Special Issue "Meat Quality and Health"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Meat".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 July 2022) | Viewed by 64215

Special Issue Editors

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada | AAFC, Ottawa, ON, Canada
Interests: carcass merit; grading systems; carcass classification; meat quality
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada | AAFC, Ottawa, ON, Canada
Interests: meat quality; high-throughout technologies; chemometrics; sensory evaluation; flavourchemistry
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, 32900 Orense, Spain
Interests: meat quality; genetic influences in meat quality; genetic improvement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Meat plays an important role in the daily diet of a large proportion of our societies and is considered as a valuable food from a nutritional perspective. Meat contains a great deal of nutrients, including protein, fats, vitamins, and minerals, which are required for human metabolism. The nutritional value of meat is one of the main drivers of consumer meat purchasing decision. However, meat consumption patterns are continuously evolving in our societies, shifting preferences and consumer purchase behavior. Perceptions of meat must be positive in order for consumers to willingly purchase and consume a particular meat product. In this context, beside the price, meat quality and health are key aspects in the acceptance of meat products. Consumers are increasingly aware of these two aspects and, hence, considerable attention has been placed on both, leading to new opportunities that address consumer needs and desires. This Special Issue aims to collect the latest advances in these important aspects of meat that will add value to the final product, while addressing the consumer requirements and concerns. Specifically, this Special Issue focuses on novel strategies that affect meat quality and influence functional or healthy properties of meat, including but not limited to, natural antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds, essential oils, fatty acids, prebiotics and probiotics compounds.

Dr. Óscar López-Campos
Dr. Nuria Prieto Benavides
Dr. Jose Lorenzo
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • beef
  • pork
  • lamb
  • chicken
  • meat quality
  • health
  • natural antioxidant and antimicrobial
  • nutritional quality
  • active packaging
  • bioactive compounds
  • functional meat products
  • prebiotics and probiotics

Published Papers (26 papers)

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13 pages, 3273 KiB  
Article
Changes in Quality and Collagen Properties of Cattle Rumen Smooth Muscle Subjected to Repeated Freeze—Thaw Cycles
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3338; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213338 - 24 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 817
Abstract
This study revealed changes in the quality, structural and functional collagen properties of cattle rumen smooth muscle (CSM) during F-T cycles. The results showed that thawing loss, pressing loss, β-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase activity, β-sheet content, emulsifying activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), surface [...] Read more.
This study revealed changes in the quality, structural and functional collagen properties of cattle rumen smooth muscle (CSM) during F-T cycles. The results showed that thawing loss, pressing loss, β-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase activity, β-sheet content, emulsifying activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), surface hydrophobicity, and turbidity of samples were significantly (p < 0.05) increased by 108.12%, 78.33%, 66.57%, 76.60%, 118.63%, 119.57%, 57.37%, 99.14%, and 82.35%, respectively, with increasing F-T cycles. Meanwhile, the shear force, pH, collagen content, α-helix content, thermal denaturation temperature (Tmax), and enthalpy value were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased by 30.88%, 3.19%, 33.23%, 35.92%, 10.34% and 46.51%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SDS-PAGE results indicated that F-T cycles induced an increase in disruption of CSM muscle microstructure and degradation of collagen. Thus, repeated F-T cycles promoted collagen degradation and structural disorder in CSM, while reducing the quality of CSM, but improving the functional collagen properties of CSM. These findings provide new data support for the development, processing, and quality control of CSM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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11 pages, 966 KiB  
Article
The Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Ethanol-Fixed Tissues to Detect Illicit Treatments with Glucocorticoids in Bulls
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3001; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193001 - 27 Sep 2022
Viewed by 836
Abstract
This study aimed to set up indirect, rapid methods involving near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy analysis, to detect illicit treatments with glucocorticoids in bull. The ethanol fixation method (EtOH) was applied to 7 different tissues obtained from 20 Friesian bulls, 12 of which were [...] Read more.
This study aimed to set up indirect, rapid methods involving near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy analysis, to detect illicit treatments with glucocorticoids in bull. The ethanol fixation method (EtOH) was applied to 7 different tissues obtained from 20 Friesian bulls, 12 of which were experimentally administered with dexamethasone as part of a growth-promoting protocol for 60 days and slaughtered 26 days after the end of the treatment. A perfect discrimination was obtained for the 7 sampled tissues, considering a full UV-Vis-NIR range (350 ÷ 2500 nm), for both false positive and negative animals. The validated true positive and negative errors were zero for the longissimus thoracis muscle, 10% for the skin-dermis, 15% for the fat, 25% for the thymus gland and the semitendinosus muscle, 30% for the sternomandibularis muscle and 35% for the skin-hair. A multiple test on the most accessible tissues, that is, the thymus gland, the sternomandibularis muscle and fat, can be used as an alternative to provide indications about animals that have been subjected to illicit treatments. In the short space of three days from the slaughter, NIR spectroscopy of ETOH fixed tissues, would allow at least cost the detection of a probable illicit which could eventually be reported to health authorities for specific investigation in the frame of official controls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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13 pages, 316 KiB  
Article
Effect of Total Replacement of Soya Bean Meal by Whole Lupine Seeds and of Gender on the Meat Quality and Fatty Acids Profile of Growing Rabbits
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2411; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162411 - 11 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
In Europe, the most appropriate strategy to replace soybean meal (SBM) in animal feed has been the development of diets containing locally produced protein sources. One of these sources is lupine (Lupinus spp.). The effect of the total substitution of SBM by [...] Read more.
In Europe, the most appropriate strategy to replace soybean meal (SBM) in animal feed has been the development of diets containing locally produced protein sources. One of these sources is lupine (Lupinus spp.). The effect of the total substitution of SBM by white lupine (WL) and yellow lupine (YL) seeds in the diets of growing rabbits and of gender on meat quality and the fatty acids (FA) profile were evaluated. Sixty hybrid weaned rabbits (New Zealand × Californian) (20 rabbits per diet), were fed diets that contained 150 g/kg of SBM (SBMD) and WL (WLD) or YL (YLD) for 35 to 69 days. At the end of this period, 30 rabbits (10 rabbits per diet) were slaughtered to evaluate the carcass and meat characteristics and the FA profile of the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle. In general, the carcass and meat characteristics (pH and colour) were not affected (p > 0.05) by diet or gender. Further, there was no observed effect (p > 0.05) of gender on meat FA and on the calculated indexes related to human health. However, diet had an effect (p < 0.05) on the FA profile, FA categories, and calculated indexes related to human health. The meat from rabbits fed SBMD presented higher (p < 0.05) saturated FA (SFA; 44 vs. 39 g/100 g average on lupine diets) and lower (p < 0.05) polyunsaturated FA (PUFA; 24 vs. 28 g/100 g average on lupine diets). Our results showed that SBM may be completely replaced by WL or YL, improving the quality of LD muscle FA in terms of nutritional quality for humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
13 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
Antimicrobial Effect of Simira ecuadorensis Extracts and Their Impact on Improving Shelf Life in Chicken and Fish Products
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2352; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152352 - 05 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1356
Abstract
The objective of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of Simira ecuadorensis, a characteristic plant of Ecuador, and to validate its potential as a food preservative. Four extracts referred to as ethanol, ethanol-water (50:50 v/v), spray-dried, [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of Simira ecuadorensis, a characteristic plant of Ecuador, and to validate its potential as a food preservative. Four extracts referred to as ethanol, ethanol-water (50:50 v/v), spray-dried, and freeze-dried were obtained under different processes. Initially, their antimicrobial activities were evaluated against a wide group of microorganisms consisting of 20 pathogenic and spoilage microbial strains found in foods through the agar diffusion method. Then, the extracts with the best yields and antimicrobial properties against microorganisms of greatest interest were selected to determine their effect on model foods preserved under normal commercial conditions through challenge tests. Spray-dried and ethanol-water extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit C. jejuni in chicken model products, where is a common pathogen and Shew. putrefaciens in fish model products as it is a spoilage microorganism frequently found in fish. One solid and one liquid were chosen as model foods: burger and broth, respectively. Campylobacter jejuni and Shewanella putrefaciens were effectively inhibited by the four extracts with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 80 mg/mL. Bacillus cereus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Clostridium perfringens, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were also inhibited by ethanolic extract. The ethanol-water extract showed greater antimicrobial activity in fish products, whereas spray-dried extract had low growth inhibition of C. jejuni in chicken burgers; however, it was quite effective on C. jejuni in broth. The spray-dried extract significantly decreased the pH of the chicken burgers, while the ethanolic extract had a slight impact on the pH of the fish burgers. The presence of antibacterial effects revealed that the S. ecuadorensis extracts could be potentially used in food preservation and as a natural antimicrobial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
16 pages, 702 KiB  
Article
Effect of Gelled Emulsions Elaborated with Soybean Oil, Maca (Lepidium meyenni) Flour, and Chincho (Tagetes elliptica Sm.) Essential Oil upon Animal Fat Substitution in Beef Burgers
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2198; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152198 - 24 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1816
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of pork backfat (PB) substitution in a meat burger with a gelled emulsion (GE) elaborated with maca flour, soybean oil, and chincho essential oil (CEO). Lipid profile (gas chromatography—GC), health indices, physicochemical properties [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of pork backfat (PB) substitution in a meat burger with a gelled emulsion (GE) elaborated with maca flour, soybean oil, and chincho essential oil (CEO). Lipid profile (gas chromatography—GC), health indices, physicochemical properties (CIELAB color, pH, texture profile—TPA), and cooking and sensory characteristics of meat burgers were analyzed. Five formulations were evaluated: control (BC) (80% beef meat and 20% PB); BSM (10% PB + 10% GE); BSMC0.25 (BSM + 0.25% CEO); BSMC0.5 (BSM + 0.5% CEO), and BSMC1.0 (BSM + 1.0% CEO). GE substitution in meat burgers provided a healthier lipid profile; the amount of SFA was reduced (p < 0.05), while PUFA content was significantly increased (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the use of GE resulted in healthier PUFA/SFA ratios and lower atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. The addition of GE increased moisture content and decreased fat and protein contents. Color parameters (L*, b*, and C*) decreased after cooking. Hardness (p < 0.05), cooking losses, and shrinkage changes decreased with GE addition. Lipid oxidation levels were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by GE substitution. Therefore, the substitution of PB by GE can be considered as an effective strategy to produce healthier meat burgers without negatively affecting their physicochemical and technological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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14 pages, 284 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Purple Corn Pigment on Growth Performance, Blood Biochemical Indices, Meat Quality, Muscle Amino Acids, and Fatty Acids of Growing Chickens
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1870; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131870 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1741
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with different levels of purple corn pigment (PCP) on the growth performance, blood biochemical indices, meat quality, muscle amino acids, and fatty acids of growing chickens. A total of 288 (8 weeks of age) growing [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with different levels of purple corn pigment (PCP) on the growth performance, blood biochemical indices, meat quality, muscle amino acids, and fatty acids of growing chickens. A total of 288 (8 weeks of age) growing Chishui black-bone chickens (body weight, 940 ± 80 g; mean ± standard deviation) were randomly divided into 4 groups using a completely randomized design. The four diet groups were as follows: (1) control, basal diet; (2) treatment 1, treatment 2, and treatment 3, which were basal diet with 80, 160, and 240 mg/kg PCP, respectively. The results showed that compared with the control group, the feeding of anthocyanins significantly (p < 0.05) increased the average daily feed intake and average daily gain in chickens. Moreover, chickens receiving 80 mg/kg PCP significantly increased (p < 0.05) plasma total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and albumin concentrations relative to the control group. For meat quality, dietary supplementation with PCP significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the drip loss and water loss rate in breast muscle. Additionally, chickens receiving PCP tended to increase (p < 0.05) the levels of most individual amino acids, essential amino acids, and umami amino acids in the muscle. Specifically, the addition of 80 mg/kg PCP significantly improved (p < 0.05) total polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken muscle. Accordingly, the consumption of anthocyanin-rich PCP by the growing chickens had the potential to increase the growth performance, enhance antioxidant and immune capacities, increase meat quality, and improve essential and umami amino acids as well as unsaturated fatty acids in the muscle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
17 pages, 2551 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Protein Digestion of Cooked Spent Commercial Laying Hen and Commercial Broilers Breast Meat
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1853; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131853 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1711
Abstract
Chicken meat from spent laying hens (SHs) has been considered as nutritive as the meat of commercial broilers (CBs) based on chemical composition. High insoluble collagen in SH meat might reduce protein digestibility and bio-accessibility compared to CB meat. This study aimed at [...] Read more.
Chicken meat from spent laying hens (SHs) has been considered as nutritive as the meat of commercial broilers (CBs) based on chemical composition. High insoluble collagen in SH meat might reduce protein digestibility and bio-accessibility compared to CB meat. This study aimed at comparing the in vitro protein digestibility of CB and SH cooked breast meat. In the first part, CB samples were digested using two static in vitro digestion methods and collected at different digestion points for determining the degree of hydrolysis (DH). The method providing a greater DH value was chosen for comparing protein digestibility between CB and SH samples. The activities of used enzymes during in vitro digestion were evaluated based on bicinchoninic acid assay 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid colorimetric method, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Particle size distribution of solid content collected from hydrolysate was also determined. The results showed that after digestion, CB showed 1–3 mg/mL protein concentration lower, while 7–13% DH and 50–96 µmoL/g protein-free NH2 groups higher when compared to those of SH. Based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis, CB samples exhibited greater intensity of band at MW < 15 kDa than that of SH. Regarding particle size in terms of volume weighted mean (D[4,3]), at the end of the oral phase, the end of the gastric phase, and the beginning of the intestinal phase, D[4,3] of the SH samples were 133.17 ± 2.16, 46.52 ± 2.20, and 112.96 ± 3.63 µm, respectively, which were greater than those of CB (53.28 ± 1.23, 35.59 ± 1.19, and 51.68 ± 1.25 µm). However, at the end of the intestinal phase, D[4,3] of SH and CB, which were 17.19 ± 1.69 and 17.52 ± 2.46 µm, respectively, did not significantly differ from each other. The findings suggested a greater in vitro protein digestibility of cooked CB breast meats than that of SH ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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11 pages, 12955 KiB  
Article
The Texture Change of Chinese Traditional Pig Trotter with Soy Sauce during Stewing Processing: Based on a Thermal Degradation Model of Collagen Fibers
Foods 2022, 11(12), 1772; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11121772 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1750
Abstract
In order to clarify the influence of the thermal degradation of collagen fibers on the texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters of pig trotter stewed with soy sauce (PTSWSS), TPA (springiness, chewiness, hardness, and gumminess), the secondary structures, the cross-linkage, decorin (DCN) and glycosaminoglycan [...] Read more.
In order to clarify the influence of the thermal degradation of collagen fibers on the texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters of pig trotter stewed with soy sauce (PTSWSS), TPA (springiness, chewiness, hardness, and gumminess), the secondary structures, the cross-linkage, decorin (DCN) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) levels, and the histochemical morphology of collagen fibers during the stewing process (0, 30, 60, 120 min) were assessed. The springiness and hardness increased after 30 min of stewing, along with the denaturation of collagen proteins. TPA parameters improved with the prolonged stewing times of 60 and 120 min, along with the ultra-structural dissolution of collagen fibers, and a substantial reduction in cross-linkage, DCN, and GAG levels, and the unfolded triple-helix structure. This study concluded that the TPA parameters of PTSWSS were dependent on the stewing time, and that the improvement in TPA parameters with longer stewing time could primarily be attributed to the thermal degradation of collagen fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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13 pages, 7095 KiB  
Article
Quality Characteristics of Substitute Meat Patties Developed Using Aruncus dioicus var. kamtschaticus Hara
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1341; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091341 - 05 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1635
Abstract
We developed a vegetable alternative to meat patties using Aruncus dioicus var. kamtschaticus Hara (A. dioicus) and used it to generate basic data for the alternative meat market by comparing nutritional and microbiological components with commercially available vegetable and meat patties. Nutrient [...] Read more.
We developed a vegetable alternative to meat patties using Aruncus dioicus var. kamtschaticus Hara (A. dioicus) and used it to generate basic data for the alternative meat market by comparing nutritional and microbiological components with commercially available vegetable and meat patties. Nutrient analysis, microbiological analysis, chromaticity, and texture analysis were performed on substitute meat patties (SMPs) with A. dioicus and commercially available vegetable and animal patties. Among sugars, the contents of fructose and maltose were respectively high in commercial meat patties (CMPs) and SMPs. SMPs were low in saturated and trans-fat, and high in ω-3 fatty acids. The contents (in descending order) of leucine > phenylalanine > threonine > isoleucine were high in SMPs and commercial vegetable patties (CVPs). Qualitative and quantitative findings of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus were all negative. Our SMPs had high lightness (L*), low redness (a*), and low yellowness (b*). The hardness, chewiness, and resilience of our SMPs were lower than those of other vegetable and animal patties. Considering our results, the method of manufacturing SMPs developed in the present study allows meat to be flavored without significant nutritional differences compared with commercially available CMPs. Our findings provide a base for studies on future meat alternatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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16 pages, 3396 KiB  
Article
Seaweed Inclusion in Finishing Lamb Diet Promotes Changes in Micronutrient Content and Flavour-Related Compounds of Raw Meat and Dry-Cured Leg (Fenalår)
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071043 - 04 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2351 | Correction
Abstract
Innovative feeding strategies tend to improve the quality properties of raw material and dry-cured products. In the present study, Norwegian White female lambs (n = 24) were finished during 35 days on three different diets: control (CD), control supplemented with seaweed (5% [...] Read more.
Innovative feeding strategies tend to improve the quality properties of raw material and dry-cured products. In the present study, Norwegian White female lambs (n = 24) were finished during 35 days on three different diets: control (CD), control supplemented with seaweed (5% DM) (SD), and pasture (PD). The quality of raw meat (Semimembranosus + Adductor) and deboned dry-cured lamb leg (fenalår; n = 24) was studied. The heme, SFA, MUFA, and PUFA content in raw meat was not affected with finishing diet. The SD significantly increased the selenium, iodine, and arsenic content in raw meat and in the dry-cured leg the iodine and arsenic. The dry-cured leg from SD-lamb had the highest amount of iodine with 130 µg I/100 g which corresponds to 60% of Adequate Intake. Aldehydes, ketones, and esters in raw meat and dry-cured lamb leg were significantly affected by finishing diet; CD showed increased esters in raw meat and aldehydes in the dry-cured leg compared to SD and PD. The significantly higher content of simple sugars, mannose being the most dominant, was found in the dry-cured leg from SD-lamb compared to CD and PD. Finishing diets had no effect on the taste profile of dry-cured lamb leg. This study showed the potential of seaweed in iodine biofortification of lamb meat and dry-cured products. Iodine-rich meat products should reduce iodine-deficiency among humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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15 pages, 2937 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Resveratrol on Growth Performance, Carcass and Meat Quality, Blood Lipid Levels and Ruminal Microbiota in Fattening Goats
Foods 2022, 11(4), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11040598 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2108
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of resveratrol (RES) supplementation on the growth performance, carcass and meat quality, blood lipid levels and ruminal bacterial microbiota of fattening goats. A total of forty castrated Nubian goats (28.25 ± 0.26 kg body weight) were randomly divided [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of resveratrol (RES) supplementation on the growth performance, carcass and meat quality, blood lipid levels and ruminal bacterial microbiota of fattening goats. A total of forty castrated Nubian goats (28.25 ± 0.26 kg body weight) were randomly divided into four groups and provided with diets containing different levels of RES (0, 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg) for 120 d. The results showed that RES increased redness and intramuscular fat content, whilst reducing shear force in the longissimus dorsi muscle of goats (p < 0.05). In addition, the final weight, average daily gain, hot carcass weight, net meat weight, carcass lean percentage and eye muscle area of goats were significantly increased in the 150 mg/kg RES group compared with the other three groups, while those in the 600 mg/kg RES group significantly decreased (p < 0.05). RES significantly decreased serum triacylglycerol and LDL-C contents (p < 0.05), and increased HDL-C content and the HDL-C/TC ratio (p < 0.05). Supplementation with 150 mg/kg RES also increased the proportion of Acetitomaculum and Moryella, genera comprising short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria. The present study indicated that an appropriate supplemental level of RES could improve the growth performance, neat percentage, meat quality, ruminal microbiota and serum lipid levels of fattening goats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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17 pages, 1137 KiB  
Article
Use of Healthy Emulsion Hydrogels to Improve the Quality of Pork Burgers
Foods 2022, 11(4), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11040596 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2257
Abstract
The present research evaluated the use of oil mixture emulsion hydrogels as animal fat replacers and their effect on the physicochemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of pork burgers. Three different types of burgers were manufactured: control (samples elaborated with 100% pork fat), T1 [...] Read more.
The present research evaluated the use of oil mixture emulsion hydrogels as animal fat replacers and their effect on the physicochemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of pork burgers. Three different types of burgers were manufactured: control (samples elaborated with 100% pork fat), T1 and T2 (pork fat totally replaced by emulsion hydrogels of walnut or pistachio oil and algal oil, respectively). Fat replacement increased the moisture and ash contents and colour parameters (L* and b*) of pork burgers. Modified samples turned out to be firmer and chewier than those in the control group. The addition of oil emulsion hydrogels caused a significant decrease in fat and energy contents and the products obtained can be considered “reduced fat content”. Moreover, the content of saturated fatty acids decreased, while mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids increased, constituting an improvement in health indices. Sensory differences were found between the samples and T2 was the most preferred for flavour and overall. However, both modified burgers had good levels of acceptability. To conclude, the use of the proposed oil mixture emulsion hydrogels as pork backfat substitutes represents a promising strategy to obtain healthier pork burgers without negatively affecting technological or sensory properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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18 pages, 3798 KiB  
Article
Sensory Properties and Main Differential Metabolites Influencing the Taste Quality of Dry-Cured Beef during Processing
Foods 2022, 11(4), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11040531 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2138
Abstract
This study adopted widely targeted high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) metabolomics and multivariate data analysis methods to evaluate the correlation between changes in metabolites and their taste formation in dry-cured beef during processing. The physicochemical profile changed significantly in the maturity period [...] Read more.
This study adopted widely targeted high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) metabolomics and multivariate data analysis methods to evaluate the correlation between changes in metabolites and their taste formation in dry-cured beef during processing. The physicochemical profile changed significantly in the maturity period (RG), especially due to the continuous hydrolysis and oxidation of proteins. The sensory characteristic of dry-cured beef was highest in saltiness, umami, overall taste, and after-taste in RG. Overall, 400 metabolites were mainly identified, including amino acids, peptides, organic acids, and their derivatives, nucleotides, and their metabolites, as well as carbohydrates. Cysteine and succinic acid were significantly up-regulated during the process of dry-curing beef compared to the control group (CG). Moreover, glutamine and glutathione were significantly down-regulated in the fermentation period (FG) and in RG. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis revealed that glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, glutathione metabolism, alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, arginine biosynthesis, taurine, and hypotaurine metabolism were the main metabolic pathways influencing the taste of dry-cured beef during processing. Results of correlation analysis revealed that umami is positively correlated with salty, L-cysteine, L-arginine, inosine, creatinine, and succinic acid. Our study results provide a better understanding of the changes in taste substances and will contribute to quality evaluation of dry-cured beef. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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17 pages, 1552 KiB  
Article
Effect of Different Black Quinoa Fractions (Seed, Flour and Wet-Milling Coproducts) upon Quality of Meat Patties during Freezing Storage
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3080; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123080 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2145
Abstract
In this study, the quality of meat patty samples containing different black quinoa fractions (seed, flour and wet-milling coproducts) was evaluated during freezing preservation. Composition, physicochemical parameters (aw, pH, colour and texture), cooking properties, lipid oxidation and sensory characteristic were studied in four [...] Read more.
In this study, the quality of meat patty samples containing different black quinoa fractions (seed, flour and wet-milling coproducts) was evaluated during freezing preservation. Composition, physicochemical parameters (aw, pH, colour and texture), cooking properties, lipid oxidation and sensory characteristic were studied in four batches (control and 8% concentration of quinoa seed, flour and wet-milling coproducts added) at 30, 60 and 90 days of freezing (−20 ± 1 °C). Different black quinoa fraction addition affected (p < 0.05) physiochemical properties, improved cooking properties and reduced lipid oxidations during freezing storage. Batches with flour and wet-milling coproducts added were the most stable for texture parameters and lipid oxidation during freezing. The results obtained showed that quinoa wet-milling co-products could be considered a valuable sustainable and organic food ingredient, maintaining nutritional and global qualities of the fresh meat product. In addition, freezing storage is an effective way to prolong the shelf life of patties with different black quinoa fractions, added without affecting quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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12 pages, 1747 KiB  
Article
Kinetics of Oil Absorption and Moisture Loss during Deep-Frying of Pork Skin with Different Thickness
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3029; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123029 - 06 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2401
Abstract
We have investigated different properties (thickness, moisture loss, oil uptake, breaking force, color, puffing ratio during 0.5–5 min frying, microstructure, and sensory evaluation) of raw pork skins with varying thickness (2, 3, and 4 mm) after drying, intended as deep-fried snacks. We have [...] Read more.
We have investigated different properties (thickness, moisture loss, oil uptake, breaking force, color, puffing ratio during 0.5–5 min frying, microstructure, and sensory evaluation) of raw pork skins with varying thickness (2, 3, and 4 mm) after drying, intended as deep-fried snacks. We have found that the oil content, breaking force, and puffing ratio of fried pork skin with different raw skin thickness have no significant difference under similar water content (1.68–1.98 g/100 g wet weight basis, wb) after 3–5 min of deep-frying at 180 °C. Additionally, sensory score results have shown that fried pork skins with 4 mm raw skin thickness had lower flavor, texture, and overall acceptability than those with 2 mm and 3 mm raw skin thickness. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) have revealed less holes and irregular and crack microstructure in fried pork skins with 4 mm raw skin thickness than in other groups. Different thickness of raw pork skins resulted in different effects in microstructure and influenced water evaporation and oil uptake of fried pork skin. Finally, we have proposed the kinetic equations of water loss and oil uptake of fried pork skins. Fried pork skin from raw skin thicker than 4 mm need frying at temperature higher than 180 °C to improve their puffing ratio and sensory acceptability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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13 pages, 2923 KiB  
Article
Kinetics of Moisture Loss and Oil Absorption of Pork Rinds during Deep-Fat, Microwave-Assisted and Vacuum Frying
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3025; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123025 - 06 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3056
Abstract
The fat content of fried pork rinds is high, and alternative frying helps reduce the oil content and maintain their texture and taste. Different frying methods such as microwave-assisted, traditional deep frying and vacuum frying on the breaking force, color, microstructure, water loss [...] Read more.
The fat content of fried pork rinds is high, and alternative frying helps reduce the oil content and maintain their texture and taste. Different frying methods such as microwave-assisted, traditional deep frying and vacuum frying on the breaking force, color, microstructure, water loss and oil absorption attributes of fried pork rinds were evaluated in this study. The fat content of microwave-assisted and vacuum-fried pork rinds was lower (24.2 g/100 g dry weight basis (db) and 17.1 g/100 g db, respectively) than that (35.6 g/100 g db) of traditional deep-fat frying. Non-uniform, holy and irregular surface microstructures were obtained by vacuum frying due to rapid mass transfer at low pressure. The first-order kinetic models of water loss and oil absorption of traditional and microwave-assisted frying of pork rinds were established. Microwave frying caused a faster moisture loss rate, shorter frying time and lower pork rind oil content, makes it an attractive substitute for traditional deep-fat frying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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19 pages, 3038 KiB  
Article
Cocoa Coproducts-Based and Walnut Oil Gelled Emulsion as Animal Fat Replacer and Healthy Bioactive Source in Beef Burgers
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2706; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112706 - 05 Nov 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2301
Abstract
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects on the chemical, physic-chemical, technological, and sensory properties of beef burger when replacing different quantities of fat (50 and 100%) with different levels of oil-in-water-gelled emulsion elaborated with walnut oil and cocoa bean [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects on the chemical, physic-chemical, technological, and sensory properties of beef burger when replacing different quantities of fat (50 and 100%) with different levels of oil-in-water-gelled emulsion elaborated with walnut oil and cocoa bean shell flour (GECW). The chemical composition of the samples was affected by the fat replacement. The reformulation increased the moisture and ash content while the fat and protein content decreased with respect to the control sample. The linolenic and linolenic acid content of the beef burgers increased as the GECW replacement was augmented. The polyunsaturated fatty/saturated fatty acid ratio increased in both raw and cooked burgers, whereas the atherogenicity index and thrombogenicity index were reduced in both raw and cooked burgers with respect to the control sample. The use of GECW as a fat replacer was found to be effective in improving the cooking loss. Similarly, there were positive effects on reductions in the diameter and the increases in the thickness of the beef burgers. Regarding lipid stability, in both the raw and cooked burgers, the reformulation increased the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARs) values with respect to the control sample. In both types of reformulated burgers, three bound polyphenols (mainly catechin and epicatechin) and two free polyphenols were identified, as were methylxanthines theobromine and caffeine. The sensory properties for the control and partial pork backfat replacement treatments were similar, while the sample with the total pork backfat replacement treatment showed the lowest scores. The blend of cocoa bean shell flour and walnut oil could be used as new ingredients for the development of beef burgers with a healthier nutritional profile without demeriting their sensory or cooking characteristics and physic-chemical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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16 pages, 4037 KiB  
Article
Changes of Metabolites and Gene Expression under Different Feeding Systems Associated with Lipid Metabolism in Lamb Meat
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2612; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112612 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1749
Abstract
The effects of the different feeding systems, graze feeding (GSF), time-limited graze feeding (GF), and stall-feeding (SF)) on the fatty acid content, metabolites, and genes expression of the longissimus dorsi (LD) in Tan lambs were investigated in the present study. Thirty-nine [...] Read more.
The effects of the different feeding systems, graze feeding (GSF), time-limited graze feeding (GF), and stall-feeding (SF)) on the fatty acid content, metabolites, and genes expression of the longissimus dorsi (LD) in Tan lambs were investigated in the present study. Thirty-nine 4-month-old male Tan lambs with similar body weight (24.91 ± 1.74 kg) were selected and divided into the three feeding systems (n = 13) randomly. Lambs were slaughtered after 83 days of the feeding trails, and LD muscle samples were collected for further analysis. The results indicated that different feeding systems have no significant effect on short-chain fatty acids in Tan lambs (p > 0.05). However, the total saturated fatty acids (∑SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (∑MUFA) in the GSF and GF groups were lower than those in the SF group (p < 0.001). The total polyunsaturated fatty acids (∑PUFA) in the GSF group were higher than those in the GF and SF groups (p < 0.001). Moreover, in the comparison of both GF vs GSF groups and SF vs GSF groups, metabolomic analysis showed that metabolites such as cis-(6,9,12)-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, acetylcarnitine, and L-carnitine with lower concentration were significantly enriched in the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid pathway (p < 0.05), but metabolites such as phosphorylcholine, glycerophosphocholine, cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine, and glycerol-3-phosphate with higher concentrations were enriched in the glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis of the results indicated that in the comparison of the GSF group with the SF group, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) such as LIPC, ERFE, FABP3, PLA2R1, LDLR, and SLC10A6, were enriched in the steroid biosynthesis and cholesterol metabolism pathways. In addition, differential metabolites and genes showed a significant correlation with the content of ∑SFA, ∑MUFA, and ∑PUFA in lamb meat (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrated that the feeding system was an important factor in regulating fatty acid content by affecting lipid-metabolism-related metabolites and gene expression in muscle, and graze-feeding system provided lamb meat with higher ∑PUFA content than time-limited-grazing and stall-feeding systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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15 pages, 1811 KiB  
Article
Vitamin E Supplementation Enhances Lipid Oxidative Stability via Increasing Vitamin E Retention, Rather Than Gene Expression of MAPK-Nrf2 Signaling Pathway in Muscles of Broilers
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2555; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112555 - 23 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1535
Abstract
Dietary vitamin E (VE) supplementation is a method to produce VE-enriched meat and improve meat lipid oxidative stability. We aimed to study the effect of the VE supplementation duration on meat lipid oxidative stability, VE retention, and antioxidant enzymes’ activity, and explore its [...] Read more.
Dietary vitamin E (VE) supplementation is a method to produce VE-enriched meat and improve meat lipid oxidative stability. We aimed to study the effect of the VE supplementation duration on meat lipid oxidative stability, VE retention, and antioxidant enzymes’ activity, and explore its relationship with the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)-nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway in broilers slaughtered after electrical stunning. A total of 240 male 18-day-old Arbor Acres Plus broilers were distributed to four treatments, with six replicates in each treatment, and ten broilers per replicate. Broilers were fed with a basal diet (no supplementation of VE) or VE diet (200 IU/kg VE, DL-α- tocopherol) for one (W1), two (W2), or three (W3) weeks before electrical stunning (130 mA, 60 Hz, for 1s) and slaughter. The VE retention was positively and linearly affected (p < 0.01) by the VE feeding duration at one to three weeks before slaughter, and negatively (all p < 0.01) related to the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) content in both breast and thigh muscles at d 0, d 2, and d 6 postmortem. The VE retention was negatively (p < 0.05) related to the gene expression of c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1 (JNK1) and 2 (JNK2), Nrf2 in breast muscles, and JNK1 and p38 MAPK in thigh muscles. In conclusion, dietary vitamin E supplementation at 200 IU/kg for three weeks before electrical stunning and slaughter improved lipid oxidative stability via increasing VE retention, rather than the regulation by gene expression of the MAPK-Nrf2 signaling pathway in skeletal muscles of broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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8 pages, 427 KiB  
Article
Incorporation of Low Molecular Weight Chitosan in a Low-Fat Beef Burger: Assessment of Technological Quality and Oxidative Stability
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1959; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081959 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2848
Abstract
In the present work, incorporating low molecular weight chitosan (LMWCH) (0, 0.5, 1, and 2%) as a fat replacer into low-fat beef burgers and technological, textural, and oxidative stability were investigated. The weight loss and shrinkage of samples decreased with the increase of [...] Read more.
In the present work, incorporating low molecular weight chitosan (LMWCH) (0, 0.5, 1, and 2%) as a fat replacer into low-fat beef burgers and technological, textural, and oxidative stability were investigated. The weight loss and shrinkage of samples decreased with the increase of LMWCH concentration. In contrast, the water-holding capacity and color of burgers were enhanced by the addition of LMWCH. The instrumental TPA results indicated an increase in the LMWCH levels, significantly increasing the hardness, springiness, and gumminess but decreasing the cohesiveness of low-fat beef burgers. The TBARS and peroxide values and free fatty acid content in the burgers supplemented with LMWCH increase slower than the control sample during refrigerated storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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9 pages, 1814 KiB  
Article
Portable Raman Spectrometer as a Screening Tool for Characterization of Iberian Dry-Cured Ham
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1177; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061177 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2329
Abstract
Dry-cured Iberian ham is officially classified into different commercial categories according to the pig’s breed and feeding regime. These reach very different prices, thus promoting labelling fraud and causing great damage to the food sector. In this work, a method based on Raman [...] Read more.
Dry-cured Iberian ham is officially classified into different commercial categories according to the pig’s breed and feeding regime. These reach very different prices, thus promoting labelling fraud and causing great damage to the food sector. In this work, a method based on Raman spectroscopy was explored as a rapid in situ screening tool for Iberian ham samples. A total of 110 samples were analyzed to assess the potential of this technique to differentiate purebred, crossbred, acorn-fed and feed-fed dry-cured Iberian ham. A continuous signal probably due to sample fluorescence was obtained, which hid the Raman scattering signal. Therefore, chemometric treatment was applied in order to extract non-apparent information. High validated classification rates were obtained for feeding regime (83.3%) and breed (86.7%). In addition, an interlaboratory study was carried out to confirm the applicability of the method with 52 samples, obtaining a validated rate above 80%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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16 pages, 1090 KiB  
Article
Effect of NaCl Replacement by other Salts on the Quality of Bísaro Pork Sausages (PGI Chouriça de Vinhais)
Foods 2021, 10(5), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10050961 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2806
Abstract
Concerned about the trend to reduce salt consumption, the meat industry has been increasing the strategies to produce and commercialize products where the reduction or even the replacement of NaCl is an important goal. The aim of this study was to test the [...] Read more.
Concerned about the trend to reduce salt consumption, the meat industry has been increasing the strategies to produce and commercialize products where the reduction or even the replacement of NaCl is an important goal. The aim of this study was to test the effect of partial NaCl replacement by KCl and Sub4Salt® on the quality of pork sausages. Three different formulations (NaCl + KCl, NaCl + Sub4Salt®, and KCl + Sub4Salt®) were considered and compared to the control (2% NaCl). Physicochemical properties, chemical composition, and microbiological and sensory characteristics were evaluated. The replacement of NaCl did not affect pH, water activity (aw) or its chemical composition after eight or 16 days ripening time, while a significant sodium reduction was achieved. The oxidation index expressed in TBARS was also not affected by the NaCl substitution and varied between 0.01 to 0.04 of malonaldehyde (MDA) per kg of sample. Similarly, the NaCl replacement did not change the microbiological quality of the sausages, and the production of healthier meat sausages had also no significant effect on their sensory characteristics. Therefore, according to the results obtained, it is viable and a good strategy for the meat industry to produce “reduced sodium content” sausages without affecting their traditional quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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Review

Jump to: Research

12 pages, 302 KiB  
Review
Using Microalgae as a Sustainable Feed Resource to Enhance Quality and Nutritional Value of Pork and Poultry Meat
Foods 2021, 10(12), 2933; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122933 - 28 Nov 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3128
Abstract
Cereal grains and soybean meal are the main feedstuffs used in swine and poultry feeding, two of the most consumed meats and of key relevance to food security worldwide. Such crops are grown mostly in North and South America and transported over large [...] Read more.
Cereal grains and soybean meal are the main feedstuffs used in swine and poultry feeding, two of the most consumed meats and of key relevance to food security worldwide. Such crops are grown mostly in North and South America and transported over large distances creating sustainability concerns and, furthermore, are in direct competition with human nutrition. Alternatives to these ingredients are, thus, a pressing need to ensure the sustainability of swine and poultry production. Microalgae seem to be a viable alternative due to their interesting nutritional composition. The use of different microalgae in monogastric feeding has been addressed by different researchers over the last decade, particularly their use as a supplement, whilst their use as a feed ingredient has been comparatively less studied. In addition, the high production costs of microalgae are a barrier and prevent higher dietary inclusion. Studies on the effect of microalgae on meat quality refer mostly to fatty acid composition, using these either as a functional ingredient or as a feedstuff. Within such a context and in line with such a rationale, in this review we address the current research on the topic of the use of microalgae in poultry and swine nutrition, particularly aspects concerning pork and poultry meat quality and nutritional traits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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22 pages, 372 KiB  
Review
Application of Natural Preservatives for Meat and Meat Products against Food-Borne Pathogens and Spoilage Bacteria: A Review
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2418; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102418 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 6898
Abstract
Meat and meat products are excellent sources of nutrients for humans; however, they also provide a favorable environment for microbial growth. To prevent the microbiological contamination of livestock foods, synthetic preservatives, including nitrites, nitrates, and sorbates, have been widely used in the food [...] Read more.
Meat and meat products are excellent sources of nutrients for humans; however, they also provide a favorable environment for microbial growth. To prevent the microbiological contamination of livestock foods, synthetic preservatives, including nitrites, nitrates, and sorbates, have been widely used in the food industry due to their low cost and strong antibacterial activity. Use of synthetic chemical preservatives is recently being considered by customers due to concerns related to negative health issues. Therefore, the demand for natural substances as food preservatives has increased with the use of plant-derived and animal-derived products, and microbial metabolites. These natural preservatives inhibit the growth of spoilage microorganisms or food-borne pathogens by increasing the permeability of microbial cell membranes, interruption of protein synthesis, and cell metabolism. Natural preservatives can extend the shelf-life and inhibit the growth of microorganisms. However, they can also influence food sensory properties, including the flavor, taste, color, texture, and acceptability of food. To increase the applicability of natural preservatives, a number of strategies, including combinations of different preservatives or food preservation methods, such as active packaging systems and encapsulation, have been explored. This review summarizes the current applications of natural preservatives for meat and meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
12 pages, 744 KiB  
Review
Beta vulgaris as a Natural Nitrate Source for Meat Products: A Review
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2094; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092094 - 04 Sep 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4744
Abstract
Curing meat products is an ancient strategy to preserve muscle foods for long periods. Nowadays, cured meat products are widely produced using nitrate and nitrite salts. However, the growing of the clean-label movement has been pushing to replace synthetic nitrate/nitrite salts (indicated as [...] Read more.
Curing meat products is an ancient strategy to preserve muscle foods for long periods. Nowadays, cured meat products are widely produced using nitrate and nitrite salts. However, the growing of the clean-label movement has been pushing to replace synthetic nitrate/nitrite salts (indicated as E-numbers in food labels) with natural ingredients in the formulation of processed foods. Although no ideal synthetic nitrate/nitrite replacements have yet been found, it is known that certain vegetables contain relevant amounts of nitrate. Beta vulgaris varieties (Swiss chard/chard, beetroot, and spinach beet, for instance) are widely produced for human consumption and have relevant amounts of nitrate that could be explored as a natural ingredient in cured meat product processing. Thus, this paper provides an overview of the main nitrate sources among Beta vulgaris varieties and the strategic use of their liquid and powder extracts in the production of cured meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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11 pages, 280 KiB  
Review
Technologies for the Production of Meat Products with a Low Sodium Chloride Content and Improved Quality Characteristics—A Review
Foods 2021, 10(5), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10050957 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3427
Abstract
In recent years, consumer concerns regarding high levels of sodium chloride (NaCl) intake have increased, given the associated risk of cardiovascular disease. This has led food industries to consider lowering the use of sodium in food products. However, it is well known that [...] Read more.
In recent years, consumer concerns regarding high levels of sodium chloride (NaCl) intake have increased, given the associated risk of cardiovascular disease. This has led food industries to consider lowering the use of sodium in food products. However, it is well known that the addition of NaCl to meat products enhances their quality, including water-holding capacity, emulsification capacity, juiciness, and texture. Thus, it is difficult to completely remove salt from meat products; however, it is possible to reduce the salt content using salt substitutes, flavor enhancers, textural enhancers, or other processing technologies. Several recent studies have also suggested that processing technologies, including hot-boning, high pressure, radiation, and pulsed electric fields, can be used to manufacture meat products with reduced salt content. In conclusion, as the complete removal of NaCl from food products is not possible, combined technologies can be used to reduce the NaCl content of meat products, and the appropriate technology should be chosen and studied according to its effects on the quality of the specific meat product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Quality and Health)
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