine caterpillars in southern China, causing overwhelming forest infestation. It can overcome the negative impact of host shift from the original host, Cryptomeria fortune, to other tree species to complete its life cycle. In this work, D. houi larvae (1st to 3rd instar), originally feeding on C. fortunei needles, were used to determine the changes in the growth and development after they moved to needles of Cupressus funebris and Pinus yunnanensis during their 4th to 5th instar. Metabonomics and transcriptomics were conducted to evaluate the effects of the host shift on metabolite accumulation and gene expression of D. houi larvae. The results showed that the host shift significantly inhibited the pest growth and development by extending developmental duration and minifying the body length, body weight and head shell width. Besides, we found that the host shift influenced steroid hormone biosynthesis in D. houi larvae, which might lead to their abnormal development. The results may help to understand the response of D. houi larvae to host shift, and their adaptation mechanism to different hosts during multiple life cycles, providing a new plantation mode for mixed forests to suppress D. houi as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostics of Forest Pest Insects)
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25 pages, 6460 KiB  
Article
Use of an Arboretum and DNA Barcoding for the Detection and Identification of Leaf-Mining Insects on Alien Woody Plants
by Natalia I. Kirichenko, Stanislav Gomboc, Barbara Piškur and Maarten de Groot
Forests 2023, 14(3), 641; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14030641 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1740
Abstract
Arboreta serve as effective tools for identifying alien insect pests and novel trophic associations. In this study, we used an arboretum in Slovenia to survey woody plants and identify both alien and native leaf miners. The leaves and twigs of 50 woody plant [...] Read more.
Arboreta serve as effective tools for identifying alien insect pests and novel trophic associations. In this study, we used an arboretum in Slovenia to survey woody plants and identify both alien and native leaf miners. The leaves and twigs of 50 woody plant species and their cultivars were examined for characteristic damage. We used an integrative approach that combined identification based on leaf mines and DNA barcoding of the larvae and pupae found in the mines. In total, 62 leaf-mining species were identified, including eight alien species, of which the heliozelid Coptodisca lucifluella (Clemens, 1860) and the agromyzid Cerodontha unisetiorbita Zlobin, 1992 were documented for Slovenia for the first time. Additionally, three presumably native Gracillariidae moths Phyllocnistis labyrinthella (Bjerkander, 1790), P. ramulicola Langmaid & Corley, 2007 and P. saligna (Zeller, 1839) represented the first record for Slovenia. Furthermore, we documented 23 novel-to-science trophic associations, 20 of which involved native insects and alien woody plants, primarily from Asia. This study highlights the importance of arboreta and botanical gardens for the interception of invasive alien insects and the early detection of trophic shifts of native insects to alien plants, which can aid in predicting their potential spread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostics of Forest Pest Insects)
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10 pages, 964 KiB  
Article
Specificity and Sensitivity of a Rapid LAMP Assay for Early Detection of Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) in Europe
by Donnie L. Peterson, Kathleen Kyle, Aurélien Sallé, Francesco Pecori, Duccio Migliorini, Alberto Santini, Nicola Luchi and Michelle Cleary
Forests 2023, 14(2), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14020436 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2416
Abstract
Buprestids are an emerging threat to broadleaf forests across the world. Species such as emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) seriously threaten ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America and Europe. As it continues spreading west from European Russia, native European ash [...] Read more.
Buprestids are an emerging threat to broadleaf forests across the world. Species such as emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) seriously threaten ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America and Europe. As it continues spreading west from European Russia, native European ash populations will suffer dramatic losses. Due to their cryptic lifestyle of the egg and larval stages on developing bark and vascular tissue, buprestids and other wood borers can be difficult to detect. Early detection tools are vital to implement fast eradication measures, and prevent the establishment of invasive species populations. Detection methods using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to target specific taxa can be extremely timely to obtain results especially since samples need to be transported to the laboratory first. However, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) eDNA assays are highly specific and sensitive providing results within 30 min after sample extraction. In this study, we investigated the specificity and sensitivity of an EAB LAMP assay as an early detection tool in Europe. The assay was specific to EAB when tested against 12 European Agrilus spp., five buprestids, two Scolytinae, and five cerambycids (n = 24). The LAMP assay sensitivity amplified DNA from a concentration as low as 0.02 pg/µL. These results demonstrate that the LAMP assay is a highly specific, sensitive tool that can be used to detect and monitor EAB in European forests and urban settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostics of Forest Pest Insects)
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15 pages, 3387 KiB  
Article
First Field Record of the Tropical Red-Banded Thrips Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Thripidae: Panchaetothripinae) in Europe
by Andrea Taddei, Gregorio Vono, Gijsbertus Vierbergen, Andrea Wojnar, Matteo Zugno and Rita Marullo
Forests 2021, 12(11), 1484; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12111484 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2175
Abstract
Red-banded thrips Selenothrips rubrocinctus is a polyphagous pest widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Various fruit trees such as cacao, cashew, mango, avocado, and guava in certain habitats are attacked. This is the first report of the spontaneous occurrence of outdoor populations [...] Read more.
Red-banded thrips Selenothrips rubrocinctus is a polyphagous pest widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Various fruit trees such as cacao, cashew, mango, avocado, and guava in certain habitats are attacked. This is the first report of the spontaneous occurrence of outdoor populations of this species of thrips in Europe. This species has been found in northern Italy on Liquidambar styraciflua, Carpinus betulus, and other ornamental forest species in urban areas. Barcode sequences of the Italian specimens were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostics of Forest Pest Insects)
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14 pages, 3132 KiB  
Article
Attempt to Identify Sex Hormones in the Bodies of Selected Norway Spruce Bark Beetles
by Magdalena Kacprzyk, Bartłomiej Bednarz and Maciej Choczyński
Forests 2021, 12(5), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12050536 - 26 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1396
Abstract
A gas chromatography technique was applied to the adults of Ips typograhus (L.) and Pityogenes chalcographus (L.) collected from pheromone traps placed in Norway spruce stands in southern Poland in distinguished population swarming periods for the qualitative and quantitative determination of steroid compound [...] Read more.
A gas chromatography technique was applied to the adults of Ips typograhus (L.) and Pityogenes chalcographus (L.) collected from pheromone traps placed in Norway spruce stands in southern Poland in distinguished population swarming periods for the qualitative and quantitative determination of steroid compound differences between insect sexes. Ten not yet identified for bark beetle compounds from the group of sterols, including cholestenone, 4,6-cholestadiene-3-one, choles-4-en-3,6-dione and 17β-Hydroxyandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one benzoate, which can potentially act as gender hormones were detected. The presence of ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone in the bodies of the studied bark beetles was confirmed. However, slight differences in the content of ecdysteroids in the bodies of males and females may be only the remains of the insect’s metamorphosis. Due to the small differences in the extracted compounds between the females and males, their variability in concentrations during the swarming period seems to be useless as a basis for sex determination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostics of Forest Pest Insects)
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Review

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10 pages, 1580 KiB  
Review
International Cooperation to Support the Diagnosis of Forestry Pests: The Role of EPPO and Euphresco
by Françoise Petter, Baldissera Giovani and Charlotte Trontin
Forests 2023, 14(7), 1461; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14071461 - 17 Jul 2023
Viewed by 818
Abstract
Plant pests are a threat to biodiversity, food security, and the economy. The challenges posed by the introduction of plant pests have triggered the establishment of cooperative mechanisms such as the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), an international treaty to protect plant health, [...] Read more.
Plant pests are a threat to biodiversity, food security, and the economy. The challenges posed by the introduction of plant pests have triggered the establishment of cooperative mechanisms such as the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), an international treaty to protect plant health, but also of Regional Plant Protection Organizations (RPPOs), such as the European and Mediterranean plant Protection Organizations (EPPO). RPPOs participate in activities in their regions to promote and achieve the objectives of the IPPC. Because accurate and reliable detection and identification of pests are essential in order to be able to take appropriate measures against a pest and thus avoid or reduce the economic, social, and environmental costs that it can cause, the IPPC and EPPO have established a specific program on diagnostics. The main aim of this article is to present the diagnostic activities conducted by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization and Euphresco. Some information is also presented on other initiatives in diagnostics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostics of Forest Pest Insects)
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