Sustainable Future Protein Foods

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Security and Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 December 2021) | Viewed by 57084

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
CSIRO Agriculture & Food, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, QLD 4108, Australia
Interests: emerging processing technologies; meat science; carcass characterization; value-addition; ingredients; clean-label foods; alternative proteins

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Guest Editor
School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Interests: process engineering; emerging processing technologies; alternative proteins; food structure
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. CSIRO Agriculture & Food, 306 Carmody Road, St Lucia, QLD 4053, Australia
2. School of Science, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Rd, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia
Interests: proteins; peptides; proteomics; allergy; food intolerance; alternative proteins; sustainable food production
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The challenge to address future global protein demand has led to increased research for healthy and sustainably produced protein foods. This includes the valorization of traditional animal-based protein sources, through to the development of new protein foods within the categories of plant-based, cultivated, and fermentation science. For consumer acceptance, new foods must have excellent sensory and nutritional quality, and this presents a challenge. Processing technologies will have a role to play in sustainably developing high-quality future protein products. However, there is a need to further optimize processing for improved function and flavor attributes of new protein products, while also understanding impacts on the nutrition aspects of digestibility, bioavailability, and allergenicity. This Special Issue welcomes papers with the following research areas:

  • Sustainable processing technologies applied to protein foods
  • Exploring the techno-functionality of protein ingredients and foods from emerging or under-explored sources, e.g., grains, legumes, pulses, mycoprotein, insects, algae.
  • Measuring and modulating flavor aspects of protein ingredients
  • Understanding human digestibility of new proteins
  • Health aspects of proteins in the human diet—protein quality, micronutrients, bioavailability, and allergenicity.

Dr. Ciara McDonnell
Prof. Dr. Roman Buckow
Prof. Dr. Michelle Colgrave
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • protein
  • processing
  • technologies
  • sustainable
  • ingredients
  • health
  • flavor
  • digestibility
  • formulation

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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26 pages, 8538 KiB  
Article
Acceptance of Cultured Meat in Germany—Application of an Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour
by Jacqueline Dupont, Tess Harms and Florian Fiebelkorn
Foods 2022, 11(3), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030424 - 31 Jan 2022
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 10350
Abstract
This study examines the willingness to consume a cultured meat burger in Germany. Based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we assessed attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and subjective norms via an online questionnaire. Attitudes were operationalized in this research as general attitudes [...] Read more.
This study examines the willingness to consume a cultured meat burger in Germany. Based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we assessed attitudes, perceived behavioural control, and subjective norms via an online questionnaire. Attitudes were operationalized in this research as general attitudes towards cultured meat and specific attitudes towards a cultured meat burger. Furthermore, the TPB was extended with nutritional-psychological variables including food (technology) neophobia, food disgust, sensation seeking, and green consumption values. In total, 58.4% of the participants reported being willing to consume a cultured meat burger. Using a path model, the extended TPB accounted for 77.8% of the variance in willingness to consume a cultured meat burger. All components of the TPB were significant predictors except general attitudes. The influence of general attitudes was completely mediated by specific attitudes. All nutritional-psychological variables influenced general attitudes. Food technology neophobia was the strongest negative, and green consumption values were the strongest positive predictor of general attitudes. Marketing strategies should therefore target the attitudes of consumers by encouraging the natural perception of cultured meat, using a less technological product name, enabling transparency about the production, and creating a dialogue about both the fears and the environmental benefits of the new technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Future Protein Foods)
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15 pages, 2262 KiB  
Article
Development of Cellular High-Protein Foods: Third-Generation Yellow Pea and Red Lentil Puffed Snacks
by Nasibeh Y. Sinaki, Mustafa Tugrul Masatcioglu, Jitendra Paliwal and Filiz Koksel
Foods 2022, 11(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11010038 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2769
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate how extrusion cooking conditions and microwave heating play a role in enhancing physical and thermal properties of third-generation expanded cellular snacks made from yellow pea (YP) and red lentil (RL) flours for the first time. Increasing temperature and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate how extrusion cooking conditions and microwave heating play a role in enhancing physical and thermal properties of third-generation expanded cellular snacks made from yellow pea (YP) and red lentil (RL) flours for the first time. Increasing temperature and moisture content during extrusion resulted in darker, crunchier and crispier products with higher expansion index (EI). Microwave heating after extrusion led to an increase in cell size and porosity of YP and RL products when qualitatively compared to extrusion alone. Additionally, extrusion followed by microwave heating resulted in extensive damage to starch granular structure and complete denaturation of proteins. Using microwave heating, as a fast and inexpensive process, following partial cooking with extrusion was demonstrated to greatly improve the physical and thermal properties of YP and RL snacks. Microwave heating following mild extrusion, instead of severe extrusion cooking alone, can potentially benefit the development of high quality nutritionally-dense expanded cellular snacks made from pulse flours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Future Protein Foods)
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15 pages, 3562 KiB  
Article
Metabolic Effects of Bee Larva-Derived Protein in Mice: Assessment of an Alternative Protein Source
by Yoko Yokoyama, Kawori Shinohara, Naho Kitamura, Anna Nakamura, Ai Onoue, Kazuki Tanaka, Akiyoshi Hirayama, Wanping Aw, Shigeru Nakamura, Yoko Ogawa, Shinji Fukuda, Kazuo Tsubota and Mitsuhiro Watanabe
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2642; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112642 - 01 Nov 2021
Viewed by 3021
Abstract
Food crises caused by growing global population or environmental changes are predicted in the near future; therefore, sustainable solutions are needed. Edible insects, which are rich in protein and can save feed and environmental resources, have the potential to be a sustainable alternative [...] Read more.
Food crises caused by growing global population or environmental changes are predicted in the near future; therefore, sustainable solutions are needed. Edible insects, which are rich in protein and can save feed and environmental resources, have the potential to be a sustainable alternative protein source. However, there is limited evidence on the impact on health. In this study, we investigated the biological effects of ingesting bee larva by examining their effects on amino acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism in animal models. In our animal experiments, the replacement of casein as a protein source, with edible insects, did not seem to cause any deficiency in murine amino acid levels in the plasma and liver. Metabolomic analysis of plasma metabolites showed decreased 3-methylhistidine and increased nicotinamide in the bee larva-derived protein-fed mice. Decreased levels of plasma 3-metylhistidine, an indicator of muscle degradation, implies that replacement to bee-larva protein from casein did not cause muscle degradation in vivo. We further investigated effects of increased plasma nicotinamide on peripheral tissue and found an increase in expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake in muscle and thermogenesis in adipose tissue. These data imply that bee larva is a potential sustainable, safe and healthy alternative protein source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Future Protein Foods)
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20 pages, 502 KiB  
Article
Food Safety of Consuming Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Larvae: Microbial, Heavy Metal and Cross-Reactive Allergen Risks
by Leah W. Bessa, Elsje Pieterse, Jeannine Marais, Karim Dhanani and Louwrens C. Hoffman
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1934; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081934 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4935
Abstract
Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae (BSFL) are a promising, sustainable source of nutrients, however, there is limited knowledge regarding the food safety of consuming BSFL. This study determined the safety of consuming BSFL for direct human consumption in terms of [...] Read more.
Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae (BSFL) are a promising, sustainable source of nutrients, however, there is limited knowledge regarding the food safety of consuming BSFL. This study determined the safety of consuming BSFL for direct human consumption in terms of microbial, heavy metal and allergen content. Microbial counts were determined using ISO (International Organization for Standardization) methods, heavy metals were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and allergens were determined via Orbitrap mass spectrometry and ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kits. Feed and killing method influenced the presence of Bacillus cereus (p = 0.011), and only the killing method influenced Escherichia coli (p < 0.00) and total viable count (TVC) (p < 0.00). Blanching resulted in a 3-log reduction in E. coli and a 3.4 log reduction in the TVC counts. Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were not detected in the BSFL samples. Heavy metals were detected although they were below maximum legal limits. Cross-reactive allergens, tropomyosin and arginine kinase, were detected in the BSFL samples, although the clinical significance requires research. The feed fed to the BSFL and blanching were found to influence the safety of consuming BSFL, highlighting the importance of incorporating sufficient decontamination steps, such as blanching, to ensure food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Future Protein Foods)
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16 pages, 1085 KiB  
Article
Quality Attributes of Ultra-High Temperature-Treated Model Beverages Prepared with Faba Bean Protein Concentrates
by Malik Adil Nawaz, Tanoj Kumar Singh, Regine Stockmann, Hema Jegasothy and Roman Buckow
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1244; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061244 - 30 May 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4206
Abstract
The objective of this research was to develop a model faba bean drink with a high concentration of protein (>4% w/w). The protein molecular weights and frequency for both faba and soy were assessed using SDS-PAGE. Results showed similarities in the protein [...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to develop a model faba bean drink with a high concentration of protein (>4% w/w). The protein molecular weights and frequency for both faba and soy were assessed using SDS-PAGE. Results showed similarities in the protein molecular weight of both faba and soy (mainly 11S globulin ~Glycinin and 7S globulin ~β-conglycinin). Thus, faba can be considered as a potential soy replica in plant-based milk beverages. Oil-in-water emulsions (5–8% w/w available protein) were prepared using faba bean protein concentrate (FPC), 1% sunflower oil, and 0.2% sunflower lecithin. These emulsions were used as model beverages and were further investigated for UHT processibility, stability, and physicochemical properties. The physicochemical properties of emulsions at various processing stages viz., coarse emulsification, homogenisation, and UHT, were measured. An increase in the protein concentration and thermal treatment resulted in an increased oil droplet size, coalescence and flocculation, and protein aggregation. Lower protein concentrations viz., 5–6%, showed greater negative ζ-potential, and thereby, high dispersibility through enhanced electrostatic repulsions than those of higher concentrations (7–8%). Furthermore, an increase in protein concentration and UHT treatment resulted in an increased creaming index. In total, 21 different volatile compounds were detected and quantified, representing different chemical classes, namely alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, furan, and acids. These volatiles have major consequences for the overall flavour chemistry of the model beverage product. Overall, this study showed the potential for application of faba bean as a protein source in UHT-treated legume-based beverages and identified areas for further development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Future Protein Foods)
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23 pages, 6524 KiB  
Article
US and UK Consumer Adoption of Cultivated Meat: A Segmentation Study
by Keri Szejda, Christopher J. Bryant and Tessa Urbanovich
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051050 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 21447
Abstract
Despite growing evidence of the environmental and public health threats posed by today’s intensive animal production, consumers in the west remain largely attached to meat. Cultivated meat offers a way to grow meat directly from cells, circumventing these issues as well as the [...] Read more.
Despite growing evidence of the environmental and public health threats posed by today’s intensive animal production, consumers in the west remain largely attached to meat. Cultivated meat offers a way to grow meat directly from cells, circumventing these issues as well as the use of animals altogether. The aim of this study was to assess the overall consumer markets and a range of preferences around cultivated meat in the US and the UK relating to nomenclature, genetic modification, health enhancements, and other features. To this end, we recruited large representative samples to participate in an online survey about cultivated meat, and subsequently analyzed segments (a) in the early majority population (guided by the Diffusion of Innovations Model), (b) by generation, and (c) in the general population. Our findings showed a high level of openness (80%) in both the US and UK populations, with 40% somewhat or moderately likely to try and 40% highly likely to try. Younger generations had the greatest openness: 88% of Gen Z, 85% of Millennials, 77% of Gen X, and 72% of Baby Boomers were at least somewhat open to trying cultivated meat. All segments envisioned cultivated meat to be nearly half of their total meat intake. Findings show that consumers prefer the terms ‘cultured’ and ‘cultivated’ over ‘cell-based’ and ‘cell-cultured’ for use in a social context and on packages, even though they perceive these terms as less descriptive. The most important on-package label was one indicating government assurances, and participants preferred non-GM products over GM products. We also found that US consumers prefer nutritionally superior meat over nutritionally equivalent meat. We discuss implications for product development, messaging, and understanding the likely adoption path of this food innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Future Protein Foods)
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Review

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31 pages, 972 KiB  
Review
How Healthy Are Non-Traditional Dietary Proteins? The Effect of Diverse Protein Foods on Biomarkers of Human Health
by Caroline Bull, Damien Belobrajdic, Sara Hamzelou, Darren Jones, Wayne Leifert, Rocío Ponce-Reyes, Netsanet Shiferaw Terefe, Gemma Williams and Michelle Colgrave
Foods 2022, 11(4), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11040528 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4672
Abstract
Future food security for healthy populations requires the development of safe, sustainably-produced protein foods to complement traditional dietary protein sources. To meet this need, a broad range of non-traditional protein foods are under active investigation. The aim of this review was to evaluate [...] Read more.
Future food security for healthy populations requires the development of safe, sustainably-produced protein foods to complement traditional dietary protein sources. To meet this need, a broad range of non-traditional protein foods are under active investigation. The aim of this review was to evaluate their potential effects on human health and to identify knowledge gaps, potential risks, and research opportunities. Non-traditional protein sources included are algae, cereals/grains, fresh fruit and vegetables, insects, mycoprotein, nuts, oil seeds, and legumes. Human, animal, and in vitro data suggest that non-traditional protein foods have compelling beneficial effects on human health, complementing traditional proteins (meat/poultry, soy, eggs, dairy). Improvements in cardiovascular health, lipid metabolism, muscle synthesis, and glycaemic control were the most frequently reported improvements in health-related endpoints. The mechanisms of benefit may arise from their diverse range of minerals, macro- and micronutrients, dietary fibre, and bioactive factors. Many were also reported to have anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and antioxidant activity. Across all protein sources examined, there is a strong need for quality human data from randomized controlled intervention studies. Opportunity lies in further understanding the potential effects of non-traditional proteins on the gut microbiome, immunity, inflammatory conditions, DNA damage, cognition, and cellular ageing. Safety, sustainability, and evidence-based health research will be vital to the development of high-quality complementary protein foods that enhance human health at all life stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Future Protein Foods)
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Other

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11 pages, 266 KiB  
Perspective
Food-Based Dietary Guidelines and Protein Quality Definitions—Time to Move Forward and Encompass Mycoprotein?
by Emma Derbyshire
Foods 2022, 11(5), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050647 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3341
Abstract
Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) lack uniformity globally, with the integration of protein food sources being highly variable. Protein guidance tends to be dichotomous, e.g., animal versus plant with other categories such as fungal proteins being overlooked. In 2019 the EAT Lancet Food in [...] Read more.
Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) lack uniformity globally, with the integration of protein food sources being highly variable. Protein guidance tends to be dichotomous, e.g., animal versus plant with other categories such as fungal proteins being overlooked. In 2019 the EAT Lancet Food in the Anthropocene report was a chief driver questioning the need to supply healthy diets from sustainable food systems. Some countries are developing FBDG that integrate these aspects, but these are quite often protracted, too subtle or misaligned with other countries, diluting the effects of meaningful global change. Protein quality metrics also underpin the dissemination of dietary guidance. However, for protein, these remain based on a food’s essential amino acid profile and digestibility scores, thus are nutritionally and physiologically centric. It has been proposed that this definition is becoming increasingly myopic from a wider societal perspective. Updated indices should include contemporary issues such as protein diversity and environmental outcomes. Taken together, there is opportunity for renewed thinking about both FBDG and protein quality definitions, with scope to include both health and environmental outcomes and need to move towards the concept of protein diversification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Future Protein Foods)
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