Non-thermal Processing Technologies and Their Current and Future Applications in the Food Industry

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Engineering and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 June 2024 | Viewed by 8431

Special Issue Editors

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China
Interests: non-thermal processing of food; food allergens and safety control; nutrition and health regulation
College of Food Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, China
Interests: quality evaluation of fruit and vegetable raw materials and mining of functional components; post-harvest commercialization and quality control of fruits and vegetables; common technology and quality control of fruit and vegetable processing
Dr. Guangxu Ren
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Food and Nutrition Development, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the Reople’s Republic of China, Beijing, China
Interests: food science; food processing and safety

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Non-thermal processing technologies are emerging technologies that have in recent years been mainly used for the inactivation of enzymes and sterilization. Heat treatment sterilization is a well-known sterilization technology, which can destroy some components and reduce the quality of food. People today pay more attention to a balanced diet and prefer to purchase products with high nutritional values for daily requirements. Ensuring safety is the primary requirement for food processing. On the basis of this, it is imperative to find novel processing technologies to preserve food nutrients. Non-thermal processing technologies, including high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, high-pressure carbon dioxide, irradiation, ultrasonic wave, etc., may help to avoid the loss of biological components. Compared with traditional thermal treatments, non-thermal processing technologies have lower processing temperature, which can help to better maintain the inherent ingredients, color, texture, and freshness in food. Moreover, non-thermal processing technology is environmentally friendly and can further be applied in sterilization, extraction, molecular modification, degradation of harmful ingredients, etc.

Dr. Fangyu Long
Dr. Rongrong Wang
Dr. Guangxu Ren
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • non-thermal
  • food
  • processing
  • high hydrostatic pressure
  • pulsed electric field
  • high-pressure carbon dioxide
  • irradiation
  • ultrasonic wave

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 6849 KiB  
Article
Sea Buckthorn Flavonoid Extracted by High Hydrostatic Pressure Inhibited IgE-Stimulated Mast Cell Activation through the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway
Foods 2024, 13(4), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13040560 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 556
Abstract
Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.), as one of the Elaeagnaceae family, has the significant function of anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and other physiological activities. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) extraction has the advantages of being easy and efficient, while maintaining biological activity. In this [...] Read more.
Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.), as one of the Elaeagnaceae family, has the significant function of anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and other physiological activities. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) extraction has the advantages of being easy and efficient, while maintaining biological activity. In this study, sea buckthorn flavonoid (SBF) was extracted with HHP and purified sea buckthorn flavonoid (PSBF) was isolated by AB-8 macroporous resin column. HPLC analysis was used to quantified them. In addition, the effect of anti-allergy in RBL-2H3 cells by SBF, PSBF, and their flavonoid compounds was evaluated. The results demonstrate the conditions for obtaining the maximum flavonoid amount of SBF: 415 MPa for 10 min, 72% ethanol concentration, and a liquid to solid ratio of 40 mL/g, which increased the purity from 1.46% to 13.26%. Both SBF and PSBF included rutin, quercitrin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and kaempferol. In addition, quercitrin, kaempferol, and SBF could regulate Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. Moreover, extracellular Ca2+ influx was reduced by quercitrin and PSBF. Furthermore, rutin, quercetin, iso-rhamnetin, and SBF could also inhibit P-p38 and P-JNK expression, thereby suppressing the phosphorylation of the MAPK signaling pathways. Overall, SBF is effective for relieving food allergy and might be a promising anti-allergic therapeutic agent. Full article
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16 pages, 3641 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Role of Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide in Modulating the Postharvest Ripening of Keitt Mangoes through the Induction of Ethylene Biosynthesis
Foods 2024, 13(2), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020316 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Consumer acceptance of Keitt mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) is significantly affected by their slow postharvest ripening. This work used gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2(g)) to prepare the ready-to-eat Keitt mango and explored the potential mechanisms for the mango ripening. Harvested mangoes [...] Read more.
Consumer acceptance of Keitt mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) is significantly affected by their slow postharvest ripening. This work used gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2(g)) to prepare the ready-to-eat Keitt mango and explored the potential mechanisms for the mango ripening. Harvested mangoes were treated with 20 mg·L−1 of ClO2(g) or ethephon for 3 h (25 °C) and left in a climatic chamber with a temperature of 25 ± 1 °C and a relative humidity of 85 ± 5% for 4 d. The results showed that ClO2(g) treatment significantly promoted the orange coloration of mango flesh compared to the untreated control group. Moreover, ClO2(g) treatment significantly elevated the total soluble solids, total soluble sugar, and total carotenoids content of mangoes, whereas the firmness and titratable acidity were reduced. ClO2(g)-treated mangoes reached the edible window on day 2, as did mangoes treated with ethephon at the same concentration, except that the sweetness was prominent. The residual ClO2 level of the mangoes was <0.3 mg/kg during the whole storage time, which is a safe level for fruit. In addition, ClO2(g) significantly advanced the onset of ethylene peaks by 0.5 days and increased its production between days 0.5 and 2 compared to the control group. Consistently, the genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis including miACS6, miACO1, and miACO were upregulated. In sum, ClO2(g) can be a potential technique to reduce the time for harvested mango to reach the edible window, and it functions in modulating postharvest ripening by inducing ethylene biosynthesis. Full article
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13 pages, 1865 KiB  
Article
Effects of Pulsed Electric Field Pretreatment on Black Tea Processing and Its Impact on Cold-Brewed Tea
Foods 2024, 13(1), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13010164 - 03 Jan 2024
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Abstract
This study applied pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to accelerate the withering and drying processes during cold-brewed black tea production. PEF pretreatment was administered at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 kV/cm electric field strengths, combined with varying withering times from 8 to 12 hr. During [...] Read more.
This study applied pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to accelerate the withering and drying processes during cold-brewed black tea production. PEF pretreatment was administered at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 kV/cm electric field strengths, combined with varying withering times from 8 to 12 hr. During the 12-hour withering process, the redness value (a*) and total color change (∆E) of PEF-treated leaves significantly increased (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the homogenous redness of tea leaves during fermentation depended on the PEF strength applied. In addition, PEF pretreatment remarkably reduced the drying time, up to a 50% reduction at a 2.0 kV/cm field strength. Additionally, the 2.0 kV/cm PEF-pretreated black tea exhibited a notable 42% increase in theaflavin (TF) content and a 54% increase in thearubigin (TR) content. Sensory evaluation scores were highest for black tea that received PEF pretreatment at 2.0 kV/cm. These findings highlight the significant potential of PEFs in enhancing the efficiency of withering and drying processes while positively impacting the physicochemical and sensory properties of cold-brewed black tea. Full article
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18 pages, 10162 KiB  
Article
Correlation between Water Characteristics and Gel Strength in the Gel Formation of Golden Pompano Surimi Induced by Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051090 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
The relationship between the gel quality of golden pompano surimi treated with dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) and changes in water characteristics was evaluated. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging were used to monitor changes in the water status [...] Read more.
The relationship between the gel quality of golden pompano surimi treated with dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) and changes in water characteristics was evaluated. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging were used to monitor changes in the water status of surimi gel under different treatment conditions. Whiteness, water-holding capacity and gel strength were used as the quality indicators of the surimi gel. The results showed that DPCD treatment could significantly increase the whiteness of surimi and the strength of the gel, while the water-holding capacity decreased significantly. LF-NMR analysis showed that, as the DPCD treatment intensity increased, the relaxation component T22 shifted to the right, T23 shifted to the left, the proportion of A22 decreased significantly (p < 0.05) and the proportion of A23 increased significantly (p < 0.05). A correlation analysis of water characteristics and gel strength showed that the water-holding capacity of surimi induced by DPCD was strongly positively correlated with gel strength, while A22 and T23 were strongly negatively correlated with gel strength. This study provides helpful insights into the quality control of DPCD in surimi processing and also provides an approach for the quality evaluation and detection of surimi products. Full article
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16 pages, 3707 KiB  
Article
A Novel Strategy to Improve Cloud Stability of Orange-Based Juice: Combination of Natural Pectin Methylesterase Inhibitor and High-Pressure Processing
Foods 2023, 12(3), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030581 - 29 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2016
Abstract
This study investigated the prospect of producing cloud-stable orange-based juice by combining high-pressure processing (HPP) with a natural kiwifruit pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) during chilled storage. Kiwifruit is rich in a PMEI, which greatly improves the cloud loss caused by the pectin methylesterase [...] Read more.
This study investigated the prospect of producing cloud-stable orange-based juice by combining high-pressure processing (HPP) with a natural kiwifruit pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) during chilled storage. Kiwifruit is rich in a PMEI, which greatly improves the cloud loss caused by the pectin methylesterase (PME) demethylation of pectin. The results show that the cloud loss of orange juice occurred after 3 days, while the orange–kiwifruit mixed juice and kiwifruit puree were cloud stable during 28 days’ storage. Although, the kiwifruit puree contained larger particles compared to the orange juice, its higher viscosity and solid-like behavior were dominant, improving the cloud stability of the juice systems. In addition, the particle size distribution and rheological properties were highly related to PME activity, PMEI activity, and pectin characterization. The kiwifruit PMEI showed higher resistance to HPP and storage time than PME. More water-solubilized pectin fractions with a high molecular mass were found in the kiwifruit puree, leading to its high viscosity and large particle size, but a more chelator-solubilized pectin fraction with a low esterification degree was observed in the orange juice, resulting in its cloud loss. In general, the outcome of this work provides a novel strategy to improve the cloud stability of orange-based juices using natural PMEIs and nonthermal processing technologies. Full article
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13 pages, 2867 KiB  
Article
High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatments Improved Properties of Fermentation of Apple Juice Accompanied by Higher Reserved Lactobacillus plantarum
Foods 2023, 12(3), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030441 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1511
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the feasibility of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment to obtain high quality juice, and prepared functional apple juice using fermentation technology. The physicochemical properties of HHP (10 min) pasteurized and pasteurized (85 °C, 15 min) apple juices were [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the feasibility of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment to obtain high quality juice, and prepared functional apple juice using fermentation technology. The physicochemical properties of HHP (10 min) pasteurized and pasteurized (85 °C, 15 min) apple juices were compared during fermentation. Moreover, the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum after fermentation under simulated gastrointestinal conditions was evaluated. Results showed that HHP-treated apple juice had better properties than that of pasteurized in terms of color difference, total phenol content, and antioxidant activity. After fermentation, about 2.00 log CFU/mL increase in viability of cells was observed and there was around 0.8 reduction in pH value, and the antioxidant capacities were also significantly improved. Additionally, the content of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid significantly increased after 24 h of fermentation. The survival of Lactobacillus plantarum in simulated gastric fluid reached 97.37% after fermentation. Overall, HHP treatment is expected to be a substitute technology to pasteurization in order to obtain higher quality fermented fruit juice. This study could also be helpful for exploitation of fermented juice. Full article
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Review

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30 pages, 2136 KiB  
Review
Alternative Processing Options for Improving the Proteins Functionality by Maillard Conjugation
Foods 2023, 12(19), 3588; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12193588 - 27 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 934
Abstract
Conjugation of the proteins with carbohydrates, occurring in the early stages of the Maillard reactions, received increased attention because of the high potential to ensure the improvement of the biological activity and functional properties of the proteins of different origins. The Maillard conjugates [...] Read more.
Conjugation of the proteins with carbohydrates, occurring in the early stages of the Maillard reactions, received increased attention because of the high potential to ensure the improvement of the biological activity and functional properties of the proteins of different origins. The Maillard conjugates are conventionally formed through wet or dry heating, but the use of alternative technologies involving ultrasound, microwave, pulsed electric fields, high-pressure, or electrodynamic treatments appears to be efficient in accelerating the reaction steps and limiting the formation of toxic compounds. An overview of the mechanisms of these processing technologies, the main parameters influencing the Maillard conjugate formation, as well as their advantages and disadvantages, is provided in this paper. Different strategies employing these alternative technologies are reported in the literature: as pretreatment of the proteins, either alone or in admixture with the carbohydrates, followed by conventional heating, as a single alternative treatment step, or as a combination of heating and alternative processing. The desired functional properties of the proteins can be achieved by selecting the appropriate processing strategy and optimizing the reaction parameters. Moreover, alternative technologies can be exploited to obtain Maillard conjugates with remarkable biological activity in terms of antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, or bifidogenic properties. Full article
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