Drying Technologies in Food Processing

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Engineering and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019) | Viewed by 27711

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, University of Southern Queensland, Springfield, QLD 4300, Australia
Interests: food engineering; modelling in drying; machine design
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Guest Editor
Agri-Science Queensland, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Salisbury Research Facility, 50 Evans Road (cnr Nettleton Cres), Salisbury, QLD 4107, Australia
Interests: mathematical model; optimisation; simulation; prediction; efficiency; improvement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Drying is one of the most common and cost-effective techniques for extending the shelf life of food plant materials, and can be used for other foods such as milk, gels, etc. used in food processing. To engineer effective and efficient food drying processes, it is important to establish a good understanding of changes during drying and the underlying mechanisms.

There are many drying techniques are available. The most common technique is in air, applying heat by convection and carrying away the water vapor as humidity from the product. Other drying techniques include vacuum drying where products are kept in vacuum condition, allowing water to evaporate (this method is suitable for heat-sensible foods); drum drying, where a heated surface is used to provide the energy; and spray drying, where the liquid particles are atomized, sprayed, and dried. Special drying and curing techniques are used for the preservation of crops, such as large onion crops. Therefore, drying technologies are important as some of the most important preservation techniques/methods in food processing. This Special Issue aims to identify and review drying technologies as well as the latest available techniques in food processing operations, and their benefits in food processing operations are discussed.

Dr. Wijitha Senadeera
Dr. Chandan Kumar
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • food drying
  • food processing
  • new techniques
  • moisture removal
  • technologies
  • efficiency in drying
  • diffusion of water
  • energy saving
  • modelling of drying
  • design of dryers

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 3222 KiB  
Article
Effects of Infrared-Assisted Refractance Window™ Drying on the Drying Kinetics, Microstructure, and Color of Physalis Fruit Purée
by Luis Puente-Díaz, Oliver Spolmann, Diego Nocetti, Liliana Zura-Bravo and Roberto Lemus-Mondaca
Foods 2020, 9(3), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030343 - 16 Mar 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5435
Abstract
The objective of this work was to study the influence of the drying temperature, infrared (IR) radiation assistance, and the Mylar™ film thickness during Physalis fruit purée drying by the Refractance Window™ (RW™) method. For this, a RW™ dryer layout with a regulated [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to study the influence of the drying temperature, infrared (IR) radiation assistance, and the Mylar™ film thickness during Physalis fruit purée drying by the Refractance Window™ (RW™) method. For this, a RW™ dryer layout with a regulated bath at working temperatures of 60, 75, and 90 °C, Mylar™ thicknesses of 0.19, 0.25, 0.30 mm and IR radiation of 250 W for assisting RW™ drying process was used. Experimental curves data were expressed in moisture ratio (MR) in order to obtain moisture effective diffusivities (non-assisted RW™: Deff = 2.7–10.1 × 10−10 m2/s and IR-assisted RW™: Deff = 4.2–13.4 × 10−10 m2/s) and further drying curves modeling (Page, Henderson–Pabis, Modified Henderson–Pabis, Two-Term, and Midilli–Kucuk models). The Midilli–Kucuk model obtained the best-fit quality on experimental curves regarding statistical tests applied (Coefficient of Determination (R2), Chi-Square (χ2) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). Microscopical observations were carried out to study the RW™ drying conditions effect on microstructural changes of Physalis fruit purée. The main findings of this work indicated that the use of IR-assisted RW™ drying effectively accelerates the drying process, which achieved a decrease drying time around 60%. Thus, this combined RW™ process is strongly influenced by the working temperature and IR-power applied, and slightly by Mylar™ thickness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Technologies in Food Processing)
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12 pages, 5691 KiB  
Article
Influence of Different Hot Air Drying Temperatures on Drying Kinetics, Shrinkage, and Colour of Persimmon Slices
by Wijitha Senadeera, Giuseppina Adiletta, Begüm Önal, Marisa Di Matteo and Paola Russo
Foods 2020, 9(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010101 - 18 Jan 2020
Cited by 61 | Viewed by 5985
Abstract
Drying characteristics of persimmon, cv. “Rojo Brillante”, slabs were experimentally determined in a hot air convective drier at drying temperatures of 45, 50, 55, 60, and 65 °C at a fixed air velocity of 2.3 m/s. It was observed that the drying temperature [...] Read more.
Drying characteristics of persimmon, cv. “Rojo Brillante”, slabs were experimentally determined in a hot air convective drier at drying temperatures of 45, 50, 55, 60, and 65 °C at a fixed air velocity of 2.3 m/s. It was observed that the drying temperature affected the drying time, shrinkage, and colour. Four empirical mathematical models namely, Enderson and Pabis, Page, Logarithmic, and Two term, were evaluated in order to deeply understand the drying process (moisture ratio). The Page model described the best representation of the experimental drying data at all investigated temperatures (45, 50, 55, 60, 65 °C). According to the evaluation of the shrinkage models, the Quadratic model provided the best representation of the volumetric shrinkage of persimmons as a function of moisture content. Overall, higher drying temperature (65 °C) improved the colour retention of dried persimmon slabs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Technologies in Food Processing)
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17 pages, 1149 KiB  
Article
Acacia Gum as a Natural Anti-Plasticizer for the Production of Date Syrup Powder: Sorption Isotherms, Physicochemical Properties, and Data Modeling
by Nasim Mansoori, Mahsa Majzoobi, Mohsen Gavahian, Fojan Badii and Asgar Farahnaky
Foods 2020, 9(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010050 - 5 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3779
Abstract
The thermoplastic and hygroscopic behaviors of date syrup (DS) challenge the DS drying process. In this context, DS was mixed with 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% acacia gum (AG) and subjected to a drum dryer. The chemical composition, bulk density (pb [...] Read more.
The thermoplastic and hygroscopic behaviors of date syrup (DS) challenge the DS drying process. In this context, DS was mixed with 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% acacia gum (AG) and subjected to a drum dryer. The chemical composition, bulk density (pb), caking degree (CD), glass transition temperature (Tg), and color values of DS powders were studied. The sorption isotherms were also obtained and compared to that of those predicted by mathematical models. According to the results, increasing the AG concentration enhanced the moisture content, pb, brightness, and Tg while it reduced the CD and equilibrium moisture sorption. All DS powders had type III isotherm behavior, i.e., similar to high-sugar foods. Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) and Peleg models were found to be suitable for fitting the experimental data and these models explained the monolayer moisture content decrease with increasing AG concentration. These results of the present study, for the first time, verified that the AG can be used as a natural anti-plasticizer agent for DS powder production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Technologies in Food Processing)
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14 pages, 2312 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Drying Methods on Drying Kinetics, Microstructure, Color, and the Rehydration Ratio of Minced Meat
by Aslı Aksoy, Salih Karasu, Alican Akcicek and Selma Kayacan
Foods 2019, 8(6), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8060216 - 18 Jun 2019
Cited by 84 | Viewed by 9684
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effect of different drying methods, namely ultrasound-assisted vacuum drying (USV), vacuum drying (VD), and freeze-drying (FD), on the drying kinetics and some quality parameters of dried minced meat. In this study, USV was for the first time [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of different drying methods, namely ultrasound-assisted vacuum drying (USV), vacuum drying (VD), and freeze-drying (FD), on the drying kinetics and some quality parameters of dried minced meat. In this study, USV was for the first time applied to the drying of minced meat. The USV and VD methods were conducted at 25 °C, 35 °C, and 45 °C. The different drying methods and temperatures significantly affected the drying time (p < 0.05). The USV method showed lower drying times at all temperatures. The rehydration values of the freeze-dried minced meat samples were higher than those obtained by the USV and VD techniques. The samples prepared using USV showed higher rehydration values than the vacuum dried samples for all temperatures. The effects of the different drying techniques and drying conditions on the microstructural properties of the minced meat samples were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The USV method resulted in higher porosity and a more open structure than the VD method. Total color differences (ΔE) for VD, USV, and FD were 8.27–20.81, 9.58–16.42, and 9.38, respectively, and were significantly affected by the drying methods and temperatures (p < 0.05). Higher drying temperature increased the ΔE value. Peroxide values (PV) significantly increased after the drying process, and samples treated with USV showed lower PV values than the VD treated samples. This study suggests that USV could be used as an alternative drying method for minced meat drying due to lower drying times and higher quality parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drying Technologies in Food Processing)
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