The Generation and Control of Harmful Products in Food Processing

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Security and Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2023) | Viewed by 14625

Special Issue Editor

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Resources, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
Interests: heterocyclic amines; Maillard reaction; advanced glycation end products; meat; mass spectrometry; chromatography; food analysis; metabolomics; chemometrics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In order to obtain satisfactory quality, food materials are usually processed. However, along with the improvement of food quality, harmful products may also be generated, such as heterocyclic amines, advanced glycation end products, acrylamide, ethyl carbamate, methylimidazole, etc. Recently, studies in this area have become much more popular, particularly studies on the generation of these harmful products, the existence of these products in different food systems, and the inhibition of these products by various techniques.

Based on the increasing concern about the safety on food processing procedures, it would be interesting to report the latest research on the generation and control of harmful products during food processing.

Prof. Dr. Maomao Zeng
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • heterocyclic amine
  • advanced glycation end products 
  • acrylamide
  • ethyl carbamate
  • methylimidazole
  • maillard reaction

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 1561 KiB  
Article
Indirect Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Based on Broad-Spectrum Antibody for Simultaneous Determination of Thirteen Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics in Rana catesbeianus
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2530; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132530 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 856
Abstract
Fluoroquinolone (FQ) is a type of widely used antibiotic in agriculture and aquaculture, and exposure to low doses of FQs may result in the transfer of resistance between animal and human pathogens. Based on the optimization of the operating parameters, an indirect competitive [...] Read more.
Fluoroquinolone (FQ) is a type of widely used antibiotic in agriculture and aquaculture, and exposure to low doses of FQs may result in the transfer of resistance between animal and human pathogens. Based on the optimization of the operating parameters, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) standard curve was constructed for the simultaneous detection of 13 FQs, including enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), sarafloxacin (SAR), ofloxacin (OFL), norfloxacin (NOR), pefloxacin mesylate (PM), pefloxacin (PEF), enoxacin (ENX), marbofloxacin (MAR), fleroxacin (FLE), lomefloxacin (LOM), danofloxacin (DAN), and difloxacin (DIF). The limit of detection (LOD, computed as IC10) and sensitivity (IC50) of the ic-ELISA for ENR were 0.59 μg/L and 19.23 μg/L, respectively. The precision and dependability of the detection results of this ic-ELISA were properly verified by HPLC in Rana catesbeianus samples. This indicated that the established ic-ELISA approach could be utilized to determine the FQs in Rana catesbeianus. In addition, this ic-ELISA, based on a broad-spectrum antibody, provides a technical reference and potential strategy for an immunoassay of hazard factors with similar structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Generation and Control of Harmful Products in Food Processing)
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12 pages, 2452 KiB  
Article
Rapid Determination of Oxygenated and Parent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Milk Using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Foods 2022, 11(24), 3980; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11243980 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1014
Abstract
Liquid milks are consumed worldwide in large amounts, especially by adolescents and infants. Thus, their health quality linked with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination has attracted great concern. This study developed a rapid and sensitive supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC)-MS method to determine two [...] Read more.
Liquid milks are consumed worldwide in large amounts, especially by adolescents and infants. Thus, their health quality linked with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination has attracted great concern. This study developed a rapid and sensitive supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC)-MS method to determine two typical oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and EU 15+1PAHs except for benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) in three types of liquid milks: 10 ultra heat treated (UHT) milks, 8 pasteurized milks, and 4 extended-shelf-life pasteurized milks. The instrumental analysis was 15 min with a recovery of 67.66–118.46%, a precision of 1.45–14.68%, detection limits of 0.04–0.24 μg/kg, and quantification limits of 0.13–0.78 μg/kg. We found 9-fluorenone, anthraquinone, 15 EU priority PAHs, and benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalent quantity (BaPeq) in the 22 milk samples, which were 0.32–1.56 μg/kg, 0.40–1.74 μg/kg, 0.57–8.48 μg/kg, and 0.01–17.42 μg/kg, respectively. The UHT milks and whole fat milks showed higher PAH concentrations than other investigated samples, where the maximum levels of BaP and PAH4 were 0.77 and 3.61 μg/kg, respectively. PAH4 dominantly contributed to the PAH8 concentration and was detected in 73% and 32% of samples at more than 1.0 and 2.0 μg/kg, respectively. The results suggest that raw milks should be strictly monitored and extensively investigated for PAH4 and BaP concentrations for future risk assessment, limitations, and dietary guidance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Generation and Control of Harmful Products in Food Processing)
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16 pages, 9525 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) on the Formation of Heterocyclic Amines (HAs) in Meat Patties, under Different Smoking Temperatures and Durations
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3687; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223687 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1461
Abstract
In this study, UPLC-MS/MS was used to study the effects of smoking duration and temperature on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) in smoke-processed meat patties. Four kinds of free HAs—including F-7,8-DiMeIQx; F-MeAαC; F-Harman and F-Norharman—and six kinds of protein-bound HAs—including B-AαC; B-7,8-DiMeIQx; [...] Read more.
In this study, UPLC-MS/MS was used to study the effects of smoking duration and temperature on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) in smoke-processed meat patties. Four kinds of free HAs—including F-7,8-DiMeIQx; F-MeAαC; F-Harman and F-Norharman—and six kinds of protein-bound HAs—including B-AαC; B-7,8-DiMeIQx; B-Glu-p-1; B-MeAαC; B-Harman and B-Norharman—were detected and quantified. Among the free HAs, we observed a 23-fold content increase (p < 0.05), from 0–4 h (at 0 h and 4 h they were 4.24 ng·g−1 and 98.33 ng·g−1, respectively), and the content of the free HAs decreased to 78.80 ng·g−1, at 5 h. At the same time, the free HAs content increased from 53.52 ng·g−1, at 50 °C, to 127.16 ng·g−1, at 60 °C, and then decreased continuously. The content of the free HAs was the highest at 60 °C. For the protein-bound HAs, their content was found to generally decrease with the increase in smoking duration and temperature. However, at 5 h, the content of protein-bound HAs slightly increased to 984.2 ng·g−1. Meanwhile, at 90 °C, it increased to 1643.53 ng·g−1. Additionally, a total of 16 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were found in all of the meat samples, of which 10 VOCs (one acid, three aldehydes and seven phenols) were significantly related to the formation of free HAs. These findings showed that all the different types of HAs were produced under low-temperature processing, which provided scientific insights into the potential generation of HAs during meat smoking processes and could be used as a reference to minimize the risks of cancer related to the consumption of smoked meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Generation and Control of Harmful Products in Food Processing)
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15 pages, 2587 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Deep Eutectic Solvents Extract from Ginger on the Formation of Heterocyclic Amines and Advanced Glycation End Products in Roast Beef Patties
Foods 2022, 11(20), 3161; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11203161 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1265
Abstract
Heterocyclic amines (HAs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are important harmful products formed simultaneously during the thermal processing of food. In order to develop a green, efficient method that can be used to control the production of two harmful products simultaneously in [...] Read more.
Heterocyclic amines (HAs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are important harmful products formed simultaneously during the thermal processing of food. In order to develop a green, efficient method that can be used to control the production of two harmful products simultaneously in food processing. In the present study, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were used to extract ginger, and this method produced significantly higher levels of total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as an antioxidant activity than ginger extracted using conventional solvents. Herein, we further investigated the inhibitory effects of DES extracts from ginger on the generation of HAs and AGEs in roast beef patties. All the nine DES extracts reduced the formation of HAs and AGEs, and the application of choline chloride–lactic-acid-based DES extract caused a signification reduction of 44.33%, 29.38%, 50.95%, 78.61%, 21.94%, and 17.52% of the PhIP, MeIQx, MeIQ, 4,8-DiMeIQx, Harmane, and Norhamane content, and those for Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) were 49.08% and 58.50%, respectively. Furthermore, the proximate and texture profile changes of beef patties as well as the precursors (creatine, creatinine, and glucose) of HAs and AGEs were evaluated to determine the mechanism of ginger DES extracts on the formation of HAs and AGEs and the physical/chemical changes of ginger DES extracts on beef patties. This study develops a new method for reducing the amount of HAs and AGEs in meat, which will help food manufacturers produce healthier meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Generation and Control of Harmful Products in Food Processing)
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29 pages, 4755 KiB  
Article
Formation and Inhibition of Heterocyclic Amines and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ground Pork during Marinating
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3080; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193080 - 04 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1638
Abstract
This study aims to simultaneously extract heterocyclic amines (HAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from ground pork for respective analysis by UPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS, and study the effects of different flavorings and marinating time length on their formation and inhibition. Results showed that [...] Read more.
This study aims to simultaneously extract heterocyclic amines (HAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from ground pork for respective analysis by UPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS, and study the effects of different flavorings and marinating time length on their formation and inhibition. Results showed that both HA and PAH contents followed a time-dependent increase during marinating, with HAs being more susceptible to formation than PAHs. The total HA contents in unmarinated pork and juice was, respectively, 61.58 and 139.26 ng/g, and rose to 2986.46 and 1792.07 ng/g after 24-h marinating, which can be attributed to the elevation of reducing sugar and creatinine contents. The total PAH contents in unmarinated pork and juice were, respectively, 34.56 and 26.84 ng/g, and increased to 55.93 and 44.16 ng/g after 24-h marinating, which can be due to the increment of PAH precursors such as benzaldehyde, 2-cyclohexene-1-one and trans,trans-2,4-decadienal. Incorporation of 0.5% (w/v) cinnamon powder or 0.5% (w/v) green tea powder was effective in inhibiting HA formation with the former showing a more pronounced effect for marinated pork, while the latter was for marinated juice. However, their addition was only effective in inhibiting PAH formation in marinated pork. Principle component analysis revealed the relationship between HA and PAH formation in ground pork and juice during marinating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Generation and Control of Harmful Products in Food Processing)
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12 pages, 2495 KiB  
Article
Changes in Triacylglycerols Content and Quality Control Implications of Coix Seeds during Processing and Storage
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2462; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162462 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1351
Abstract
Coix seed is a kind of widespread cereal, and it is used as a folk medicine in China. The present work focuses on the analysis of changes in triacylglycerols (TAGs) content and mycotoxins of coix seed during the processing and storage period for [...] Read more.
Coix seed is a kind of widespread cereal, and it is used as a folk medicine in China. The present work focuses on the analysis of changes in triacylglycerols (TAGs) content and mycotoxins of coix seed during the processing and storage period for its quality control. Using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light-scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) techniques, 42 lipid components in coix seeds were identified, and seven molecular species of TAG in coix seeds from different localities in China were measured and compared, respectively. A correlation analysis between the morphological features and TAGs contents revealed the integrity instead of the particle size of the seed, displaying a highly positive correlation with its quality. The higher contents of TAGs in hulled coix seed than in polished coix seed proposed an alternative processing way. During storage, the changes in TAGs contents of seeds indicated that the storage period should be less than 3 months, and the intact seeds could maintain lipid stability better than the powder. Furthermore, the air humidity and temperature should be controlled during coix seed storage to prevent the production of mycotoxins. These results provide significant insight into the effective control of coix seed quality during processing and storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Generation and Control of Harmful Products in Food Processing)
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16 pages, 3487 KiB  
Article
Insight on a Competitive Nucleophilic Addition Reaction of Nε-(Carboxymethyl) Lysine or Different Amino Acids with 4-Methylbenzoquinone
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1421; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11101421 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1563
Abstract
ο-benzoquinone is a common intermediate which is mostly formed by the oxidation of phenolics or polyphenols containing catechol structure. ο-benzoquinone has an outstanding nucleophilic ability, while advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are nucleophilic and can undergo a nucleophilic addition reaction with [...] Read more.
ο-benzoquinone is a common intermediate which is mostly formed by the oxidation of phenolics or polyphenols containing catechol structure. ο-benzoquinone has an outstanding nucleophilic ability, while advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are nucleophilic and can undergo a nucleophilic addition reaction with ο-benzoquinone to mitigate the harmful effects of AGEs on the body. As common nucleophilic substances, amino acids existing in large quantities in food processing and in vivo may bind competitively with ο-benzoquinone, thus influencing the trapping of ο-benzoquinone with AGEs. In this study, cyclic voltammetry and coexistence experiments were used to compare the reactivities of Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML) and amino acids with 4-methylbenzoquinone (4-MBQ). The results showed that CML is more reactive with ο-benzoquinone than most amino acids, and even in complex systems, ο-benzoquinone still captured CML. Moreover, almost all adducts were identified by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS, and their chemical formulas were deduced. Quantum chemistry accurately predicts the efficiency and site of reactions of ο-benzoquinone and nucleophiles to a certain extent, and found that a secondary amine has a greater reactivity with 4-MBQ than a primary amine in a similar molecular structure. In general, ο-benzoquinone could capture AGEs, thereby showing potential to reduce the harmfulness of AGEs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Generation and Control of Harmful Products in Food Processing)
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Review

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25 pages, 5366 KiB  
Review
Reducing the Risk of Acrylamide and Other Processing Contaminant Formation in Wheat Products
Foods 2023, 12(17), 3264; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12173264 - 30 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1700
Abstract
Wheat is a staple crop, consumed worldwide as a major source of starch and protein. Global intake of wheat has increased in recent years, and overall, wheat is considered to be a healthy food, particularly when products are made from whole grains. However, [...] Read more.
Wheat is a staple crop, consumed worldwide as a major source of starch and protein. Global intake of wheat has increased in recent years, and overall, wheat is considered to be a healthy food, particularly when products are made from whole grains. However, wheat is almost invariably processed before it is consumed, usually via baking and/or toasting, and this can lead to the formation of toxic processing contaminants, including acrylamide, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Acrylamide is principally formed from free (soluble, non-protein) asparagine and reducing sugars (glucose, fructose and maltose) within the Maillard reaction and is classified as a Group 2A carcinogen (probably carcinogenic to humans). It also has neurotoxic and developmental effects at high doses. HMF is also generated within the Maillard reaction but can also be formed via the dehydration of fructose or caramelisation. It is frequently found in bread, biscuits, cookies, and cakes. Its molecular structure points to genotoxicity and carcinogenic risks. PAHs are a large class of chemical compounds, many of which are genotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic. They are mostly formed during frying, baking and grilling due to incomplete combustion of organic matter. Production of these processing contaminants can be reduced with changes in recipe and processing parameters, along with effective quality control measures. However, in the case of acrylamide and HMF, their formation is also highly dependent on the concentrations of precursors in the grain. Here, we review the synthesis of these contaminants, factors impacting their production and the mitigation measures that can be taken to reduce their formation in wheat products, focusing on the role of genetics and agronomy. We also review the risk management measures adopted by food safety authorities around the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Generation and Control of Harmful Products in Food Processing)
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23 pages, 1295 KiB  
Review
Advanced Glycation End Products: A Comprehensive Review of Their Detection and Occurrence in Food
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2103; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112103 - 23 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2583
Abstract
The Maillard reaction (MR) is a complicated chemical process that has been extensively studied. Harmful chemicals known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), with complex structures and stable chemical characteristics, are created during the final stage of the MR. AGEs can be formed [...] Read more.
The Maillard reaction (MR) is a complicated chemical process that has been extensively studied. Harmful chemicals known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), with complex structures and stable chemical characteristics, are created during the final stage of the MR. AGEs can be formed both during the thermal processing of food and in the human body. The number of AGEs formed in food is much higher compared to endogenous AGEs. A direct connection exists between human health and the build-up of AGEs in the body, which can result in diseases. Therefore, it is essential to understand the content of AGEs in the food we consume. The detection methods of AGEs in food are expounded upon in this review, and the advantages, disadvantages, and application fields of these detection methods are discussed in depth. Additionally, the production of AGEs in food, their content in typical foods, and the mechanisms influencing their formation are summarized. Since AGEs are closely related to the food industry and human health, it is hoped that this review will further the detection of AGEs in food so that their content can be evaluated more conveniently and accurately. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Generation and Control of Harmful Products in Food Processing)
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