Recent Advances and Future Trends on Comprehensive Utilization of Food Waste and Side Streams

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Security and Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 August 2022) | Viewed by 20751

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Nutrition and Food Science Area, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Forensic Medicine Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitat de València, Avda. Vicent Andrés Estellés, s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain
Interests: nutrients; bioactive compounds; food preservation; thermal treatment; innovative processing; high-pressure processing; compressed fluids; pulsed electric fields; ultrasound; microwaves; phytochemical purification; phytochemical analysis; compound isolation; bioaccessibility; bioavailability
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Nutrición y Bromatología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Burgos, E-09001 Burgos, Spain
Interests: nutrients; digestion; bioactive compounds; bioaccessibility; bioactivity; health-related properties; food preservation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e IML, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, San Miguel de Tucumán T4000, Argentina
Interests: natural products; agricultural by-products/wastes; biological activities; toxicity and genotoxicity; isolation and chemical characterization; food products development; phytocosmetic and herbal products development
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Bioprospecting and Plant Physiology Institute (CONICET-UNT), National Council for Scientific and Technical Research, Faculty of Natural Sciences, National University of Tucuman, San Miguel de Tucuman, Argentina
Interests: natural products; bioactive compounds; biocompounds extraction, isolation and characterization; sustainable use of waste; food preservation; phytocosmetic product development; cosmetic product development; food products development
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to consumer´s growing awareness regarding sustainability in the food chain, several initiatives have been developed at a private and public level to address food waste and side streams underutilization. In this sense, the UN’s 2030 program for sustainable development, and the society's growing demand for greener alternatives, encourage the global food industry to develop affordable, safe, effective, innovative and ecologically processing technologies.

Food waste and side streams have been traditionally underexploited or used in activities with low-added-value. However, they have a great potential for food, pharmaceutical, biotechnological and cosmetic activities, among other fields of application. In this sense, several studies have evaluated food waste and side streams from agriculture and marine origin as an excellent source of nutrients and bioactive compounds. Moreover, these matrices can be also used as a raw material for the development of biofuels and biomaterials (i.e., packaging) thus addressing the sustainability aspects covered by the UN´s 2030 program.

Therefore, in this Special Issue we are accepting manuscripts (original research articles or reviews) dealing with the use of conventional and innovative approaches for the sustainable use of food wastes and subproducts from agricultural and marine to obtain nutrients and bioactive compounds, bioingredients, biomaterials, biofuels, packaging products, others.

Prof. Dr. Francisco J. Barba
Prof. Dr. Celia Carrillo
Prof. Dr. Iris Catiana Zampini
Prof. Dr. Isla Mariá Inés
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Food waste and side streams
  • Nutrients and bioactive compounds
  • Functional properties
  • Bioingredients
  • Biofuels
  • Biomaterial-nanomaterial
  • Packaging products
  • Conventional extraction
  • Innovative extraction

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 3734 KiB  
Article
Prosopis alba Seed as a Functional Food Waste for Food Formulation Enrichment
by Florencia M. Correa Uriburu, Florencia Cattaneo, Luis M. Maldonado, Iris C. Zampini, María R. Alberto and María I. Isla
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2857; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182857 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2202
Abstract
The present study describes how flour and phenolic enriched extracts (PEE) are obtained from seed (food waste) of 10 different P. alba (algarrobo blanco) clones and their characterization to be used as non-conventional sources of potential functional ingredients. Seed flour and PEE obtained [...] Read more.
The present study describes how flour and phenolic enriched extracts (PEE) are obtained from seed (food waste) of 10 different P. alba (algarrobo blanco) clones and their characterization to be used as non-conventional sources of potential functional ingredients. Seed flour and PEE obtained from Argentinian P. alba cultivars were chemically characterized. The antioxidant capacity was also determined. The results showed variability in macronutrient composition of seed flour obtained from different clones. Among them, seed flour obtained from P4, P5, P6, P10, P12, and P13 clones showed a higher protein and fiber content than the other clones. On the other hand, PEE obtained from P6, P7, and P10 clones showed the highest content of phenolic component (7.32–8.58 mg GAE/g flour). The extracts obtained from them also showed high antioxidant activity (scavenging activity on ABTS•+, HO, and H2O2). C-glycosyl flavones, including vicenin II, isoschaftoside, schaftoside, vitexin, and isovitexin were the major components extracted in all clones. These compounds have remarkable properties for disease prevention linked to oxidative stress. Therefore, the P. alba seed could be considered as functional food waste with a great potential to be used as a novel renewable and sustainable material for the production of bioactive food formulations. Full article
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20 pages, 1538 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Tomato Seed By-Products as a Source of Fatty Acids and Bioactive Compounds by Using Advanced Extraction Techniques
by Ignacio Solaberrieta, Ana Cristina Mellinas, Jérémy Espagnol, Mahmoud Hamzaoui, Alfonso Jiménez and María Carmen Garrigós
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2408; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162408 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2105
Abstract
In this work, lipids and bioactive compounds from tomato seed by-products were extracted and compared by using advanced extraction techniques, such as microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The influence of different extraction parameters, including extraction temperature (T), time (t) and [...] Read more.
In this work, lipids and bioactive compounds from tomato seed by-products were extracted and compared by using advanced extraction techniques, such as microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The influence of different extraction parameters, including extraction temperature (T), time (t) and solvent volume (V) for MAE as well as extraction temperature (T), pressure (P) and flow rate (F) for SFE-CO2, was evaluated on tomato seed oil (TSO) yield and fatty acids composition using response surface methodology (RSM). Optimum extraction conditions for MAE were 56.2 °C, 29.0 min, and 67.6 mL, whereas conditions of 60.2 °C, 400.0 bar, and 64.6 g min−1 were found for SFE-CO2. Under these conditions, higher TSO extraction yields were obtained by MAE compared to SFE-CO2 (25.3 wt% and 16.9 wt%, respectively), while similar fatty acids profiles were found by GC in terms of FAMEs composition: methyl palmitate, methyl stearate, methyl oleate, and methyl linoleate, accounting for around 80 wt% of unsaturated fatty acids. TSO MAE extracts showed high DPPH• radical scavenging activity which was related to the presence of tocopherols; in particular γ-tocopherol, which was found as the dominant homologue (260.3 ± 0.6 mg kgTS−1) followed by a lower amount of α-tocopherol (6.53 ± 0.12 mg kgTS−1) by HPLC-DAD. The obtained results suggested that tomato seeds are an interesting source of bioactive compounds with potential use in a wide range of nutritional and food applications, increasing the added value of this by-product, which is currently underexploited. Full article
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13 pages, 1302 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Hypoglycemic and Anti-Inflammatory Potential and Toxicity of Powders from Pulp and by-Products of Ziziphus mistol from Argentina
by María Eugenia Orqueda, Sebastian Torres, Iris Catiana Zampini and María Inés Isla
Foods 2022, 11(14), 2125; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11142125 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Background: The Ziziphus mistol fruit (vulgar name mistol) is used in northwestern Argentina in traditional food and beverage preparations and popular medicines for liver and respiratory disorders. Aims: The aim of this research was to evaluate the hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory activity in pulp [...] Read more.
Background: The Ziziphus mistol fruit (vulgar name mistol) is used in northwestern Argentina in traditional food and beverage preparations and popular medicines for liver and respiratory disorders. Aims: The aim of this research was to evaluate the hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory activity in pulp powders and sub-products (skin and seeds) of mistol fruit, along with their toxicity. Methods: Powders from mistol seeds, pulp, and skin were obtained. Antioxidant capacity and inhibitory activity against key enzymes involved in metabolic syndrome were determined by in vitro assays. Results: The mistol powders obtained from the different fruit parts reduced glucose bioaccessibility. Before and after simulated gastroduodenal digestion, the polyphenol-enriched extracts (PEE) obtained from mistol powders increased glucose uptake by yeast cells and inhibited the pivotal enzymes of the inflammatory pathway (cyclooxygenase-2, lipooxygenase-1, and phospholipase A2). The analyzed mistol powders did not show acute toxicity or genotoxicity in model organisms and cell cultures. Conclusions: These results evince the potentiality of both the pulp from Z. mistol fruits and residual biomass (seeds and skin) to obtain biofunctional powders to use as supplements for metabolic disorders associated with chronic diseases. Full article
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14 pages, 4357 KiB  
Article
Steam Explosion-Assisted Extraction of Protein from Fish Backbones and Effect of Enzymatic Hydrolysis on the Extracts
by Ye Dong, Wen Yan, Xiao-Di Zhang, Zhi-Yuan Dai and Yi-Qi Zhang
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1942; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081942 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3184
Abstract
The development of an efficient pretreatment, prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, is a good strategy for the sustainable use of refractory fish byproducts. This study compared hydrothermal pretreatments at 159 °C for 2 min, followed by water extraction (steam explosion-assisted extraction, SE) and 121 [...] Read more.
The development of an efficient pretreatment, prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, is a good strategy for the sustainable use of refractory fish byproducts. This study compared hydrothermal pretreatments at 159 °C for 2 min, followed by water extraction (steam explosion-assisted extraction, SE) and 121 °C for 70 min (hot-pressure extraction, HPE), for the recovery of proteins from fish backbones. The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the properties of the obtained fish bone protein (FBP) was also evaluated. The results demonstrated that FBP had high contents of protein (81.09–84.88 g/100 g) and hydroxyproline (70–82 residues/1000 residues). After hydrolysis with Flavourzyme, for 3 h, the FBP hydrolysates that were pretreated with SE (SFBP-H) exhibited a better degree of hydrolysis (DH) and nitrogen recovery (NR), and a higher level of umami taste free amino acids (151.50 mg/100 mL), compared with the HPE-treated samples. The obtained SFBP-H mainly distributed below 3000 Da and had strong scavenging effects on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) (IC50 = 4.24 mg/mL) and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) (IC50 = 1.93 mg/mL) radicals. Steam explosion-assisted extraction is a promising route for recovering proteins from native fish bone materials, and improving the flavor and antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates. Full article
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Review

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16 pages, 6507 KiB  
Review
Solanum betaceum Fruits Waste: A Valuable Source of Bioactive Compounds to Be Used in Foods and Non-Foods Applications
by María Inés Isla, María Eugenia Orqueda, María Alejandra Moreno, Sebastián Torres and Iris Catiana Zampini
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3363; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213363 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2138
Abstract
The fruit supply chain generates large amounts of waste that are often used as animal feed and in the production of both composts and fertilizers and biogas (anaerobic digestion). Since these types of procedures imply high economic costs related to drying, storage, and [...] Read more.
The fruit supply chain generates large amounts of waste that are often used as animal feed and in the production of both composts and fertilizers and biogas (anaerobic digestion). Since these types of procedures imply high economic costs related to drying, storage, and transport processes, more efficient and environmentally friendly utilization and recycling of this kind of waste are becoming significant for governments and industries. However, improper waste disposal increases the burden on the environment. Many of these fruit wastes, such as Solanum betaceum fruit waste, viz., peels, seeds, and pomace, could be considered potent bio-resource materials for several applications in the food and non-food industries due to their richness in valuable compounds. The basic composition of Solanum betaceum fruits seed has a high content of protein (20%), fiber (around 25%), sugar (11–20%) and low lipid content (0.4%), while S. betaceum peel has a low content of sugar (2–9%), protein (8–10%) and lipid (0.2–0.8%) and high fiber content (23%). Regarding the phytochemicals, the wastes have a high level of phenolics (0.2–0.6%) and pigments such as anthocyanins (0.06%). The inherent bioactive compounds of waste can be used as natural ingredients for foods, cosmetics, medicines, and the production of packaging materials production. Along this line, the present review covers all possible approaches for the valorization of S.betaceum waste in the food and non-food sectors. Full article
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34 pages, 2058 KiB  
Review
Cereal Waste Valorization through Conventional and Current Extraction Techniques—An Up-to-Date Overview
by Anca Corina Fărcaș, Sonia Ancuța Socaci, Silvia Amalia Nemeș, Liana Claudia Salanță, Maria Simona Chiș, Carmen Rodica Pop, Andrei Borșa, Zorița Diaconeasa and Dan Cristian Vodnar
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2454; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162454 - 14 Aug 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4403
Abstract
Nowadays, in the European Union more than 100 million tons of food are wasted, meanwhile, millions of people are starving. Food waste represents a serious and ever-growing issue which has gained researchers’ attention due to its economic, environmental, social, and ethical implications. The [...] Read more.
Nowadays, in the European Union more than 100 million tons of food are wasted, meanwhile, millions of people are starving. Food waste represents a serious and ever-growing issue which has gained researchers’ attention due to its economic, environmental, social, and ethical implications. The Sustainable Development Goal has as its main objective the reduction of food waste through several approaches such as the re-use of agro-industrial by-products and their exploitation through complete valorization of their bioactive compounds. The extraction of the bioactive compounds through conventional methods has been used for a long time, whilst the increasing demand and evolution for using more sustainable extraction techniques has led to the development of new, ecologically friendly, and high-efficiency technologies. Enzymatic and ultrasound-assisted extractions, microwave-assisted extraction, membrane fractionation, and pressure-based extraction techniques (supercritical fluid extraction, subcritical water extraction, and steam explosion) are the main debated green technologies in the present paper. This review aims to provide a critical and comprehensive overview of the well-known conventional extraction methods and the advanced novel treatments and extraction techniques applied to release the bioactive compounds from cereal waste and by-products. Full article
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26 pages, 1844 KiB  
Review
Innovative Non-Thermal Technologies for Recovery and Valorization of Value-Added Products from Crustacean Processing By-Products—An Opportunity for a Circular Economy Approach
by Ana Cristina De Aguiar Saldanha Pinheiro, Francisco J. Martí-Quijal, Francisco J. Barba, Silvia Tappi and Pietro Rocculi
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2030; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092030 - 29 Aug 2021
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3704
Abstract
The crustacean processing industry has experienced significant growth over recent decades resulting in the production of a great number of by-products. Crustacean by-products contain several valuable components such as proteins, lipids, and carotenoids, especially astaxanthin and chitin. When isolated, these valuable compounds are [...] Read more.
The crustacean processing industry has experienced significant growth over recent decades resulting in the production of a great number of by-products. Crustacean by-products contain several valuable components such as proteins, lipids, and carotenoids, especially astaxanthin and chitin. When isolated, these valuable compounds are characterized by bioactivities such as anti-microbial, antioxidant, and anti-cancer ones, and that could be used as nutraceutical ingredients or additives in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Different innovative non-thermal technologies have appeared as promising, safe, and efficient tools to recover these valuable compounds. This review aims at providing a summary of the main compounds that can be extracted from crustacean by-products, and of the results obtained by applying the main innovative non-thermal processes for recovering such high-value products. Moreover, from the perspective of the circular economy approach, specific case studies on some current applications of the recovered compounds in the seafood industry are presented. The extraction of valuable components from crustacean by-products, combined with the development of novel technological strategies aimed at their recovery and purification, will allow for important results related to the long-term sustainability of the seafood industry to be obtained. Furthermore, the reuse of extracted components in seafood products is an interesting strategy to increase the value of the seafood sector overall. However, to date, there are limited industrial applications for this promising approach. Full article
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