Study on Stability and Lipid Oxidation Inhibition in Emulsified Food

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 January 2022) | Viewed by 16827

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Technical University of Denmark, National Food Institute, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Interests: lipid oxidation; antioxidants; emulsifiers; oils; marine omega-3 fatty acids; emulsions; interfacial characteristics; antioxidant partitioning; ingredient interaction; marine sidestreams; utilization of sidestreams; high-value ingredients from sidestreams

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Guest Editor
Technical University of Denmark, National Food Institute, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Interests: lipid oxidation in emulsions; emulsifiers; combined use of emulsifiers and/or antioxidants; natural antioxidants; oil–water interfacial characteristics of emulsions; structural changes of molecules at the oil–water interfacial layer; extraction of high-value ingredients from sidestreams; sensory analysis; bioavailability of foods during digestion

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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Chenoweth Laboratory, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
Interests: functional and nutritional aspects of lipids; lipid oxidation; antioxidants and chelators

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lipid oxidation is a major cause of quality loss and food waste in lipid-containing food products. Therefore, it is crucial to inhibit lipid oxidation while maintaining the physical stability of the food product. Emulsified food contains droplets of oil (O/W) or water (W/O) and different colloidal structures depending on the emulsion composition. Lipid oxidation is initiated at the interfaces between oil and water and continued in the oil phase. Thus, effective ways to stabilize and inhibit lipid oxidation are important to maintain quality of emulsified food and minimize waste. 

This Special Issue deals with aspects of lipid oxidation inhibition in emulsified food, e.g., via the addition of antioxidants, emulsifiers, modified antioxidants and emulsifiers, and production methods. Since lipid oxidation is initiated at the interface, the interface plays a crucial part in the strategy of lipid oxidation inhibition. Therefore, the issue covers research areas dealing with interfacial characteristics of emulsified foods for maintaining physical stability and inhibiting lipid oxidation, which will contribute to the current understanding of lipid oxidation in complex food systems. This also includes the use of new methods and techniques to discover interface characteristics of emulsified foods and their connection to lipid oxidation. Reviews and research studies on physical and chemical characterization of the emulsions are also welcome. This Special Issue seeks to provide a fundamental understanding of lipid oxidation and introduce current strategies to prevent it in order to maintain the quality (nutritional, sensory, and physical properties) of emulsified foods.

Dr. Ann-Dorit Moltke Sørensen
Dr. Betül Yesiltas
Prof. Dr. Eric A. Decker
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Lipid oxidation 
  • Physical stability 
  • Quality 
  • Sensory characteristics 
  • Physical and chemical characteristics 
  • Emulsifier 
  • Antioxidant 
  • Interfacial characteristics 
  • Interaction of components 
  • Advanced methods

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 3158 KiB  
Article
Production of a High-Phosphatidylserine Lecithin That Synergistically Inhibits Lipid Oxidation with α-Tocopherol in Oil-in-Water Emulsions
by Harshika Arora, Mitch D. Culler and Eric A. Decker
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071014 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2685
Abstract
Phosphatidylserine (PS) was shown to work synergistically with tocopherols to extend the shelf life of oil-in-water emulsions. However, the high cost of PS prevents it from being used as a food additive. This work investigated the potential use of a high-PS enzyme-modified lecithin [...] Read more.
Phosphatidylserine (PS) was shown to work synergistically with tocopherols to extend the shelf life of oil-in-water emulsions. However, the high cost of PS prevents it from being used as a food additive. This work investigated the potential use of a high-PS enzyme-modified lecithin to be used along with α-tocopherol to extend the lag phase of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized using Tween 20. Phospholipase D from Streptomyces sp. and L-serine were used to modify lecithin to increase the PS concentration. Enzyme activity was optimized as a function of pH and temperature using high-phosphatidylcholine (PC) soybean, sunflower, or egg lecithins. Under optimal conditions, the final PS concentrations were 92.0 ± 0.01%, 88.0 ± 0.01%, and 63.0 ± 0.02% for high-PC soybean, sunflower, and egg lecithins, respectively. α-Tocopherol (3.0 µmol/kg emulsion) alone increased the lag phase of hydroperoxide and hexanal lag phases by 3 and 4 days compared to the control. Phospholipase-D-modified high-PS soy lecithin increased hydroperoxide and hexanal lag phases by 3 and 4 days, respectively. The addition of phospholipase-D-modified high-PS sunflower and egg lecithin did not have any considerable effects on lag phases compared to the control. The combination of phospholipase-D-modified high-PS lecithins (15.0 µmol/kg emulsion) and α-tocopherol (3.0 µmol/kg emulsion) increased the antioxidant activity of α-tocopherol, increasing the hydroperoxide and hexanal lag phase by 6 and 9 days for soy, 5 and 7 days for sunflower, and 4 and 6 days for egg lecithin, respectively. All phospholipase-D-modified high-PS lecithin–tocopherol combinations resulted in synergistic antioxidant activity (interaction index > 1.0), except for α-tocopherol and high-PS egg lecithin, which showed an additive effect. This research showed that the combination of enzyme-modified high-PS lecithin and α-tocopherol could be an effective and commercially viable clean label antioxidant strategy to control lipid oxidation in emulsions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on Stability and Lipid Oxidation Inhibition in Emulsified Food)
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20 pages, 4091 KiB  
Article
Physical and Oxidative Stability of Low-Fat Fish Oil-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized with Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Larvae Protein Concentrate
by Lucas Sales Queiroz, Federico Casanova, Aberham Hailu Feyissa, Flemming Jessen, Fatemeh Ajalloueian, Italo Tuler Perrone, Antonio Fernandes de Carvalho, Mohammad Amin Mohammadifar, Charlotte Jacobsen and Betül Yesiltas
Foods 2021, 10(12), 2977; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122977 - 3 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2582
Abstract
The physical and oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were investigated using black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) (Hermetia illucens) protein concentrate as an emulsifier. To improve the protein extraction and the techno-functionality, defatted BSFL powder was treated with ohmic heating [...] Read more.
The physical and oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions were investigated using black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) (Hermetia illucens) protein concentrate as an emulsifier. To improve the protein extraction and the techno-functionality, defatted BSFL powder was treated with ohmic heating (BSFL-OH) and a combination of ohmic heating and ultrasound (BSFL-UOH). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were performed in order to characterize the secondary structure and thermal stability of all protein concentrate samples. The interfacial properties were evaluated by the pendant drop technique. The lowest interfacial tension (12.95 mN/m) after 30 min was observed for BSFL-OH. Dynamic light scattering, ζ-potential and turbiscan stability index (TSI) were used to evaluate the physical stability of emulsions. BSFL-OH showed the smallest droplet size (0.68 μm) and the best emulsion stability (TSI = 8.89). The formation of primary and secondary volatile oxidation products and consumption of tocopherols were evaluated for all emulsions, revealing that OH and ultrasound treatment did not improve oxidative stability compared to the emulsion with untreated BSFL. The results revealed the promising application of BSFL proteins as emulsifiers and the ability of ohmic heating to improve the emulsifying properties of BSFL proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on Stability and Lipid Oxidation Inhibition in Emulsified Food)
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15 pages, 2036 KiB  
Article
Towards Oxidatively Stable Emulsions Containing Iron-Loaded Liposomes: The Key Role of Phospholipid-to-Iron Ratio
by Alime Cengiz, Karin Schroën and Claire Berton-Carabin
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1293; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061293 - 4 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2609
Abstract
To encapsulate soluble iron, liposomes were prepared using unsaturated phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine from egg yolk), leading to high encapsulation efficiencies (82–99%). The iron concentration affected their oxidative stability: at 0.2 and 1 mM ferrous sulfate, the liposomes were stable, whereas at higher concentrations (10 [...] Read more.
To encapsulate soluble iron, liposomes were prepared using unsaturated phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine from egg yolk), leading to high encapsulation efficiencies (82–99%). The iron concentration affected their oxidative stability: at 0.2 and 1 mM ferrous sulfate, the liposomes were stable, whereas at higher concentrations (10 and 48 mM), phospholipid oxidation was considerably higher. When applied in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, emulsions with liposomes containing low iron concentrations were much more stable to lipid oxidation than those added with liposomes containing higher iron concentrations, even though the overall iron concentration was similar (0.1 M). Iron-loaded liposomes thus have an antioxidant effect at high phospholipid-to-iron ratio, but act as pro-oxidants when this ratio is too low, most likely as a result of oxidation of the phospholipids themselves. This non-monotonic effect can be of crucial importance in the design of iron-fortified foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on Stability and Lipid Oxidation Inhibition in Emulsified Food)
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16 pages, 4489 KiB  
Article
Effects of the Reactive Moiety of Phenolipids on Their Antioxidant Efficiency in Model Emulsified Systems
by Marlene Costa, Sonia Losada-Barreiro, Júlia Magalhães, Luís S. Monteiro, Carlos Bravo-Díaz and Fátima Paiva-Martins
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1028; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051028 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1806
Abstract
Our previous research was focused on the effects of hydrophobicity on the antioxidant (AO) efficiency of series of homologous antioxidants with the same reactive moieties. In this work we evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of hydrophobic phenolipids in 4:6 olive oil-in-water emulsions, with different [...] Read more.
Our previous research was focused on the effects of hydrophobicity on the antioxidant (AO) efficiency of series of homologous antioxidants with the same reactive moieties. In this work we evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of hydrophobic phenolipids in 4:6 olive oil-in-water emulsions, with different phenolic moieties (derived from caffeic, 4-hydroxycinnamic, dihydrocaffeic acids, tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol), with alkyl chains of 8 and 16 carbons, and compare the antioxidant efficiency with that of the parent compounds. All catecholic phenolipids, in particular the C8 derivatives, have proven to be better antioxidants for the oxidative protection of emulsions than their parental compounds with octyl dihydrocafffeate being the most efficient (16-fold increase in relation to the control). To understand the importance of some factors on the antioxidant efficiency of compounds in emulsions, Pearson’s correlation analysis was carried out between antioxidant activity and the first anodic potential (Epa), reducing capacity (FRAP value), DPPH radical scavenging activity (EC50) and the concentration of antioxidants in each region of the emulsified system. Results confirm the importance of the effective concentration of AOs in the interfacial region (AOI) (ρ = 0.820) and of the Epa (ρ = −0.677) in predicting their antioxidant efficiency in olive oil-in-water emulsions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on Stability and Lipid Oxidation Inhibition in Emulsified Food)
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16 pages, 2193 KiB  
Article
Interfacial Concentrations of Hydroxytyrosol Derivatives in Fish Oil-in-Water Emulsions and Nanoemulsions and Its Influence on Their Lipid Oxidation: Droplet Size Effects
by Marlene Costa, Sonia Losada-Barreiro, Carlos Bravo-Díaz, Luís S. Monteiro and Fátima Paiva-Martins
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1897; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121897 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2448
Abstract
Reports on the effect of droplet size on the oxidative stability of emulsions and nanoemulsions are scarce in the literature and frequently contradictory. Here, we have employed a set of hydroxytyrosol (HT) esters of different hydrophobicity and fish oil-in-water emulsified systems containing droplets [...] Read more.
Reports on the effect of droplet size on the oxidative stability of emulsions and nanoemulsions are scarce in the literature and frequently contradictory. Here, we have employed a set of hydroxytyrosol (HT) esters of different hydrophobicity and fish oil-in-water emulsified systems containing droplets of different sizes to evaluate the effect of the droplet size, surfactant, (ΦI) and oil (ΦO) volume fractions on their oxidative stability. To quantitatively unravel the observed findings, we employed a well-established pseudophase kinetic model to determine the distribution and interfacial concentrations of the antioxidants (AOs) in the intact emulsions and nanoemulsions. Results show that there is a direct correlation between antioxidant efficiency and the concentration of the AOs in the interfacial region, which is much higher (20–200 fold) than the stoichiometric one. In both emulsified systems, the highest interfacial concentration and the highest antioxidant efficiency was found for hydroxytyrosol octanoate. Results clearly show that the principal parameter controlling the partitioning of antioxidants is the surfactant volume fraction, ΦI, followed by the O/W ratio; meanwhile, the droplet size has no influence on their interfacial concentrations and, therefore, on their antioxidant efficiency. Moreover, no correlation was seen between droplet size and oxidative stability of both emulsions and nanoemulsions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on Stability and Lipid Oxidation Inhibition in Emulsified Food)
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Review

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30 pages, 6916 KiB  
Review
Polyphenolic Antioxidants in Lipid Emulsions: Partitioning Effects and Interfacial Phenomena
by Marlene Costa, Sonia Losada-Barreiro, Fátima Paiva-Martins and Carlos Bravo-Díaz
Foods 2021, 10(3), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030539 - 5 Mar 2021
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 3593
Abstract
The autoxidation of lipids in complex systems such as emulsions or biological membranes, although known to occur readily and to be associated with important pathological events, is lacking in quantitative data in spite of the huge efforts that have been made in attempting [...] Read more.
The autoxidation of lipids in complex systems such as emulsions or biological membranes, although known to occur readily and to be associated with important pathological events, is lacking in quantitative data in spite of the huge efforts that have been made in attempting to unravel the complex mechanisms of lipid oxidation and its inhibition by antioxidants. Lipids are present as oil-in-water emulsions in many foods and pharmaceutical formulations, and the prevalent role of the interfacial region is critical to understand the antioxidant behavior and to correctly interpret antioxidant efficiencies. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the chemical fate of antioxidants before they react with peroxyl radicals. Many researchers highlighted the predominant role of interfaces, and although some attempts have been made to understand their role, in most instances, they were essentially qualitative and based on putative hypotheses. It is only recently that quantitative reports have been published. Indeed, knowledge on the effects of relevant experimental variables on the effective concentrations of antioxidants is necessary for a successful design of alternate, effective antioxidative solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Study on Stability and Lipid Oxidation Inhibition in Emulsified Food)
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