Innovative Sensory, Chemosensory, and Chemical Techniques in Beverages Quality

A topical collection in Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This collection belongs to the section "Drinks and Liquid Nutrition".

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Editor

Research Centre-Vila Real (CQ-VR), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: wine microbiology; volatile acidity bio-reduction; food sensory evaluation; wine sensory evaluation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The changes in society in recent years have radically modified the beverage industry by combining the concept of globalization with the revaluation of local production. Besides, many alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages are now seen as a vehicle of healthy constituents such as probiotics, prebiotics, vitamins, and energy boosters. Besides, the COVID pandemic is showing that we must take care of ourselves and the phrase “let the food be your medicine”, can also be applied to the world of beverage products.

Consumers worldwide are also changing their behavior when deciding what to eat and drink. This change includes consumers’ “willing to pay”, a decision based upon how well the product satisfy their needs, not only sensorially but also in terms of health benefits and nutritional value. Moreover, in the digital age with ubiquitous connectivity, peer-to-peer networking, engagement, immersion, and content creation, consumers can shape and be shaped by this new digital culture. The advertising industry is persistently exploiting the special relationship that consumers have with new media, with online campaigns that create unparalleled relationships between them and the brands that surround them.

Modern beverage industries must produce high-quality products, with expected levels of health-promoting compounds, pleasant to drink, and, at the same time, to minimize the risk of potentially harmful ingredients such as sulfites and other allergenic preservatives, heavy metals, mycotoxins, and additional potentially hazard compounds.

To complement all these requirements the beverage industry must employ laboratory techniques where speed is imperative. Technology solutions must require fewer samples or, non-destructive techniques. They must provide quick answers, to allow the operator to decide quickly about further steps to control or release the product to market. Sensors and the related data modeling, which allows the "measure", are evolving to meet the needs of the beverage sector.

Designing a sensory quality control program is also fundamental. This allows to maintain proficiency testing of sensory panels, use innovative sensory methods that permit establishing product sensory specifications. Also, the development of alternative instrumental techniques or devices able to overcome the limitations of the human senses has become an attractive topic for the beverage industry. The development of these instruments - e-noses, tongues - is based on their ability to mimic the human sensory response, which is strongly dependent on the many biological mechanisms involved from the stimulus to their corresponding interpretation.

This Special Issue includes innovative studies aiming to address beverage industry challenges not only in terms of product quality but, also, in terms of sensory science-development, instrumental analysis, sensors, and digital engagement.

Prof. Dr. Alice Vilela
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • beverages aroma and flavor
  • beverage innovation
  • sensory perception
  • sensory methodologies
  • consumer´s choice
  • beverage consumers immersion in the digital era
  • sensor techniques
  • new approaches to data treatment
  • new approaches to chemometric tools
  • new approaches to chemosensory tools
  • flavor authenticity and human health

Published Papers (4 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022, 2021

21 pages, 1960 KiB  
Article
Chemical Characterization, Sensory Definition and Prediction Model of the Cider Dryness from New York State Apples
by Monica Picchi, Paola Domizio, Matt Wilson, Josè Santos, Frederick Orrin, Bruno Zanoni and Valentina Canuti
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2191; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112191 - 30 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
Cider is a fermented drink obtained from apple juice. As a function of the used apple cultivar, cider can be classified in four different categories (dry, semi-dry, semi-sweet, sweet), distinguished by the attribute of “dryness,” which reflects the sweetness and softness perceived. The [...] Read more.
Cider is a fermented drink obtained from apple juice. As a function of the used apple cultivar, cider can be classified in four different categories (dry, semi-dry, semi-sweet, sweet), distinguished by the attribute of “dryness,” which reflects the sweetness and softness perceived. The dryness level is defined by scales (IRF, NYCA scales) based on the residual sugar, titratable acidity and tannin contents. Despite some adjustments, these scales show limitations in the prediction of actual perceived dryness, as they cannot consider the complicated interrelation between combined chemical compounds and sensory perception. After defining the perceived sensory dryness and its sensory description by using the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) method, a multivariate approach (PLS) was applied to define a predictive model for the dryness and to identify the chemical compounds with which it was correlated. Three models were developed, based on three different sets of chemical parameters, to provide a method that is easily applicable in the ordinary production process of cider. The comparison between the predicted rating and the relative scales scores showed that the models were able to predict the dryness rating in a more effective way. The multivariate approach was found to be the most suitable to study the relation between chemical and sensory data. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2023, 2021

25 pages, 1462 KiB  
Review
An Overview of Sensory Characterization Techniques: From Classical Descriptive Analysis to the Emergence of Novel Profiling Methods
by Catarina Marques, Elisete Correia, Lia-Tânia Dinis and Alice Vilela
Foods 2022, 11(3), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030255 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 12636
Abstract
Sensory science provides objective information about the consumer understanding of a product, the acceptance or rejection of stimuli, and the description of the emotions evoked. It is possible to answer how consumers perceive a product through discriminative and descriptive techniques. However, perception can [...] Read more.
Sensory science provides objective information about the consumer understanding of a product, the acceptance or rejection of stimuli, and the description of the emotions evoked. It is possible to answer how consumers perceive a product through discriminative and descriptive techniques. However, perception can change over time, and these fluctuations can be measured with time-intensity methods. Instrumental sensory devices and immersive techniques are gaining headway as sensory profiling techniques. The authors of this paper critically review sensory techniques from classical descriptive analysis to the emergence of novel profiling methods. Though research has been done in the creation of new sensory methods and comparison of those methods, little attention has been given to the timeline approach and its advantages and challenges. This study aimed to gather, explain, simplify, and discuss the evolution of sensory techniques. Full article
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Graphical abstract

2021

Jump to: 2023, 2022

19 pages, 5704 KiB  
Article
Pulsed Electric Fields to Improve the Use of Non-Saccharomyces Starters in Red Wines
by Cristian Vaquero, Iris Loira, Javier Raso, Ignacio Álvarez, Carlota Delso and Antonio Morata
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1472; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071472 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2310
Abstract
New nonthermal technologies, including pulsed electric fields (PEF), open a new way to generate more natural foods while respecting their organoleptic qualities. PEF can reduce wild yeasts to improve the implantation of other yeasts and generate more desired metabolites. Two PEF treatments were [...] Read more.
New nonthermal technologies, including pulsed electric fields (PEF), open a new way to generate more natural foods while respecting their organoleptic qualities. PEF can reduce wild yeasts to improve the implantation of other yeasts and generate more desired metabolites. Two PEF treatments were applied; one with an intensity of 5 kV/cm was applied continuously to the must for further colour extraction, and a second treatment only to the must (without skins) after a 24-hour maceration of 17.5 kV/cm intensity, reducing its wild yeast load by up to 2 log CFU/mL, thus comparing the implantation and fermentation of inoculated non-Saccharomyces yeasts. In general, those treated with PEF preserved more total esters and formed more anthocyanins, including vitisin A, due to better implantation of the inoculated yeasts. It should be noted that the yeast Lachancea thermotolerans that had received PEF treatment produced four-fold more lactic acid (3.62 ± 0.84 g/L) than the control of the same yeast, and Hanseniaspora vineae with PEF produced almost three-fold more 2-phenylethyl acetate than the rest. On the other hand, 3-ethoxy-1-propanol was not observed at the end of the fermentation with a Torulaspora delbrueckii (Td) control but in the Td PEF, it was observed (3.17 ± 0.58 mg/L). Full article
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14 pages, 1857 KiB  
Article
Improvement of Must Fermentation from Late Harvest cv. Tempranillo Grapes Treated with Pulsed Light
by Carlos Escott, Carmen López, Iris Loira, Carmen González, María Antonia Bañuelos, Wendu Tesfaye, José Antonio Suárez-Lepe and Antonio Morata
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061416 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2501
Abstract
Pulsed light irradiation is a nonthermal technology currently used for the elimination of pathogens from a diverse range of food products. In the last two decades, the results obtained using PL at laboratory scale are encouraging wine experts to use it in the [...] Read more.
Pulsed light irradiation is a nonthermal technology currently used for the elimination of pathogens from a diverse range of food products. In the last two decades, the results obtained using PL at laboratory scale are encouraging wine experts to use it in the winemaking industry. PL can reduce native yeast counts significantly, which facilitates the use of starter cultures, reducing SO2 requirements at the same time. In this experimental set up, Tempranillo grapes were subjected to pulsed light treatment, and the fermentative performance of non-Saccharomyces yeasts belonging to the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Lachancea thermotolerans, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Hanseniaspora vineae was monitored in sequential fermentations against spontaneous fermentation and pure culture fermentation with the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The experimental analyses comprised the determination of anthocyanin (High performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector—HPLC-DAD), polyphenol index and colour (Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy—UV-Vis spectrophotometer), fermentation-derived volatiles (Gas chromatography with flame ionization detector—GC-FID), oenological parameters (Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy—FT-IR) and structural damage of the skin (atomic force microscopy—AFM). The results showed a decrease of 1.2 log CFU/mL yeast counts after pulsed light treatment and more rapid and controlled fermentation kinetics in musts from treated grapes than in untreated samples. The fermentations done with treated grapes allowed starter cultures to better implant in the must, although a larger anthocyanin loss (up to 93%) and an increase in hue values (1 unit) towards more yellow hues were observed for treated grapes. The development of biomass was larger in musts from treated grapes. The profile of volatile compounds and oenological parameters reveals that fermentations carried out with untreated grapes are prone to deviations from native microbiota (e.g., production of lactic acid). Finally, no severe damage on the skin was observed with the AFM on treated grapes. Full article
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