Development of Fluorescent and Infrared Spectroscopy Methods' Applications in Food Analysis

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Analytical Methods".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 June 2024 | Viewed by 7623

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Interests: optical spectroscopy; food diagnostics; proteins; phenols; plant biostimulators
Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Interests: chromatography; polyphenols; phytochemistry; analytical chemistry; liquid chromatography; phenolic compounds

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food is a complex mixture of nutrients that has a vital role in human health and activities. There is a considerable demand for new analytical methodologies to determine food compositions and nutritive characteristics. Many analytical techniques currently used for food analysis are expensive, time-consuming, and require sample preprocessing. Optical spectroscopy (infrared and fluorescent) methods have become increasingly important for a wide variety of analytical applications in biology and chemistry as a result of significant technical advances in both instrumentation and data analysis tools in the past two decades. Coupled with advanced mathematical/statistical tools, optical spectroscopies allow a rapid, accurate, and reliable qualitative and quantitative analysis of composition and physicochemical properties of various kinds of food without sample preparation. The application of these techniques has expanded into many areas of food research and analytics as a powerful, fast, and non-destructive tool for food quality analysis and control.

For this reason, a Special Issue of Foods is being released focused on the development of applications of optical spectroscopy methods (fluorescent, infrared) in food analysis. It will provide an overview of the current status and future perspectives of the applications of these methods in food analysis.

Prof. Dr. Ksenija Radotić
Dr. Maja Natic
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • optical spectroscopy
  • fluorescence spectroscopy
  • infrared spectroscopy
  • food composition
  • food diagnostics
  • proteins
  • phenols
  • lipids
  • polysaccharides
  • vitamins

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 279 KiB  
Article
Validation of a Portable Fluorescence Spectroscopy System to Monitor Heat Damage in Industrially Processed Milk
by Ulises Alvarado, Anna Zamora, Oscar Arango, Jordi Saldo and Manuel Castillo
Foods 2024, 13(5), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050780 - 2 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1828
Abstract
Heat treatments play a critical role in ensuring the safety and preservation of milk, but it can affect its nutritional and sensory properties. The present paper proposes the use of a portable system based on fluorescence spectroscopy as an alternative method for the [...] Read more.
Heat treatments play a critical role in ensuring the safety and preservation of milk, but it can affect its nutritional and sensory properties. The present paper proposes the use of a portable system based on fluorescence spectroscopy as an alternative method for the quantification of four thermal damage markers at once (hydroxymethylfurfural, sulfhydryl groups, ascorbic acid, and riboflavin). The obtained prediction models using autofluorescent compounds (tryptophan, dityrosine, Maillard compounds, and riboflavin), validated with skimmed milk processed under several industrial conditions, granted the development of a portable and/or online system, allowing for the real-time monitoring of thermal damage and control of the heat treatment process. The results of this study will certainly contribute to the development of new process analytical technologies for the dairy industry, enabling quality control and adjustment of the manufacturing process to ensure safe and high-quality products. Full article
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21 pages, 3101 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Spectroscopic Peculiarities of Ergot-Infected Winter Wheat Grains
by Dmitrii Pankin, Anastasia Povolotckaia, Eugene Borisov, Alexey Povolotskiy, Sergey Borzenko, Anatoly Gulyaev, Stanislav Gerasimenko, Alexey Dorochov, Viktor Khamuev and Maksim Moskovskiy
Foods 2023, 12(18), 3426; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12183426 - 14 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 908
Abstract
Wheat has played an important role in human agriculture since ancient times. Increasing rates of processed wheat product fabrication require more and more laboratory studies of product quality. This, in turn, requires the use, in production and in field conditions, of sufficiently accurate, [...] Read more.
Wheat has played an important role in human agriculture since ancient times. Increasing rates of processed wheat product fabrication require more and more laboratory studies of product quality. This, in turn, requires the use, in production and in field conditions, of sufficiently accurate, fast and relatively low-cost quality control methods, including the detection of fungal diseases. One of the most widespread fungal diseases of wheat in the world is ergot caused by the fungi genus Claviceps. Optical methods are promising for this disease identification due to the relative ease of implementation and the possibility of performing fast analyses in large volumes. However, for application in practice, it is necessary to identify and substantiate characteristic spectral markers that make it possible to judge the sample contamination. In this regard, within the framework of this study, the methods of IR absorption spectroscopy in the MIR region and reflection spectroscopy in the UV-vis-NIR ranges, as well as luminescence spectroscopy, were used to study ergot-infected grains of winter wheat of the “Moskovskaya 56” cultivar. To justify the choice of the most specific spectral ranges, the methods of chemometric analysis with supervised classification, namely PCA-LDA and PCA-SVM, were applied. The possibility of separating infected grains according to the IR absorption, reflection spectra in the UV-vis-NIR ranges and visible luminescence spectra was tested. Full article
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11 pages, 2617 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Nitrite Content in Vienna Chicken Sausages Using Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging
by Achiraya Tantinantrakun, Anthony Keith Thompson, Anupun Terdwongworakul and Sontisuk Teerachaichayut
Foods 2023, 12(14), 2793; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12142793 - 23 Jul 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
Sodium nitrite is a food additive commonly used in sausages, but legally, the unsafe levels of nitrite in sausage should be less than 80 mg/kg, since higher levels can be harmful to consumers. Consumers must rely on processors to conform to these levels. [...] Read more.
Sodium nitrite is a food additive commonly used in sausages, but legally, the unsafe levels of nitrite in sausage should be less than 80 mg/kg, since higher levels can be harmful to consumers. Consumers must rely on processors to conform to these levels. Therefore, the determination of nitrite content in chicken sausages using near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) was investigated. A total of 140 chicken sausage samples were produced by adding sodium nitrite in various levels. The samples were divided into a calibration set (n = 94) and a prediction set (n = 46). Quantitative analysis, to detect nitrate in the sausages, and qualitative analysis, to classify nitrite levels, were undertaken in order to evaluate whether individual sausages had safe levels or non-safe levels of nitrite. NIR-HSI was preprocessed to obtain the optimum conditions for establishing the models. The results showed that the model from the partial least squares regression (PLSR) gave the most reliable performance, with a coefficient of determination of prediction (Rp) of 0.92 and a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 15.603 mg/kg. The results of the classification using the partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed a satisfied accuracy for prediction of 91.30%. It was therefore concluded that they were sufficiently accurate for screening and that NIR-HSI has the potential to be used for the fast, accurate and reliable assessment of nitrite content in chicken sausages. Full article
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Review

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15 pages, 2150 KiB  
Review
Synchronous Front-Face Fluorescence Spectra: A Review of Milk Fluorophores
by Paulina Freire, Anna Zamora and Manuel Castillo
Foods 2024, 13(5), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13050812 - 6 Mar 2024
Viewed by 832
Abstract
Milk is subjected to different industrial processes, provoking significant physicochemical modifications that impact milk’s functional properties. As a rapid and in-line method, front-face fluorescence can be used to characterize milk instead of conventional analytical tests. However, when applying fluorescence spectroscopy for any application, [...] Read more.
Milk is subjected to different industrial processes, provoking significant physicochemical modifications that impact milk’s functional properties. As a rapid and in-line method, front-face fluorescence can be used to characterize milk instead of conventional analytical tests. However, when applying fluorescence spectroscopy for any application, it is not always necessary to determine which compound is responsible for each fluorescent response. In complex matrixes such as milk where several variables are interdependent, the unique identification of compounds can be challenging. Thus, few efforts have been made on the chemical characterization of milk’ fluorescent spectrum and the current information is dispersed. This review aims to organize research findings by dividing the milk spectra into areas and concatenating each area with at least one fluorophore. Designations are discussed by providing specific information on the fluorescent properties of each compound. In addition, a summary table of all fluorophores and references cited in this work by area is provided. This review provides a solid foundation for further research and could serve as a central reference. Full article
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17 pages, 2310 KiB  
Review
Intrinsic Fluorescence Markers for Food Characteristics, Shelf Life, and Safety Estimation: Advanced Analytical Approach
by Ksenija Radotić, Mira Stanković, Dragana Bartolić and Maja Natić
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3023; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163023 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1895
Abstract
Food is a complex matrix of proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins, and other components. Various analytical methods are currently used for food testing. However, most of the used methods require sample preprocessing and expensive chemicals. New analytical methods are needed for quick and economic [...] Read more.
Food is a complex matrix of proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins, and other components. Various analytical methods are currently used for food testing. However, most of the used methods require sample preprocessing and expensive chemicals. New analytical methods are needed for quick and economic measurement of food quality and safety. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a simple and quick method to measure food quality, without sample preprocessing. This technique has been developed for food samples due to the application of a front-face measuring setup. Fluorescent compounds–fluorophores in the food samples are highly sensitive to their environment. Information about molecular structure and changes in food samples is obtained by the measurement of excitation–emission matrices of the endogenous fluorophores and by applying multivariate chemometric tools. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy is an advantageous screening mode used in food analysis. The fluorescent markers in food are amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine; the structural proteins collagen and elastin; the enzymes and co-enzymes NADH and FAD; vitamins; lipids; porphyrins; and mycotoxins in certain food types. The review provides information on the principles of the fluorescence measurements of food samples and the advantages of this method over the others. An analysis of the fluorescence spectroscopy applications in screening the various food types is provided. Full article
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