Microbiota and Probiotics in Fermented Food

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 25448

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Department of Agricultural Development, Agri-food, and Natural Resources Management, School of Agri-cultural Development, Nutrition & Sustainability, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, GR-34400 Psachna, Greece
Interests: food chemistry; food authenticity; fermentation technology; dairy; probiotics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a high demand for non-conventional antiviral and health-promoting agents that can reduce the risk of infections and promote an enhanced immune system. Food fermentation plays a key role in producing functional foods, as microbial activity impacts their composition and nutritional value. The microbial fermentative activity can increase the bioavailability of bioactive compounds in foods and in the human gastro-intestinal tract through microbe colonization. Likewise, fermented foods and their beneficial microflora have attracted attention, as their microbially transformed metabolites often possess therapeutic activities. Moreover, fermented foods and their probiotic bacteria are considered a significant field of research nowadays, as they provide numerous reported health benefits as well as the potential for high antiviral activity.

Dr. Antonia Terpou
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • fermented foods
  • microbiota
  • probiotics
  • functional foods
  • antiviral activity

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 871 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Probiotic Properties and Antimicrobial Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from an Iranian Fermented Dairy Product, Kashk
by Bahareh Saboori, Fakhri Shahidi, Sara Hedayati and Ali Javadmanesh
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3904; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233904 - 03 Dec 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2163
Abstract
In the present study, kashk samples were collected from two regions of Iran, the Fars (Abadeh) and Razavi Khorasan (Kalat) provinces. Fifteen bacteria were isolated and physiological and biochemical assays were performed. After identification to the genus level, eight isolates were identified as [...] Read more.
In the present study, kashk samples were collected from two regions of Iran, the Fars (Abadeh) and Razavi Khorasan (Kalat) provinces. Fifteen bacteria were isolated and physiological and biochemical assays were performed. After identification to the genus level, eight isolates were identified as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and subjected to molecular identification and probiotic properties assays. The results revealed that the isolates were Enterococcus faecium KKP 3772 (KF1), Enterococcus faecium C1 (KF2), Pediococcus pentosaceus H11 (KF3), Pediococcus pentosaceus VNK-1 (KK4), Lactococcus lactis RSg (KK1), Enterococcus faecalis P190052 (KK2), Enterococcus mundtii CECT972T (KK3), and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum PM411 (KK5). Only the numbers of L. lactis RSg (KK1) and Lpb. Plantarum PM411 (KK5) decreased to below 9 Log CFU/mL after acidic conditions (pH = 3) and showed weak antibacterial activity. Enterococcus mundtii CECT972T (KK3) and E. faecium C1(KF2) were highly susceptible to bile salts, while P. pentosaceus VNK-1 (KK4) and P. pentosaceus H11 (KF3) showed the highest resistance. All of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline and sensitive to chloramphenicol and gentamicin. The antimicrobial activity of P. pentosaceus VNK-1 (KK4) and P. pentosaceus H11 (KF3) was higher than other isolates and consequently, their inhibition zones were larger. The adhesion capabilities of LAB isolates to intestinal epithelial cells were evaluated by examining the auto-aggregation factor and cell surface hydrophobicity. The highest and lowest cell surface hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation were obtained from P. pentosaceus VNK-1 (KK4) and E. mundtii CECT972T (KK3), respectively. In general, P. pentosaceus VNK-1 (KK4) and P. pentosaceus H11 (KF3) have shown better probiotic properties as compared to other isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota and Probiotics in Fermented Food)
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13 pages, 2886 KiB  
Article
The Mutual Influence of Predominant Microbes in Sourdough Fermentation: Focusing on Flavor Formation and Gene Transcription
by Tongjie Liu, Yixin Shi, Yang Li, Huaxi Yi, Pimin Gong, Kai Lin, Zhe Zhang and Lanwei Zhang
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2373; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152373 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1858
Abstract
The interplay between microorganisms generally plays a vital role in food fermentation. In this study, the mutual influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis, the two predominant microbes in the sourdough ecosystem, were investigated in situ during fermentation. Doughs fermented with S. cerevisiae [...] Read more.
The interplay between microorganisms generally plays a vital role in food fermentation. In this study, the mutual influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis, the two predominant microbes in the sourdough ecosystem, were investigated in situ during fermentation. Doughs fermented with S. cerevisiae, F. sanfranciscensis, or their combination were compared regarding acid production, microbial density, and volatiles. Furthermore, in situ gene expressions were investigated using RNA-sequencing. The results showed that the presence of S. cerevisiae had no visible influence on F. sanfranciscensis, whereas F. sanfranciscensis facilitated the growth of S. cerevisiae but affected its volatile production since metabolites such as 3-methyl-1-butanol decreased. The RNA-sequencing demonstrated that S. cerevisiae significantly changed the gene transcripts implicated in amino acid metabolism in F. sanfranciscensis and may stimulate its growth suggested by the enrichment of the KEGG pathway of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota and Probiotics in Fermented Food)
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26 pages, 3969 KiB  
Article
Isolation and Identification of Lactococcus lactis and Weissella cibaria Strains from Fermented Beetroot and an Investigation of Their Properties as Potential Starter Cultures and Probiotics
by Ewelina Maślak, Michał Złoch, Adrian Arendowski, Mateusz Sugajski, Izabela Janczura, Joanna Rudnicka, Justyna Walczak-Skierska, Magdalena Buszewska-Forajta, Katarzyna Rafińska, Paweł Pomastowski, Dorota Białczak and Bogusław Buszewski
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2257; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152257 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3831
Abstract
The presence of certain microorganisms in dairy products or silage is highly desirable. Among them are probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which show many beneficial features, including antimicrobial properties that support the development of beneficial microflora; in addition, owing to their [...] Read more.
The presence of certain microorganisms in dairy products or silage is highly desirable. Among them are probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which show many beneficial features, including antimicrobial properties that support the development of beneficial microflora; in addition, owing to their biochemical activity, they influence the nutritional, dietary, and organoleptic properties of food products. Before being placed on the market, each strain requires separate testing to determine its probiotic properties and effectiveness. The aim of this study was to isolate LAB strains from a pickled beetroot sample that could be used in the dairy industry and with the potential to be considered as a probiotic in the future. Two strains identified using the MALDI technique were selected—Lactococcus lactis and Weissella cibaria. The optimal growth conditions of the strains were determined, and their proteolytic properties were assessed with the use of the o-PA reagent and spectrophotometry. The lipid profile was analyzed using the SALDI (surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization) technique and silver nanoparticles. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to assess the ability of the strains to synthesize beneficial metabolites, such as B vitamins (B2, B3, and B9) or lactic acid, and gas chromatography was used to analyze the substances responsible for organoleptic properties. Moreover, the ability to inhibit the growth of pathogenic strains was also tested in the selected strains. Both tested strains demonstrated the desired properties of starter cultures for future use in functional food production, showing that fermented plant products can serve as valuable potential probiotic sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota and Probiotics in Fermented Food)
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Review

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13 pages, 291 KiB  
Review
Nutrition and Health through the Use of Probiotic Strains in Fermentation to Produce Non-Dairy Functional Beverage Products Supporting Gut Microbiota
by Divakar Dahiya and Poonam Singh Nigam
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2760; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182760 - 08 Sep 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2936
Abstract
Pure viable strains of microorganisms identified and characterised as probiotic cultures are used in the fermentation process to prepare functional beverages. The fermented probiotic products can be consumed as a source of nutrition and also for the maintenance of healthy gut microbiota. The [...] Read more.
Pure viable strains of microorganisms identified and characterised as probiotic cultures are used in the fermentation process to prepare functional beverages. The fermented probiotic products can be consumed as a source of nutrition and also for the maintenance of healthy gut microbiota. The functional beverages contain the substrates used for the preparation of product with a specific culture or a mixture of known strains used to perform the fermentation, hence these drinks can be considered as a healthy formulation of synbiotic products. If a beverage is prepared using agriculturally sourced materials, the fermented substrates with their oligosaccharides and fiber content act as prebiotics. Both the components (probiotic strain/s and prebiotic substrate) exist in a synergistic relationship in the product and contribute to several benefits for nutrition and gut health. The preparation of such probiotic beverages has been studied using non-dairy-based materials, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, grains, and cassava, a staple diet source in many regions. The consumption of beverages prepared with the use of probiotics, which contain active microbial cells and their metabolites, contributes to the functional properties of beverages. In addition, the non-dairy probiotic products can be used by consumers of all groups and food cultures, including vegans and vegetarians, and particularly consumers with allergies to dairy-based products. The aim of this article is to present a review of published research highlighting specific probiotic strains, which have the potential to enhance sustainability of healthy GIT microbiota, used in the fermentation process for the preparation of non-dairy beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota and Probiotics in Fermented Food)
14 pages, 1291 KiB  
Review
Traditional Fermented Foods from Ecuador: A Review with a Focus on Microbial Diversity
by Luis Santiago Guerra, Juan Manuel Cevallos-Cevallos, Stefan Weckx and Jenny Ruales
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1854; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131854 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3802
Abstract
The development of early civilizations was greatly associated with populations’ ability to exploit natural resources. The development of methods for food preservation was one of the pillars for the economy of early societies. In Ecuador, food fermentation significantly contributed to social advances and [...] Read more.
The development of early civilizations was greatly associated with populations’ ability to exploit natural resources. The development of methods for food preservation was one of the pillars for the economy of early societies. In Ecuador, food fermentation significantly contributed to social advances and fermented foods were considered exclusive to the elite or for religious ceremonies. With the advancement of the scientific research on bioprocesses, together with the implementation of novel sequencing tools for the accurate identification of microorganisms, potential health benefits and the formation of flavor and aroma compounds in fermented foods are progressively being described. This review focuses on describing traditional fermented foods from Ecuador, including cacao and coffee as well as less popular fermented foods. It is important to provide new knowledge associated with nutritional and health benefits of the traditional fermented foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota and Probiotics in Fermented Food)
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17 pages, 358 KiB  
Review
Role of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Food Preservation and Safety
by Agnieszka Zapaśnik, Barbara Sokołowska and Marcin Bryła
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1283; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091283 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 67 | Viewed by 9776
Abstract
Fermentation of various food stuffs by lactic acid bacteria is one of the oldest forms of food biopreservation. Bacterial antagonism has been recognized for over a century, but in recent years, this phenomenon has received more scientific attention, particularly in the use of [...] Read more.
Fermentation of various food stuffs by lactic acid bacteria is one of the oldest forms of food biopreservation. Bacterial antagonism has been recognized for over a century, but in recent years, this phenomenon has received more scientific attention, particularly in the use of various strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Certain strains of LAB demonstrated antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, including bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi. Furthermore, in recent years, many authors proved that lactic acid bacteria have the ability to neutralize mycotoxin produced by the last group. Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria is mainly based on the production of metabolites such as lactic acid, organic acids, hydroperoxide and bacteriocins. In addition, some research suggests other mechanisms of antimicrobial activity of LAB against pathogens as well as their toxic metabolites. These properties are very important because of the future possibility to exchange chemical and physical methods of preservation with a biological method based on the lactic acid bacteria and their metabolites. Biopreservation is defined as the extension of shelf life and the increase in food safety by use of controlled microorganisms or their metabolites. This biological method may determine the alternative for the usage of chemical preservatives. In this study, the possibilities of the use of lactic acid bacteria against foodborne pathogens is provided. Our aim is to yield knowledge about lactic acid fermentation and the activity of lactic acid bacteria against pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, we would like to introduce actual information about health aspects associated with the consumption of fermented products, including probiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota and Probiotics in Fermented Food)
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