Mycorrhizal Fungi of Forests

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2015) | Viewed by 39573

Special Issue Editors


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Institute of Forest Ecology, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Universität für Bodenkultur, Peter Jordan Str 82, 1190 Vienna, Austria
Interests: forest biodiversity; mycorrhizas; C and N cycling
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Guest Editor
Department of Ecology, Mongolian State University of Agriculture, Zaisan 210153, Khan-Uul district Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Interests: plant physiology and ecology; mycorrhizal fungal and plant interactions

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Guest Editor
Institute of Forest Ecology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences - Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Interests: carbon quality and fluxes; isotope techniques; nitrogen and carbon cycling; plant and microbial nutrition.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycorrhizae play a key role in the nutrient and carbon dynamics of forests. Almost all known forms of mycorrhizae can be found in forests, but they are dominated by the ecto, ericoid, and arbuscular mycorrhizal forms. The diversity and function of mycorrhizae in forests has become a topic of increasing interest, especially in relation to carbon cycling and nutrient uptake. However, much of this information is confined to boreal forests. In the face of climate change, many environmental factors, such as increasing atmospheric CO2 and drought, have been shown to influence the species assemblages and functions of mycorrhizae in forests. This issue focuses on the biodiversity and function of mycorrhizae in forests around the world.

Prof. Dr. Douglas L. Godbold
Dr. Burenjargal Otgonsuren
Dr. Hans Göransson
Guest Editor
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Keywords

  • arbuscular mycorrhiza
  • ectomycorrhiza
  • extramatrical mycelium
  • nutrient uptake
  • biodiversity
  • carbon dynamics

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

1244 KiB  
Article
Wood Decay Fungi Restore Essential Calcium to Acidic Soils in Northern New England
by Walter C. Shortle and Kevin T. Smith
Forests 2015, 6(8), 2571-2587; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6082571 - 29 Jul 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5068
Abstract
The depletion of root-available calcium in northern forests soils exposed to decades of increased acid deposition adversely affects forest health and productivity. Laboratory studies indicated the potential of wood-decay fungi to restore lost calcium to the rooting zone of trees. This study reports [...] Read more.
The depletion of root-available calcium in northern forests soils exposed to decades of increased acid deposition adversely affects forest health and productivity. Laboratory studies indicated the potential of wood-decay fungi to restore lost calcium to the rooting zone of trees. This study reports changes in concentrations of Ca, Mg, and K during decay of sapwood of spruce, maple, hemlock, and birch at two locations in northern New England, USA. Concentrations of exchangeable Ca, Mg, and Al in decayed wood residues after 10 and 12 years of ground contact were also compared. Significant loss of mass indicated by decreasing wood density occurred after two to eight years in conifers and after only two years in hardwoods. A significant gain in wood K was observed at two years, but the gain was not sustained. A significant gain in Ca concentration occurred by six years and that gain was sustained for 12 years. Concentrations of Mg varied. No significant difference in exchangeable Ca concentration was observed between decayed wood residue of spruce and maple and the forest floor. However, decayed wood residue had a much lower molar Al/Ca ratio, a conditional characteristic of sites with high root-available Ca. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycorrhizal Fungi of Forests)
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873 KiB  
Article
Chewing up the Wood-Wide Web: Selective Grazing on Ectomycorrhizal Fungi by Collembola
by Clarisse Kanters, Ian C. Anderson and David Johnson
Forests 2015, 6(8), 2560-2570; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6082560 - 28 Jul 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 6480
Abstract
The mycelia of some symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi form extensive networks—the so called “wood-wide web”—that have key roles in biogeochemical cycling. By interacting with myriad soil organisms such as collembola, the fungi directly affect the functioning of above- and below-ground multitrophic interactions in ecosystems. [...] Read more.
The mycelia of some symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi form extensive networks—the so called “wood-wide web”—that have key roles in biogeochemical cycling. By interacting with myriad soil organisms such as collembola, the fungi directly affect the functioning of above- and below-ground multitrophic interactions in ecosystems. Here we tested whether the grazing activities of collembola affected the growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi in single or mixed species axenic cultures, and their impact on ectomycorrhizal diversity in litterbags in the field. We also used 14CO2 pulse-labelling to test the effects of collembola on respiratory losses of recent plant assimilate from external mycelium of ectomycorrhizal fungi in symbiosis with Scots pine or birch. We found that the effects of collembola varied across species, and caused a significant reduction in the amount of 14CO2 released from external mycorrhizal mycelium from three of the eight species combinations but increased it in one. Selective grazing also significantly affected the community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Our findings demonstrate the importance of collembola in regulating ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity and activity and below-ground pathways of carbon flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycorrhizal Fungi of Forests)
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3398 KiB  
Article
Influence of Climate and Economic Variables on the Aggregated Supply of a Wild Edible Fungi (Lactarius deliciosus)
by Oscar Alfranca, Roberto Voces and Luis Diaz-Balteiro
Forests 2015, 6(7), 2324-2344; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6072324 - 6 Jul 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6174
Abstract
A mycological supply function of wild edible fungi is determined by a set of forest and economic variables, among which climate variables stand out. Focusing on wild mushroom picking with commercial value (Lactarius deliciosus (L.) Gray) as an example, the main objective [...] Read more.
A mycological supply function of wild edible fungi is determined by a set of forest and economic variables, among which climate variables stand out. Focusing on wild mushroom picking with commercial value (Lactarius deliciosus (L.) Gray) as an example, the main objective of this paper is to obtain empirical evidence about the impact of meteorological and economic variables on the mushroom supply. A multidisciplinary vector error correction (VEC) model for mushroom supply is estimated. Coefficients for the Error Correction Term (ECT) are all significant, at the 0.01 significance level, both in the model for prices and for collected mushrooms. The value of the ECT coefficient in the equation for prices is −0.086 (t-value: −9.321), and for the collected mushroom equation is 0.499 (t-value: 3.913). The impact of precipitation on price changes is −0.104 (t-value: −1.66), and the impact of temperature on mushroom harvest picking is 0.605 (t-value: 3.07). We find that including climate factors to explain mushroom supply considerably strengthens the explanatory power of the model, and in some cases greatly changes the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycorrhizal Fungi of Forests)
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469 KiB  
Article
Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Affects Ectomycorrhizal Species Abundance and Increases Sporocarp Production under Field Conditions
by Douglas L. Godbold, Martina Vašutová, Anna Wilkinson, Magda Edwards-Jonášová, Michael Bambrick, Andrew R. Smith, Marian Pavelka and Pavel Cudlin
Forests 2015, 6(4), 1256-1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6041256 - 21 Apr 2015
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 6400
Abstract
Anthropogenic activities during the last century have increased levels of atmospheric CO2. Forest net primary productivity increases in response to elevated CO2, altering the quantity and quality of carbon supplied to the rhizosphere. Ectomycorrhizal fungi form obligate symbiotic associations [...] Read more.
Anthropogenic activities during the last century have increased levels of atmospheric CO2. Forest net primary productivity increases in response to elevated CO2, altering the quantity and quality of carbon supplied to the rhizosphere. Ectomycorrhizal fungi form obligate symbiotic associations with the fine roots of trees that mediate improved scavenging for nutrients in exchange for a carbohydrate supply. Understanding how the community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi is altered by climate change is important to further our understanding of ecosystem function. Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica were grown in an elevated CO2 atmosphere delivered using free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) under field conditions in the U.K., and Picea abies was grown under elevated CO2 in glass domes in the Czech Republic. We used morphotyping and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the fungal ribosomal operon to study ectomycorrhizal community structure. Under FACE, un-colonised roots tips increased in abundance for Fagus sylvatica, and during 2006, sporocarp biomass of Peziza badia significantly increased. In domes, ectomycorrhizal community composition shifted from short-distance and smooth medium-distance to contact exploration types. Supply and competition for carbon belowground can influence ectomycorrhizal community structure with the potential to alter ecosystem function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycorrhizal Fungi of Forests)
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904 KiB  
Article
Colonization with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Promotes the Growth of Morus alba L. Seedlings under Greenhouse Conditions
by Nan Lu, Xia Zhou, Ming Cui, Meng Yu, Jinxing Zhou, Yongsheng Qin and Yun Li
Forests 2015, 6(3), 734-747; https://doi.org/10.3390/f6030734 - 16 Mar 2015
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 7592
Abstract
Morus alba L. is an important tree species planted widely in China because of its economic value. In this report, we investigated the influence of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) species, Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices, alone and together, on the growth [...] Read more.
Morus alba L. is an important tree species planted widely in China because of its economic value. In this report, we investigated the influence of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) species, Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices, alone and together, on the growth of M. alba L. seedlings under greenhouse conditions. The growth parameters and physiological performance of M. alba L. seedlings were evaluated 90 days after colonization with the fungi. The growth and physiological performance of M. alba L. seedlings were significantly affected by the AMF species. The mycorrhizal seedlings were taller, had longer roots, more leaves and a greater biomass than the non-mycorrhizae-treated seedlings. In addition, the AMF species-inoculated seedlings had increased root activity and a higher chlorophyll content compared to non-inoculated seedlings. Furthermore, AMF species colonization increased the phosphorus and nitrogen contents of the seedlings. In addition, simultaneous root colonization by the two AMF species did not improve the growth of M. alba L. seedlings compared with inoculation with either species alone. Based on these results, these AMF species may be applicable to mulberry seedling cultivation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycorrhizal Fungi of Forests)
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318 KiB  
Article
Former Land Use and Host Genotype Influence the Mycorrhizal Colonization of Poplar Roots
by Felicia Gherghel, David Behringer, Stefanie Haubrich, Maren Schlauß, Christina Fey-Wagner, Karl-Heinz Rexer, Alwin Janßen and Gerhard Kost
Forests 2014, 5(12), 2980-2995; https://doi.org/10.3390/f5122980 - 4 Dec 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6508
Abstract
The present paper analyses the community structure of ectomycorrhiza (ECM) and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi associated with seven different poplar clone types growing in a patch system on soil from four different former land use types, originating from spruce forest, poplar stand, grassland [...] Read more.
The present paper analyses the community structure of ectomycorrhiza (ECM) and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi associated with seven different poplar clone types growing in a patch system on soil from four different former land use types, originating from spruce forest, poplar stand, grassland and cornfield. We determined the extent to which ECM and AM play a role on the studied factors (genotype, former land use type and host growth). The diversity of ECM and AM fungal communities was estimated by morphological and molecular analyses of the 18S and ITS of the rDNA genes. Fifteen ECM fungal taxa and four AM groups were distinguished in the roots of the poplars grown for 18 months on soil originating from the respective land use types. The poplar clones showed significantly different rates of shoot length and AM colonization, especially concerning the occurrence of Glomus intraradices and Scutellospora sp. Populus deltoides had significantly higher Scutellospora sp. abundance. Although ECM abundance and diversity was high, no significant differences between the different land use types was found. However, some ECM fungi like Paxillus involutus, Laccaria proxima and Laccaria tortilis showed significant preferences for specific land use types. Our findings suggest that both factors, former land use type and poplar genotype, are important determinants of mycorrhizal colonization of the host plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycorrhizal Fungi of Forests)
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