Food Mycotoxins and Related Toxicology Research

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Toxicology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 October 2022) | Viewed by 4575

Special Issue Editor

1. Department of Fruit and Vegetable Product Technology, Prof. Wacław Dąbrowski Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology, State Research Institute, 36 Rakowiecka St., 02-532 Warsaw, Poland
2. Department of Technology of Chemistry, Azerbaijan State Oil and Industry University, 16/21 Azadliq Ave, Baku AZ1010, Azerbaijan
Interests: mycotoxins; food contamination; food safety; potentially toxic elements (PTEs); pesticide; detoxification and essential oils
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the first mycotoxins’ detection in the early 19th century, the agri-food related industries have made extensive efforts to avert their occurrence in foodstuffs. More than 100 different fungal species have been identified with the ability to produce more than 400 different mycotoxins. Some species of the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, and Penicillium are considered the primary fungi that produce mycotoxins. Zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, and ochratoxin A (OTA) are the most critical mycotoxins. They are highly toxic, causing acute and mostly chronic lesions in some organs, such as the kidneys, liver, epithelial tissues, and central nervous system (CNS). In this regard, several investigations are carried out to detect, measure, decontaminate, and manage the prevalence and concentration of mycotoxins among different food products. Additionally, many analytical techniques are introduced and approached to facilitate experiments. Moreover, biomarkers as a cheaper, faster, and more reliable tool are used to measure the dietary exposure of humans and animals to mycotoxins. However, the toxicology aspects of mycotoxins are ascribed in the literature, and the issues of co-contamination of mycotoxins in addition to emerging and masked forms remain undiscovered. Therefore, the current Special Issue aims to collect recent advances in technical and toxicological aspects of mycotoxins in different food products.

In this Special Issue, all types of manuscripts, including original research, review, systematic review, and preliminary investigations, as well as short communications addressing the following topics, are encouraged.

  • New approaches of technologies in toxicological research associated with contamination of food products by mycotoxins;
  • Further improvements in analysis with the aid of combining with other techniques;
  • Combination of techniques in decontamination of mycotoxins from food products;
  • Addressing new challenges raised by mycotoxins for the food safety of food products;
  • Raising the quality of treated products using pretreatments to define the required levels for newly introduced mycotoxins;
  • Recent advancements in the toxicology of mycotoxins in food products;
  • The role of biomarkers in dietary exposure of humans and animals to mycotoxins; challenges and perspectives;
  • Aiding to establish the required standard for contaminated food products by new mycotoxins.

Dr. Amin Mousavi Khaneghah
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mycotoxins
  • analytical methods
  • decontamination
  • new standards
  • biomarkers
  • toxicology

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 1258 KiB  
Article
Seasonal Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw Milk during a Five-Year Period in Croatia: Dietary Exposure and Risk Assessment
Foods 2022, 11(13), 1959; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11131959 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
This study’s objective was to estimate the seasonal occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in cow’s milk between winter 2016 and winter 2022 and to assess dietary exposure and risk assessment for the adult Croatian population. In total, 5817 cow milk [...] Read more.
This study’s objective was to estimate the seasonal occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in cow’s milk between winter 2016 and winter 2022 and to assess dietary exposure and risk assessment for the adult Croatian population. In total, 5817 cow milk samples were screened for AFM1 concentrations using the enzyme immunoassay assay (ELISA). For confirmation purposes of AFM1 concentration above the European Union maximum permitted level (MRL), ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was performed. In 94.7% of milk samples, AFM1 levels were below the detection limit (LOD) of the ELISA test. For 3.47% of samples, the AFM1 was between the LOD and MRL values. Only 1.87% of all samples exceeded the MRL. The mean value of elevated AFM1 in different seasons ranged between 59.2 ng/kg (autumn 2017) and 387.8 ng/kg (autumn 2021). The highest incidences of positive AFM1 were determined in autumn and winter and the maximum (6.4%) was in winter 2019/2020. The largest percentage of positive samples (69.7%) was found in central Croatia. The estimated daily intakes for positive samples ranged between 0.17 and 2.82 ng/kg body weight/day. Risk assessment indicated a high level of concern during autumn and winter, especially for consumers of large amounts of milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Mycotoxins and Related Toxicology Research)
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17 pages, 4296 KiB  
Article
Removal of Ochratoxin A from Grape Juice by Clarification: A Response Surface Methodology Study
Foods 2022, 11(10), 1432; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11101432 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1778
Abstract
This study achieved maximum removal of ochratoxin A (OTA) during the grape juice clarification process with minimal reduction in antioxidant compounds (phenolic acid, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity by FRAP) by the RSM method. Independent variables included three types of clarifiers—gelatin, bentonite, and diatomite [...] Read more.
This study achieved maximum removal of ochratoxin A (OTA) during the grape juice clarification process with minimal reduction in antioxidant compounds (phenolic acid, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity by FRAP) by the RSM method. Independent variables included three types of clarifiers—gelatin, bentonite, and diatomite (diatomaceous earth)—at a concentration level of 0.25–0.75% and clarification time of 1–3 h. OTA was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Clarifying agent concentration and clarification time affected the reduction amount of OTA and antioxidant compounds in grape juice. There was a direct linear correlation between the reduction amounts of OTA and antioxidant compounds and capacity with the concentration of bentonite, gelatin, and diatomite, and the clarification time. The reduction amount of OTA and antioxidant capacity followed the linear mode. However, the decreased phenolic acid and flavonoid values followed the quadratic model. The study results showed that if the concentrations of bentonite, gelatin, and diatomite and clarification time were 0.45, 0.62, 0.25%, and 1 h, respectively, the maximum amount of OTA reduction (41.67%) occurred. Furthermore, the phenolic acid, flavonoid, and antioxidant activity decrease amounts were at their lowest levels, i.e., 23.86, 7.20, and 17.27%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Mycotoxins and Related Toxicology Research)
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