Green Extraction Processes for Obtaining Bioactive Substances for Food Processing

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Engineering and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 12997

Special Issue Editors

School of Food Engineering (FEA), University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Rua Monteiro Lobato, 80, Campinas, SP 13083-862, Brazil
Interests: bioactive compounds; supercritical technology; supercritical extraction; supercritical chromatography; supercritical fluids and particles formation; formulation of functional foods using bioactive extracts obtained using supercritical fluids
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Entourage Phytolab, Rua General Osório, 507 Valinhos, SP 13271-130, Brazil
Interests: supercritical technology; supercritical extraction; bioactive compounds; particle formation; delivery systems; functional food

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Today, eating habits worldwide are focused on acquiring health benefits from the food that is being ingested. In this scenario, bioactive compounds are being requested for food processing. Bioactive compounds may be obtained from fresh raw material or recovered from agro-residues. In either case, extraction is one of the processing steps for producing these bioactives. Therefore, several available extraction methods can be used; nonetheless, people are also seeking processes based on green technology and an improvement in eating habits. This situation is an opportunity for food researchers, industries, and related areas to further understand and develop green extraction techniques.

 “Green Extraction Processes for Obtaining Bioactive Substances for Food Processing” is dedicated to discussing all aspects relevant to the focus of this Special Issue as reflected by the title. We are inviting authors to submit their survey or review papers, research articles, accounts of their theoretical and modeling studies, and short opinion articles.

Prof. Dr. Maria Angela A. Meireles
Dr. Renata Vardanega
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • extraction
  • green extraction techniques
  • bioactive compounds
  • economic analysis of extraction processes
  • green solvents
  • analysis of bioactive extracts

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 1157 KiB  
Article
Production of Cookies Enriched with Bioactive Compounds through the Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour by Cocoa Bean Shells
Foods 2023, 12(3), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030436 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2226
Abstract
Approximately 500 thousand tons of cocoa bean shells (CSs) are generated annually and treated as waste. However, their composition is of great nutritional, technological, and economic interest due to their dietary fiber (46.4 to 60.6%), protein (11.6 to 18.1%), and lipid contents (2 [...] Read more.
Approximately 500 thousand tons of cocoa bean shells (CSs) are generated annually and treated as waste. However, their composition is of great nutritional, technological, and economic interest due to their dietary fiber (46.4 to 60.6%), protein (11.6 to 18.1%), and lipid contents (2 to 18.5%), as well as the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids. Thus, this study aimed to obtain CS flour by milling the CSs, characterizing the flour according to its chemical composition and functionalities, and then applying it in the production of cookies, substituting a wheat flour portion (10, 20, 30, and 40%) with CS flour. Cookies were characterized in terms of water, lipids, proteins, phenolic (PC), and total flavanol (FLA) contents, and specific volume (SV), hardness (H), and L*, a*, and b color scale parameters. Increasing the amount of CS showed positive results, as the cookies were enriched with PC (0.68 to 2.37 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of sample) and FLA (0.10 to 0.19 mg epicatechin equivalents/g of sample) but increased hardness (353 to 472 N). By associating the responses, it was concluded that the wheat flour replacement with 30% CS presented values of PC and FLA 3 and 1.6 times higher than the control and could be a formulation of interest to consumers. Full article
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12 pages, 2859 KiB  
Article
Extraction of Phytochemicals from Maypole Apple by Subcritical Water
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3453; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213453 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1138
Abstract
The Maypole apple is a new, promising species of small apples with a prominent flavor and deep red flesh and peel. This study divided Maypole apples into outer flesh, inner flesh, and peel, and used subcritical water at 100–175 °C for 10–30 min [...] Read more.
The Maypole apple is a new, promising species of small apples with a prominent flavor and deep red flesh and peel. This study divided Maypole apples into outer flesh, inner flesh, and peel, and used subcritical water at 100–175 °C for 10–30 min to extract various phytochemicals (procyanidin B2 (PB2), 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5CQA), and epicatechin). The obtained Maypole apple extracts and extraction residues in this work were analyzed using a SEM, HPLC, FT-IR, and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Under different subcritical water extraction conditions, this work found the highest extraction rate: to be PB2 from the peel (4.167 mg/mL), 5CQA (2.296 mg/mL) and epicatechin (1.044 mg/mL) from the inner flesh. In addition, this work regressed the quadratic equations of the specific yield through ANOVA and found that temperature is a more significant affecting factor than extraction time. This aspect of the study suggests that phytochemicals could be obtained from the Maypole apple using the new extraction method of subcritical water. Full article
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16 pages, 2174 KiB  
Article
Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Adenaria floribunda Stem: Economic Assessment
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2904; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182904 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
Adenaria floribunda is a native species found in tropical regions of South America used as a traditional medicine. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) is an extraction process known to increase the extraction yield, reduce extraction times, and use low temperatures. This study aims to obtain [...] Read more.
Adenaria floribunda is a native species found in tropical regions of South America used as a traditional medicine. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) is an extraction process known to increase the extraction yield, reduce extraction times, and use low temperatures. This study aims to obtain water-based extracts from A. floribunda stems using UAE, hot water extraction (HWE), and Soxhlet extraction and perform an economic analysis. The global extraction yield (GEY) and total phenolic compounds (TPC) of extracts ranged from 5.24% to 10.48% and from 1.9 ± 0.44 mg GAE g−1 DW to 6.38 ± 0.28 mg GAE g−1, respectively. Gallic acid, catechin, and ferulic acid were identified in the extract using HPLC-UV. Results indicate that Soxhlet extraction has the best performance regarding GEY and TPC. However, after performing an economic assessment, the cost of manufacturing (COM) of Soxhlet extraction (US$ 5.8 flask−1) was higher than the UAE (US$ 3.86 flask−1) and HWE (US$ 3.92 flask−1). The sensitivity results showed that obtaining extracts from A. floribunda by UAE and HWE is economically feasible when the selling price is above US$ 4 flask−1. Soxhlet extraction is a feasible technique when the selling price is above US$ 7 flask−1. Full article
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18 pages, 5326 KiB  
Article
Higher Yield and Polyphenol Content in Olive Pomace Extracts Using 2-Methyloxolane as Bio-Based Solvent
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1357; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091357 - 07 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2332
Abstract
Despite its severe toxicity and negative environmental impact, hexane remain the solvent of choice for the extraction of vegetable oils. This is in contrast with the constantly growing demand for sustainable and green extraction processes. In recent years a variety of alternatives to [...] Read more.
Despite its severe toxicity and negative environmental impact, hexane remain the solvent of choice for the extraction of vegetable oils. This is in contrast with the constantly growing demand for sustainable and green extraction processes. In recent years a variety of alternatives to hexane have been reported, among them 2-methyloxolane (2-MeOx), which has emerged as a promising bio-based alternative. This study evaluates the possibility of replacing hexane, in the extraction of olive pomace (OP), with 2-MeOx, both dry and saturated with water (4.5%), the latter of which is called 2-MeOx 95.5%. The three solvents have been compared in terms of extraction yield and quality, as well as the lipid and polyphenol profiles of the extracts. The work concluded that both dry 2-MeOx and 2-MeOx 95.5% can replace hexane in OP extraction, resulting in higher yields and extracts richer in phenolic compounds. This study should open the road to further semi-industrial scale investigations toward more sustainable production processes. Full article
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21 pages, 4055 KiB  
Article
Whey Beverage Emulsified System as Carrying Matrix of Fennel Seed Extract Obtained by Supercritical CO2 Extraction: Impact of Thermosonication Processing and Addition of Prebiotic Fibers
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1332; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091332 - 03 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1904
Abstract
Whey beverages that were enriched with fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and xylooligosaccharides (XOS) were used for carrying Foeniculum vulgare extract that was obtained by the supercritical CO2 extraction technique to produce novel functional products. Fennel-based whey beverages were subjected to thermosonication processing (100, 200, [...] Read more.
Whey beverages that were enriched with fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and xylooligosaccharides (XOS) were used for carrying Foeniculum vulgare extract that was obtained by the supercritical CO2 extraction technique to produce novel functional products. Fennel-based whey beverages were subjected to thermosonication processing (100, 200, and 300 W at 60 °C for 15 min) to verify the performance of the dairy colloidal system for protecting the bioactive fennel compounds. The impacts of thermosonication processing on the quality attributes of the functional whey beverages were examined according to their droplet size distribution, microstructure, kinetic stability, color parameters, browning index, total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant capacity by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulphonic acid) assays. The enrichment of the whey beverages with FOS and XOS did not affect their kinetic stability. However, the addition of prebiotic dietary fibers contributed to reducing the mean droplet size due to the formation of whey protein–FOS/XOS conjugates. The thermosonication treatments did not promote color changes that were discernible to the human eye. On the other hand, the thermosonication processing reduced the kinetic stability of the beverages. Overall, the colloidal dairy systems preserved the antioxidant capacity of the fennel seed extract, regardless of thermosonication treatment intensity. The whey beverages enriched with FOS and XOS proved to be effective carrying matrices for protecting the lipophilic bioactive fennel compounds. Full article
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14 pages, 1510 KiB  
Article
Phenolic Compounds Recovery from Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) By-Products of Pressurized Liquid Extraction
Foods 2022, 11(8), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11081070 - 07 Apr 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3015
Abstract
This study aimed to valorize pomegranate by-products (peel and carpelar membranes—PPCM) through their high biological potential for phenolic compounds recovery. The influence of lower temperatures (40 and 60 °C) and pressures (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 bar) than those generally used in [...] Read more.
This study aimed to valorize pomegranate by-products (peel and carpelar membranes—PPCM) through their high biological potential for phenolic compounds recovery. The influence of lower temperatures (40 and 60 °C) and pressures (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 bar) than those generally used in pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was evaluated through global extraction yield (X0), and qualitative and quantitative composition of the phenolic compounds. Chromatographic techniques were used to analyze the two treatments with the highest X0. Temperature, pressure, and their interaction had a significant influence on X0. The best phenolic compounds extraction conditions were using pressurized ethanol at 60 °C and 40 bar (extract 1—E1, 37% on d.b.) and 60 °C and 80 bar (extract 2—E2, 45% on d.b.). Nevertheless, E1 presented a significantly higher content of α, β punicalagin, and ellagic acid (48 ± 2, 146 ± 11, and 25.6 ± 0.3 mg/100 g, respectively) than E2 (40 ± 2, 126 ± 4, and 22.7 ± 0.3 mg/100 g). Therefore, this study could validate the use of low pressures and temperatures in PLE to recover phenolic compounds from pomegranate residues, making this process more competitive and sustainable for the pomegranate industry. Full article
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