Probiotics: Selection, Cultivation, Evaluation and Application

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 11924

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Key Laboratory of Dairy Science, Ministry of Education, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
Interests: probiotics; lactic acid bacteria; gut microbiota; next-generation sequencing; health function

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Key Laboratory of Dairy Science, Ministry of Education, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
Interests: probiotics; lactic acid bacteria; exopolysaccharides; gut microbiota; short-chain fatty acid

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The FAO/WHO committee has since defined ‘probiotics’ as a unique group of microbes that confer a range of health benefits on their hosts when consumed. Since then, several studies have investigated the in vitro and in vivo activities of various lactic and non-lactic acid-producing bacteria. There are several factors that researchers in the food and allied sectors use to screen probiotic candidates—antimicrobial protocols, tolerance assays, EPS production, DPPH-IV inhibition, among others. It is noted that some studies have reported conflicting findings, which have prompted further investigations. Probiotics have been recognized to play important roles in health and industry for several years. These include direct and indirect uses such as cholesterol-lowering, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative properties. In addition, the use of molecular tools like next-generation sequencing (NGS) holds great potential in unlocking and understanding the immense possibilities that these sensational microorganisms have. 

Dr. Guicheng Huo
Dr. Bailiang Li
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • probiotics
  • selection
  • cultivation
  • evaluation
  • application
  • next-generation sequencing

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 9242 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Genomic, Physiological, and Probiotic Features of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum JS21 Strain Isolated from Traditional Fermented Jiangshui
by Yang Liu, Shanshan Wang, Ling Wang, Hongzhao Lu, Tao Zhang and Wenxian Zeng
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071082 - 1 Apr 2024
Viewed by 979
Abstract
This study aimed to understand the genetic and metabolic traits of a Lactiplantibacillus plantarum JS21 strain and its probiotic abilities through laboratory tests and computer analysis. L. plantarum JS21 was isolated from a traditional fermented food known as “Jiangshui” in Hanzhong city. In [...] Read more.
This study aimed to understand the genetic and metabolic traits of a Lactiplantibacillus plantarum JS21 strain and its probiotic abilities through laboratory tests and computer analysis. L. plantarum JS21 was isolated from a traditional fermented food known as “Jiangshui” in Hanzhong city. In this research, the complete genetic makeup of JS21 was determined using Illumina and PacBio technologies. The JS21 genome consisted of a 3.423 Mb circular chromosome and five plasmids. It was found to contain 3023 protein-coding genes, 16 tRNA genes, 64 rRNA operons, 40 non-coding RNA genes, 264 pseudogenes, and six CRISPR array regions. The GC content of the genome was 44.53%. Additionally, the genome harbored three complete prophages. The evolutionary relationship and the genome collinearity of JS21 were compared with other L. plantarum strains. The resistance genes identified in JS21 were inherent. Enzyme genes involved in the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas (EMP) and phosphoketolase (PK) pathways were detected, indicating potential for facultative heterofermentative pathways. JS21 possessed bacteriocins plnE/plnF genes and genes for polyketide and terpenoid assembly, possibly contributing to its antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Escherichia coli (K88), Staphylococcus aureus (CMCC 26003), and Listeria monocytogenes (CICC 21635). Furthermore, JS21 carried genes for Na+/H+ antiporters, F0F1 ATPase, and other stress resistance genes, which may account for its ability to withstand simulated conditions of the human gastrointestinal tract in vitro. The high hydrophobicity of its cell surface suggested the potential for intestinal colonization. Overall, L. plantarum JS21 exhibited probiotic traits as evidenced by laboratory experiments and computational analysis, suggesting its suitability as a dietary supplement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics: Selection, Cultivation, Evaluation and Application)
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13 pages, 6427 KiB  
Article
Systematic Investigation of the Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus TW01 on Potential Prevention of Particulate Matter (PM)2.5-Induced Damage Using a Novel In Vitro Platform
by Sioumin Luo and Mingju Chen
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3278; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173278 - 1 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1766
Abstract
Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and cigarette smoking (CS) is a risk factor for respiratory/lung infections and metabolic disorders. Lung–gut axis disruption involving the upregulation of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and gut barrier dysfunction by PM is one of the potential mechanisms. [...] Read more.
Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and cigarette smoking (CS) is a risk factor for respiratory/lung infections and metabolic disorders. Lung–gut axis disruption involving the upregulation of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and gut barrier dysfunction by PM is one of the potential mechanisms. Thus, we designed a novel in vitro platform for pre-selecting probiotics with potentially protective effects against PM-induced lung damage through the lung–gut axis to reduce animal usage. The results showed that a high dose of Lactobacillus acidophilus TW01 (1 × 108 CFU/mL) inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. This strain could also reduce respiratory epithelial cell death induced by cigarette smoke extraction (CSE), as well as promoting Caco-2 cell migration in 1 × 106 CFU/mL. Although further animal experiments are needed to validate the in vitro findings, L. acidophilus TW01 is a promising probiotic strain for the potential prevention of PM2.5-induced damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics: Selection, Cultivation, Evaluation and Application)
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16 pages, 3045 KiB  
Article
Genome Analysis of Bifidobacterium Bifidum E3, Structural Characteristics, and Antioxidant Properties of Exopolysaccharides
by Yingxue Yue, Yuqi Wang, Yu Han, Yifan Zhang, Ting Cao, Guicheng Huo and Bailiang Li
Foods 2023, 12(16), 2988; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12162988 - 8 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1275
Abstract
In this study, the antioxidant properties of intact cells (IC), cell-free supernatant (CFS), and cell-free extracts (CFE) and whole genome sequencing of Bifidobacterium bifidum E3 (B. bifidum E3), as well as the structural characteristics and antioxidant properties of EPS-1, EPS-2, and EPS-3, [...] Read more.
In this study, the antioxidant properties of intact cells (IC), cell-free supernatant (CFS), and cell-free extracts (CFE) and whole genome sequencing of Bifidobacterium bifidum E3 (B. bifidum E3), as well as the structural characteristics and antioxidant properties of EPS-1, EPS-2, and EPS-3, were evaluated. The results revealed that intact cells (IC), cell-free supernatant (CFS), and cell-free extracts (CFE) had potent DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical), hydroxyl, and superoxide anion radical scavenging capacities, among which CFS was the best. At the genetic level, we identified a strong carbohydrate metabolism capacity, an EPS synthesis gene cluster, and five sugar nucleotides in B. bifidum E3. Therefore, we extracted cEPS from B. bifidum E3 and purified it to obtain EPS-1, EPS-2, and EPS-3. EPS-1, EPS-2, and EPS-3 were heteropolysaccharides with an average molecular weight of 4.15 × 104 Da, 3.67 × 104 Da, and 5.89 × 104 Da, respectively. The EPS-1 and EPS-2 are mainly comprised of mannose and glucose, and the EPS-3 is mainly comprised of rhamnose, mannose, and glucose. The typical characteristic absorption peaks of polysaccharides were shown in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR spectroscopy). The microstructural study showed a rough surface structure for EPS-1, EPS-2, and EPS-3. Furthermore, EPS-1, EPS-2, and EPS-3 exhibited potent DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide anion radical scavenging capacities. Correlation analysis identified that antioxidant capacities may be influenced by various factors, especially molecular weight, chemical compositions, and monosaccharide compositions. In summary, the EPS that was produced by B. bifidum E3 may provide insights into health-promoting benefits in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics: Selection, Cultivation, Evaluation and Application)
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25 pages, 2734 KiB  
Article
Screening, Identification and Physiological Characteristics of Lactobacillus rhamnosus M3 (1) against Intestinal Inflammation
by Jiayan Jiang, Ke Li, Yuanliang Wang, Zhongqin Wu, Huiqin Ma, Shilin Zheng and Zongjun Li
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1628; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081628 - 12 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2420
Abstract
The probiotic role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in regulating intestinal microbiota to promote human health has been widely reported. However, the types and quantities of probiotics used in practice are still limited. Therefore, isolating and screening LAB with potential probiotic functions from [...] Read more.
The probiotic role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in regulating intestinal microbiota to promote human health has been widely reported. However, the types and quantities of probiotics used in practice are still limited. Therefore, isolating and screening LAB with potential probiotic functions from various habitats has become a hot topic. In this study, 104 strains of LAB were isolated from and identified in traditionally fermented vegetables, fresh milk, healthy infant feces, and other environments. The antibacterial properties—resistance to acid, bile salts, and digestive enzymes—and adhesion ability of the strains were determined, and the biological safety of LAB with better performance was studied. Three LAB with good comprehensive performance were obtained. These bacteria had broad-spectrum antibacterial properties and good acid resistance and adhesion ability. They exhibited some tolerance to pig bile salt, pepsin, and trypsin and showed no hemolysis. They were sensitive to the selected antibiotics, which met the required characteristics and safety evaluation criteria for probiotics. An in vitro fermentation experiment and milk fermentation performance test of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) M3 (1) were carried out to study its effect on the intestinal flora and fermentation performance in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Studies have shown that this strain can effectively inhibit the growth of harmful microorganisms and produce a classic, pleasant flavor. It has probiotic potential and is expected to be used as a microecological agent to regulate intestinal flora and promote intestinal health. It can also be used as an auxiliary starter to enhance the probiotic value of fermented milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics: Selection, Cultivation, Evaluation and Application)
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17 pages, 6283 KiB  
Article
Environment-Related Genes Analysis of Limosilactobacillus fermentum Isolated from Food and Human Gut: Genetic Diversity and Adaption Evolution
by Yan Zhao, Leilei Yu, Fengwei Tian, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen, Yuzheng Xue and Qixiao Zhai
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3135; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193135 - 8 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2256
Abstract
Limosilactobacillus fermentum is ubiquitous in traditional fermented vegetables, meat products, and the human gut. It is regarded as a “generally recognized as safe” organism by the US Food and Drug Administration. So far, the genetic features and evolutionary strategies of L. fermentum from [...] Read more.
Limosilactobacillus fermentum is ubiquitous in traditional fermented vegetables, meat products, and the human gut. It is regarded as a “generally recognized as safe” organism by the US Food and Drug Administration. So far, the genetic features and evolutionary strategies of L. fermentum from the human gut and food remain unknown. In this study, comparative genomic analysis of 224 L. fermentum strains isolated from food and human gut (164 L. fermentum strains isolated from human gut was sequenced in our lab) was performed to access genetic diversity and explore genomic features associated with environment. A total of 20,505 gene families were contained by 224 L. fermentum strains and these strains separated mainly into six clades in phylogenetic tree connected with their origin. Food source L. fermentum strains carried more carbohydrate active enzyme genes (belonging to glycosyltransferase family 2, glycoside hydrolase family 43_11, and glycoside hydrolase family 68) compared with that of human gut and L. fermentum derived from food showed higher ability to degrade xylulose and ribose. Moreover, the number of genes encoding otr(A), tetA(46), lmrB, poxtA, and efrB were more abundant in food source L. fermentum, which was consistent with the number of CRISPR spacers and prophages in L. fermentum of food source. This study provides new insight into the adaption of L. fermentum to the food and intestinal tract of humans, suggesting that the genomic evolution of L. fermentum was to some extent driven by environmental stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics: Selection, Cultivation, Evaluation and Application)
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Review

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19 pages, 1845 KiB  
Review
Advances in Genetic Tools and Their Application in Streptococcus thermophilus
by Ruiting Zhao, Zouquan Chen, Jie Liang, Jiaxin Dou, Fangyu Guo, Zhenshang Xu and Ting Wang
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3119; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163119 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2264
Abstract
Streptococcus thermophilus is a traditional starter. Nowadays, key aspects of S. thermophilus physiology have been revealed concerning the phenotypic traits relevant for industrial applications, including sugar metabolism, protein hydrolysis, and the production of important metabolites that affect the sensory properties of fermented foods [...] Read more.
Streptococcus thermophilus is a traditional starter. Nowadays, key aspects of S. thermophilus physiology have been revealed concerning the phenotypic traits relevant for industrial applications, including sugar metabolism, protein hydrolysis, and the production of important metabolites that affect the sensory properties of fermented foods as well as the original cooperation with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Moreover, significant advances have been made in the synthetic biology toolbox of S. thermophilus based on technological advances in the genome and its sequencing and synthesis. In this review, we discuss the recently developed toolbox for S. thermophilus, including gene expression toolsets (promoters, terminators, plasmids, etc.) and genome editing tools. It can be used for both functionalized foods and therapeutic molecules for consumers. The availability of new molecular tools, including the genome editing toolbox, has facilitated the engineering of physiological studies of S. thermophilus and the generation of strains with improved technical and functional characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics: Selection, Cultivation, Evaluation and Application)
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