Application of Wood in Construction

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Wood Science and Forest Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2021) | Viewed by 15146

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. SERQ—Centro de Inovação e Competências da Floresta (Innovation and Competence Forest Centre), 6100-711 Sertã, Portugal
2. ISISE (Institute for Sustainability and Innovation in Structural Engineering)—University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: timber products; timber properties; wood based products
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The improvement of EU energy efficiency in buildings plays a key role in speeding up the "Energy efficiency first" initiative, in line with the 50 to 90% greenhouse gases emission reduction, agreed for 2030 and 2050, respectively. The efforts to build nearly zero-energy buildings involve research and efforts to develop ground-breaking materials, and investment that integrate operational strategies and to remove barriers in the market. On the other hand, the increasing trend to clean energy strongly motivates the use of renewable resources to produce novel devices and materials. As a result, wood will play a major role in construction in the upcoming years.

With this in mind, I would like to invite you to send your contributions on Application of Wood in Construction, aiming at building knowledge on this subject.

Dr. Sofia Knapic
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • wood in construction
  • wood based products
  • LCA
  • sustainable construction

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 3760 KiB  
Article
Compressive and Bending Strength Variations in the Properties of Portuguese Clear Oak Wood
by Sofia Knapic, Camila S. F. Linhares and José S. Machado
Forests 2022, 13(7), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13071056 - 5 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1709
Abstract
Within-stem variation in the mechanical properties of Portuguese oak wood was analysed, considering different locations (three sites in the centre and north of Portugal—Site 1, Site 2, Site 3) and positions within the tree (two distances to pith—P1, P2). The study comprised compression [...] Read more.
Within-stem variation in the mechanical properties of Portuguese oak wood was analysed, considering different locations (three sites in the centre and north of Portugal—Site 1, Site 2, Site 3) and positions within the tree (two distances to pith—P1, P2). The study comprised compression parallel to the grain, bending strength and modulus of elasticity. Ultimately, this study aims at assuring the building of a body of knowledge on the technological quality and processing options for this species. The results showed for one provenance, Site 1, a significant effect of the distance to pith in the mechanical properties, which can be related to a different soil composition. For this provenance, a decrease in the compression and bending strength was verified from pith to bark. For the other provenances (Site 2 and Site 3), no effect was noticed. The overall behaviour showed noticeable correlations between the mechanical properties and density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Wood in Construction)
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16 pages, 5621 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Studies on the Traditional Penetration Mortise–Tenon Connection Reinforced by Self-Tapping Screws
by Ting Guo, Na Yang, Haibin Zhou and Shuangyong Wang
Forests 2022, 13(4), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13040513 - 26 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1945
Abstract
In this paper, the mechanical performance improvement of traditional penetration mortise–tenon (PMT) connections reinforced by self-tapping screws (STSs) were experimental and numerical studied. Four unreinforced penetration mortise–tenon connections and four STS-reinforced connections were experimentally investigated under monotonic and low-frequency cyclic loading. Besides, the [...] Read more.
In this paper, the mechanical performance improvement of traditional penetration mortise–tenon (PMT) connections reinforced by self-tapping screws (STSs) were experimental and numerical studied. Four unreinforced penetration mortise–tenon connections and four STS-reinforced connections were experimentally investigated under monotonic and low-frequency cyclic loading. Besides, the numerical model of PMT connections reinforced by STSs with different diameters and yield strength were established and analyzed.Their failure modes, rotational stiffness, moment-resisting capacity, ductility, and seismic behavior were studied. The experimental results indicated that the STSs reinforcements could enhance the moment-resisting capacity of the penetration mortise–tenon connection. Compared with unreinforced connections, the initial stiffness of STS-reinforced connections increased by 75% with the moment-resisting capacity increasing by 69%, respectively. Furthermore, the STSs reinforcement method can effectively restrict the pull-out of tenon during the whole loading process. Numerical simulation results showed that the yield strength of STS has little effect on the moment-bearing behavior of the connection. The diameter of STS significantly influences the connection performance, and the diameter of 8 mm is suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Wood in Construction)
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13 pages, 3610 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Behavior of GFRP Dowel Connections to Cross Laminated Timber-CLT Panels
by Amanda Ceinoti de Almeida and Jorge Daniel de Melo Moura
Forests 2022, 13(2), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13020320 - 15 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2502
Abstract
Sustainability issues are driving the civil construction industry to adopt and study more environmentally friendly technologies as an alternative to traditional masonry/concrete construction. In this context, plantation wood especially stands out as a constituent of the cross-laminated timber (CLT) system, laminated wood glued [...] Read more.
Sustainability issues are driving the civil construction industry to adopt and study more environmentally friendly technologies as an alternative to traditional masonry/concrete construction. In this context, plantation wood especially stands out as a constituent of the cross-laminated timber (CLT) system, laminated wood glued in perpendicular layers forming a solid-wood structural panel. CLT panels are commonly connected by screws or nails, and several authors have investigated the behavior of these connections. Glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) dowels have been used to connect wooden structures, and have presented excellent performance results; however, they have not yet been tested in CLT. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP)-doweled connections between CLT panels. The specimens were submitted to monotonic shear loading, following the test protocol described in EN 26891-1991. Two configurations of adjacent five-layer panels were tested: flat-butt connections with 45° dowels (x, y, and z axes), and half-lap connections with 90° dowels. The results were evaluated according to the mechanical connection properties of strength, stiffness, and ductility ratio. The results showed higher stiffness for butt-end connections. In terms of strength, the half-lap connections were stronger than the butt-end connections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Wood in Construction)
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15 pages, 6368 KiB  
Article
Burning Characteristics of Ancient Wood from Traditional Buildings in Shanxi Province, China
by Yufei Wang, Weibin Wang, Haibin Zhou and Fei Qi
Forests 2022, 13(2), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13020190 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2996
Abstract
Due to long-term natural degradation, the surface morphology of traditional building wood differs significantly from that of modern wood. It is more combustible than modern wood and its combustion characteristics are important evaluation indicators for fire simulation and fire protection of traditional buildings. [...] Read more.
Due to long-term natural degradation, the surface morphology of traditional building wood differs significantly from that of modern wood. It is more combustible than modern wood and its combustion characteristics are important evaluation indicators for fire simulation and fire protection of traditional buildings. In this paper, ancient wood from six traditional buildings were tested by a surface morphology fractal method and conical calorimeter. Additionally, their combustion properties such as ignition time, heat release rate, total heat release and charring time were analyzed to determine the combustion behavior of ancient wood and their differences with modern wood. The results showed that the ignition time of the specimens was significantly influenced by the surface morphological features. The higher the fractal dimension grade of the morphological features, the shorter the ignition time. The ignition time of Ulm wood with fractal dimension class 3 was 15 s, while that of Ulm wood with fractal dimension class 1 was 23 s. Under the same fractal dimension class, the total heat release per unit time of ancient softwood was higher than that of ancient hardwood. The average heat release rates of Larch wood and Ulm wood were 66.21 kw·m−2, 72.07 kw·m−2 and 57.26 kw·m−2, 67.30 kw·m−2. The basic charring rate of ancient wood of the same species was mostly higher than that of modern wood by more than 6%, with the basic charring rate of ancient Larch wood being 0.8559 mm/min, which was 15.66% higher than that of modern Larch wood, 22.27% higher than that recommended in the European EC5 standard, and 6.87% higher than that calculated in the American AFPA. The results of the study are important guidelines for fire risk assessment and fire protection of traditional buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Wood in Construction)
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10 pages, 2592 KiB  
Article
Impact of Aspen and Black Alder Substitution in Birch Plywood
by Tolgay Akkurt, Heikko Kallakas, Anti Rohumaa, Christopher G. Hunt and Jaan Kers
Forests 2022, 13(2), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13020142 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1639
Abstract
Increasing demand pressures on the fibre supply are forcing manufacturers to explore using new species in plywood. Here we investigated aspen and black alder, alone and in combination with birch faces, and with different veneer thicknesses in plywood production. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Increasing demand pressures on the fibre supply are forcing manufacturers to explore using new species in plywood. Here we investigated aspen and black alder, alone and in combination with birch faces, and with different veneer thicknesses in plywood production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different veneer thicknesses, lay-up systems, and hardwood veneer combinations on plywood mechanical properties. Impacts on modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), glue consumption, and density properties were observed. All process parameters were the same as for pure birch plywood. Not surprisingly, birch plywood had the highest MOR and MOE, followed by aspen and black alder. Aspen had the highest glue consumption and birch the lowest, when applied with a spreader roll, but the common practice of using relatively thick 2.6 mm aspen veneers resulted in the lowest glue consumption per mm of product. The effects of wood species and veneer thickness on MOR, density, and glue consumption were analysed for panel thicknesses from 6.5 to 18 mm to guide manufacturers in choosing their species and construction to optimize cost, MOR and stiffness, weight, and glue consumption. In conclusion, birch gave the best strength properties while aspen gave the best price and weight combination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Wood in Construction)
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21 pages, 57861 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigations and Numerical Simulations of the Vibrational Performance of Wood Truss Joist Floors with Strongbacks
by Yinlan Shen, Haibin Zhou, Shuo Xue, Xingchen Yan, Jiahao Si and Cheng Guan
Forests 2021, 12(11), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12111493 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1867
Abstract
This paper provides an experimental study and computer modeling analysis of vibration performance of full-scale wood truss joist floors, related to the static deflection and vibration mode/frequency and single-person-induced vibration. The vibration behavior of full-scale truss joist floors was investigated and the influences [...] Read more.
This paper provides an experimental study and computer modeling analysis of vibration performance of full-scale wood truss joist floors, related to the static deflection and vibration mode/frequency and single-person-induced vibration. The vibration behavior of full-scale truss joist floors was investigated and the influences of the strongbacks on the vibration behavior were assessed. The results showed that the simulated predictions agreed well with the measured results. Strongbacks do not significantly affect the fundamental frequency of the truss joist floors but influence the second and third modal frequencies. The use of strongback rows at mid-span effectively decreased the maximum deformation of point loading at floor center. The effect of adding strongbacks at one-third of each span on decreasing maximum deformation at the floor center was minimal. The case of walking parallel to the joist produced higher acceleration response at the floor center than that of walking perpendicular to the joist. The closer the placements of strongbacks were to the mid-span, the more significant reduction of the vibration at floor center was. Two strongback rows at mid-span performed the best effect on reduction of vibration response at floor center. However, the use of strongbacks had limits of reduction peak acceleration of the sheathing between the joists. The study provides a valuable guide for future vibration serviceability study and design optimization of wood truss joist floors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Wood in Construction)
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15 pages, 7230 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Sound Absorption Properties of Heat-Treated Indonesian Momala (Homalium foetidum (Roxb.) Benth.) and Korean Red Toon (Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) M. Roem.) Cross Sections
by Eun-Suk Jang and Chun-Won Kang
Forests 2021, 12(11), 1447; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12111447 - 24 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1599
Abstract
This study investigates the effects of heat treatment time and presence of an air back cavity on the sound absorption performance of Indonesian momala (Homalium foetidum (Roxb.) Benth.) and Korean red toon (Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) M. Roem.) cross sections. To [...] Read more.
This study investigates the effects of heat treatment time and presence of an air back cavity on the sound absorption performance of Indonesian momala (Homalium foetidum (Roxb.) Benth.) and Korean red toon (Toona sinensis (A. Juss.) M. Roem.) cross sections. To examine the porous characteristics of the two species before and after heat treatment, gas permeability, pore size, and porosity analyses were conducted. Additionally, the sound absorption coefficient was measured based on various heat treatment times and air back cavity sizes. The results showed that, with heat treatment at 210 °C for 6 h, the gas permeability improved by 4.3% for the momala and 38.5% for the red toon, the maximum pore size was improved by 5.25% in the momala and 26.0% in the red toon, and the through-pore porosity improved by 22.7% for the momala and 117.0% for the red toon. Due to these pore structure changes, the noise reduction coefficient (NRC) of the heat-treated momala improved by 6.8%. When a 3-cm air back cavity was applied to the heat-treated momala, the NRC was improved to 92.5%. Similarly, when the same air back cavity was applied to the heat-treated red toon, the NRC was improved to 190.7%. This study demonstrated that an increase in pore size and through-pore porosity by heat treatment triggered an increase in the sound absorption coefficient. Additionally, when an air cavity was applied, the sound absorption coefficient of both heat-treated wood species was increased at low frequency. From the results of this study, we expected that heat-treated momala and red toon cross-sections can be utilized as eco-friendly ceiling materials with sound absorption function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Wood in Construction)
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