Food Processing and Shelf Life Extension

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Quality and Safety".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 March 2021) | Viewed by 39683

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Sciences, University of West Attica (former Technological Educational Institute of Athens), Ag. Spyridonos 28, 12243 Egaleo, Athens, Greece
Interests: processing, preservation techniques and quality control of fruits and vegetables; methods of food processing; shelf life studies and quality assessment; non-thermal processes; osmotic pretreatment of animal (meat and fish products) and vegetable tissues for shelf life extension; smart packaging (time temperature indicators); hurdle technology application; novel food production; sensory evaluation
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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Food Process Engineering, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens, Greece
Interests: food engineering; food packaging; active and intelligent packaging; nonthermal processing; shelf life modeling; seafood technology; predictive models
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

The processing of foods is a segment of the manufacturing industry that transforms animal, plant, and marine materials into intermediate or finished value-added food products possessing longer durability, that are safe to eat. The main targets of food processing are the extension of the shelf life of perishable products (i.e., the period during which food remains wholesome and safe (through appropriate preservation)), the retention of the superior quality, sensory, and nutritive attributes of the raw material, and in some cases, the manufacture of a new value-added product. The scope of food processing is broad. Unit operations occurring from after the harvest of raw materials until they are processed into the final food products, packaged, and distributed for retailing could be considered as part of food processing. Next to the well-established food processing techniques, consumer pressure has also stimulated improvements and modifications in food processing approaches to reducing sensory and nutritional damage, leading to the development of novel, “minimal” processes.

On the other hand, other developments have been seen in food stability and shelf life, with emphasis on their mathematical description through appropriate models aiming to quantify the effects of parameters such as temperature, pressure, water activity, etc. These mathematical formulae could serve as practical tools, not only for predicting food quality status under any given conditions, but also for optimizing the current—often problematic—food distribution chain.

Dr. Maria C. Giannakourou
Dr. Theofania N. Tsironi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • microbiological spoilage
  • quality
  • shelf life
  • modeling
  • unit operations
  • distribution
  • packaging
  • hurdle technology

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 3447 KiB  
Article
Skin Color Retention in Red Potatoes during Long-Term Storage with Edible Coatings
by Esam Emragi and Sastry S. Jayanty
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1531; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071531 - 2 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2618
Abstract
In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of edible coatings and cold storage conditions on the skin color of red potatoes (Ciklamen and Modoc) stored for six months at 4 ± 2 °C and 90 ± 5% relative humidity (RH). The [...] Read more.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of edible coatings and cold storage conditions on the skin color of red potatoes (Ciklamen and Modoc) stored for six months at 4 ± 2 °C and 90 ± 5% relative humidity (RH). The four different formulations used were sodium alginate (F1), sodium alginate and potato starch (F2), zein and chitosan (F3), and chitosan, sodium alginate and potato starch (F4), in addition to the control treatment with distilled water. The treated samples were assessed periodically during six months of storage for changes in color, levels of reducing sugars, total phenolics and sensory qualities. The results indicated that the treatment with edible coatings significantly enhanced the chroma value of skin color, especially F1 and F2 formulations. However, these coatings instilled a limited effect on the level of reducing sugars. Moreover, F1 and F4 formulations exerted a significant effect (p < 0.05) on anthocyanin content examined after three months of storage. Alginate-based edible coatings significantly improved sensory evaluation, especially in terms of the color, gloss, and general acceptability of red skin potatoes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Processing and Shelf Life Extension)
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16 pages, 3108 KiB  
Article
Carbon Dioxide Pretreatment and Cold Storage Synergistically Delay Tomato Ripening through Transcriptional Change in Ethylene-Related Genes and Respiration-Related Metabolism
by Me-Hea Park, Sun-Ju Kim, Jung-Soo Lee, Yoon-Pyo Hong, Seung-Hun Chae and Kang-Mo Ku
Foods 2021, 10(4), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040744 - 1 Apr 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3326
Abstract
The effects of CO2 pretreatment before cold storage on tomato quality were investigated using physicochemical and transcriptome changes. Harvested tomatoes were treated with 30% or 60% CO2 for 3 h before storage at 4 °C for 14 d (cold storage), followed [...] Read more.
The effects of CO2 pretreatment before cold storage on tomato quality were investigated using physicochemical and transcriptome changes. Harvested tomatoes were treated with 30% or 60% CO2 for 3 h before storage at 4 °C for 14 d (cold storage), followed by transfer to 20 °C for 8 d (ambient conditions). The CO2-treated fruits were firmer with a better appearance than untreated fruits, even after being transferred from 4 °C storage to 20 °C for 8 d. CO2 pretreatment coupled with cold storage synergistically delayed tomato ripening by reducing respiration and lowering lycopene production. The tomatoes treated with 30% and 60% CO2 had fewer pits than untreated fruits after cold storage, even after being transferred to ambient conditions. Moreover, the 60% CO2 treatment significantly suppressed the decay rate. Transcriptome and metabolome functional enrichment analyses commonly showed the involvement of CO2-responsive genes or metabolites in sucrose and starch metabolism, as well as biosynthesis of secondary metabolites—in particular, glycolysis reduction. The most frequently detected domain was the ethylene-responsive factor. These results indicate that altered ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signaling, via ethylene-responsive transcription factors and respiration-related pathways, appear to control CO2-induced fruit quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Processing and Shelf Life Extension)
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14 pages, 9199 KiB  
Article
Effect of Barley Antifreeze Protein on Dough and Bread during Freezing and Freeze-Thaw Cycles
by Xiangli Ding, Tingting Li, Hui Zhang, Chengran Guan, Jianya Qian and Xiaoyan Zhou
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1698; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111698 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3372
Abstract
In order to verify the cryoprotective effect of an antifreeze protein (BaAFP-1) obtained from barley on bread dough, the effect of BaAFP-1 on the rheological properties, microstructure, fermentation, and baking performance including the proofing time and the specific volume of bread dough and [...] Read more.
In order to verify the cryoprotective effect of an antifreeze protein (BaAFP-1) obtained from barley on bread dough, the effect of BaAFP-1 on the rheological properties, microstructure, fermentation, and baking performance including the proofing time and the specific volume of bread dough and bread crumb properties during freezing treatment and freeze-thaw cycles were analysed. BaAFP-1 reduced the rate of decrease in storage modulus and loss modulus values during freezing treatment and freeze-thaw cycles. It influenced the formation and the shape of ice formed during freezing and inhibited ice recrystallization during freeze-thaw. BaAFP-1 maintained gas production ability and gas retention properties, protected gluten network and the yeast cells from deterioration caused by ice formation and ice crystals recrystallisation in dough samples during freezing treatment and freeze-thaw treatment. It slow down the increase rate of hardness of bread crumb. The average area of pores in bread crumbs decreased significantly (p < 0.05) as the total number of pores increased (p < 0.05), and the addition of BaAFP-1 inhibited this deterioration. These results confirmed the cryoprotective activity of BaAFP-1 in bread dough during freezing treatment and freeze-thaw cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Processing and Shelf Life Extension)
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10 pages, 279 KiB  
Article
Effect of Decontamination Treatments on Campylobacter jejuni in Chicken
by Elena Gonzalez-Fandos, Alba Martinez-Laorden and Iratxe Perez-Arnedo
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1453; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101453 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
The ability of different decontaminating treatments (acetic, citric and fumaric acids, and potassium sorbate) to decrease Campylobacter jejuni on chicken legs was evaluated. Fresh chicken legs were inoculated with C. jejuni and washed with either acetic, citric, or fumaric acid (1% and 2%), [...] Read more.
The ability of different decontaminating treatments (acetic, citric and fumaric acids, and potassium sorbate) to decrease Campylobacter jejuni on chicken legs was evaluated. Fresh chicken legs were inoculated with C. jejuni and washed with either acetic, citric, or fumaric acid (1% and 2%), or potassium sorbate (1%, 2%, and 5%) solutions or distilled water. Evolution of C. jejuni, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacterales counts, and sensorial acceptability were evaluated after treatment (day 1) and on days 2, 4, 7, and 9 of storage at 4 °C. The lowest Pseudomonas counts were found in those legs dipped in 2% fumaric acid, while the lowest Enterobacterales populations were found in those legs dipped in 2% fumaric or 2% acetic acid. The shelf life of the legs treated was widened by at least 2 days over the control legs. The highest C. jejuni reductions after treatment were obtained in samples dipped in 2% citric acid, which were approximately 2.66 log units lower than in non-treated legs. However, the efficacy of citric acid decreased during storage. After day 2 of storage, the highest reductions of C. jejuni were found in those legs dipped in 2% acetic acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Processing and Shelf Life Extension)
17 pages, 4184 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Osmotic Dehydration of Tomatoes in Solutions of Non-Conventional Sweeteners by Response Surface Methodology and Desirability Approach
by Maria C. Giannakourou, Andriana E. Lazou and Efimia K. Dermesonlouoglou
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101393 - 1 Oct 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2895
Abstract
The osmotic dehydration (OD) of tomatoes in solutions of alternative sweeteners was investigated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), while selected desirability functions were implemented in order to define the optimum process parameters (temperature/duration of osmotic treatment, osmotic solution composition and concentration). Mass exchange, [...] Read more.
The osmotic dehydration (OD) of tomatoes in solutions of alternative sweeteners was investigated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), while selected desirability functions were implemented in order to define the optimum process parameters (temperature/duration of osmotic treatment, osmotic solution composition and concentration). Mass exchange, color and texture were measured during the process. Changes in color occurred rapidly at the beginning of the process, while firmness was significantly increased, indicating that OD processing led to tomato texture improvement. Color and firmness changes were adequately modeled using a polynomial model. RSM coupled with desirability functions was applied to optimize OD procedure in terms of color retention and maximum solid gain, a requirement for candied products. A maximum desirability was obtained by incorporating oligofructose into the osmotic solution, at relatively short treatment times. Results were validated and sensory analysis was conducted at the optimized conditions to assess samples’ organoleptic acceptance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Processing and Shelf Life Extension)
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19 pages, 3280 KiB  
Article
Developing a Commercial Antimicrobial Active Packaging System of Ground Beef Based on “Tsipouro” Alcoholic Distillate
by Anastasia E. Kapetanakou, Georgia-Lito Pateraki and Panagiotis N. Skandamis
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1171; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091171 - 25 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2429
Abstract
The present study aimed to develop a commercial active packaging system of ground beef, by exploiting the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of a traditional Greek alcoholic distillate called “tsipouro”. Commercial packages (500 g) were used and 40 mL of “tsipouro [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to develop a commercial active packaging system of ground beef, by exploiting the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of a traditional Greek alcoholic distillate called “tsipouro”. Commercial packages (500 g) were used and 40 mL of “tsipouro” was added in absorbent pads placed underneath the ground beef, while 10 mL was also mounted under the packaging film, facing the headspace. Samples were packaged in 80% O2: 20% CO2 and stored at 0, 4, 8, and 12 °C. Total Viable Counts, pseudomonads, Brochothrix thermosphacta, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts-moulds, pH, colour (L*, a*, b*), odour (buttery and acidic), and ethanol migration to ground beef (SPME/GC-FID) were determined. Moreover, mathematical models (square root and Arrhenius) describing the effect of temperature on determinant indicators of spoilage and quality deterioration like growth of dominant microorganisms and red colour reduction were developed and validated under non-isothermal conditions. B. thermosphacta dominated the microbial association of ground beef, while LAB were second in dominance, revealing a high growth potential at all assays. a* value (redness) was gradually decreased in controls, while samples treated with “tsipouro” showed more stable red colour during storage. Although ethanol was organoleptically detectable, especially at low storage temperatures (0–4 °C), it was rather perceived as a pleasant cool odour. Prediction by both models for microbial growth as well as those of Arrhenius model for reduction of a* value showed good agreement with the observations under non-isothermal storage. Overall, our study showed that the developed antimicrobial active packaging of ground beef based on “tsipouro”, combined with high oxygen MAP lead to an almost 2-fold shelf-life extension compared with controls during storage at chill and abuse temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Processing and Shelf Life Extension)
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15 pages, 1807 KiB  
Article
Revealing Further Insights on Chilling Injury of Postharvest Bananas by Untargeted Lipidomics
by Juan Liu, Qingxin Li, Junjia Chen and Yueming Jiang
Foods 2020, 9(7), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070894 - 8 Jul 2020
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 4707
Abstract
Chilling injury is especially prominent in postharvest bananas stored at low temperature below 13 °C. To elucidate better the relationship between cell membrane lipids and chilling injury, an untargeted lipidomics approach using ultra-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry was conducted. Banana fruit were stored at [...] Read more.
Chilling injury is especially prominent in postharvest bananas stored at low temperature below 13 °C. To elucidate better the relationship between cell membrane lipids and chilling injury, an untargeted lipidomics approach using ultra-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry was conducted. Banana fruit were stored at 6 °C for 0 (control) and 4 days and then sampled for lipid analysis. After 4 days of storage, banana peel exhibited a marked chilling injury symptom. Furthermore, 45 lipid compounds, including glycerophospholipids, saccharolipids, and glycerolipids, were identified with significant changes in peel tissues of bananas stored for 4 days compared with the control fruit. In addition, higher ratio of digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) to monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and higher levels of phosphatidic acid (PA) and saturated fatty acids but lower levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and unsaturated fatty acids were observed in banana fruit with chilling injury in contrast to the control fruit. Meanwhile, higher activities of phospholipase D (PLD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were associated with significantly upregulated gene expressions of MaPLD1 and MaLOX2 and higher malondialdehyde (MDA) content in chilling injury-related bananas. In conclusion, our study indicated that membrane lipid degradation resulted from reduced PC and PE, but accumulated PA, while membrane lipid peroxidation resulted from the elevated saturation of fatty acids, resulting in membrane damage which subsequently accelerated the chilling injury occurrence of banana fruit during storage at low temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Processing and Shelf Life Extension)
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12 pages, 701 KiB  
Article
Chemical Biopreservative Effects of Red Seaweed on the Shelf Life of Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)
by Abimannan Arulkumar, Kumar Satheeshkumar, Sadayan Paramasivam, Palanivel Rameshthangam and Jose M. Miranda
Foods 2020, 9(5), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050634 - 14 May 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3066
Abstract
Hypnea musciformis (HM) and Acanthophora muscoides (AM) red seaweeds were evaluated for their antioxidant properties and efficacy to extend the chemical shelf life of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) during 14-daystorage. Treated shrimp were soaked in five percent ethanolic solution with [...] Read more.
Hypnea musciformis (HM) and Acanthophora muscoides (AM) red seaweeds were evaluated for their antioxidant properties and efficacy to extend the chemical shelf life of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) during 14-daystorage. Treated shrimp were soaked in five percent ethanolic solution with 500 µg/mL of AM or HM powder for 30 min. HM had more phenols and flavonoids, increased radical scavenging activity, and greater H2O2 reducing power than AM in vitro. Biochemical quality indicators were significantly higher in the control group, followed by HM- and AM-treated samples during storage. On day 14 of storage, controls contained significantly higher amounts of biogenic amines than HM- or AM-treated samples. The shelf life of chilled stored shrimp increased due to the presence of compounds of butylated hydroxytoluene, sulfurous acid, heptadecane, mono (2-ethylhexyl), and 1,2-propanediol found in AM extract and sulfurous acid and 1,2-propanediol found in HM extract. A control group was soaked in the same ethanolic solution as treated samples without algae powder for 30 min. Each group was kept ice-cold during the soaking period. The results obtained demonstrate the usefulness of two seaweed extracts, Hypnea musciformis and Acanthophora muscoides, combined with ice by decreasing the formation of toxic biogenic amines in shrimp, enhancing its shelf life during ice storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Processing and Shelf Life Extension)
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Review

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23 pages, 720 KiB  
Review
Application of Processing and Packaging Hurdles for Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables Preservation
by Maria C. Giannakourou and Theofania N. Tsironi
Foods 2021, 10(4), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040830 - 11 Apr 2021
Cited by 55 | Viewed by 13299
Abstract
Recently, consumers’ demand for fresh, nutritious, and convenient food has shown a significant rise. This trend has forced increased sales of minimally processed and/or pre-packed fruit- and vegetable-based products. New product development and the diversification of plant-based foods have supported this growth. The [...] Read more.
Recently, consumers’ demand for fresh, nutritious, and convenient food has shown a significant rise. This trend has forced increased sales of minimally processed and/or pre-packed fruit- and vegetable-based products. New product development and the diversification of plant-based foods have supported this growth. The food production sector should balance this requirement with the necessity to provide safe food with extended shelf life while meeting consumer demands for novel, nutritious, and affordable food products. The use of alternative “soft hurdles” may result in a decrease in the rate of food deterioration and spoilage attributed to microbial activity or other physiological/chemical degradation reactions. The objective of the article is to provide a systematic review of the preservative effect of the available hurdles implemented during processing and packaging of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, focusing on recent applications aiming at improving product quality and prolonging their limited shelf life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Processing and Shelf Life Extension)
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