Advanced Strategies to Preserve Quality and Extend Shelf Life of Foods

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Packaging and Preservation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2022) | Viewed by 53581

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Food and Environment, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy
Interests: packaging; food preservation; sanitizing techniques; active compounds in the process and active packaging systems; functional food; byproduct valorization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Food & Environment, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy
Interests: food packaging; food processing and preservation; shelf life extension; functional food; sanitizing techniques; byproduct valorization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Quality preservation and shelf life extension still represent topical issues in the food technology sector. Many studies have been conducted over the years, starting from the middle of the last century, to optimize processes and packaging systems to guarantee the maintenance of the properties of the products during storage. The most consolidated strategies the literature has extensively discussed concern the use of heat and modified atmospheres (MAP). Heat, however effective, is a drastic solution; by contrast, MAP have little impact on food but are not always sufficient to prolong its shelf life. The knowledge gained in the sector has broadened the perspective and made preservation strategies that are based on the combination of multiple mild solutions, rather than on a single effective but drastic approach, more successful. In fact, the last few years of international research are characterized by a strong evolution in this area in which other strategies are being proposed: active substances from different origins, also coming from food industrial byproducts, active packaging, and novel mild sanitation techniques. These solutions could be all valid preservation systems for fresh food but need to be optimized for each of them. These preserving methods can also be suitably combined to exert antioxidant and/or antimicrobial actions capable of counteracting browning or microbial contamination that are often responsible for fresh food alteration during storage. Therefore, this Special Issue is an invitation to publish studies on the most recent shelf life extension approaches, in the form of both reviews and scientific articles dealing with the use of bioactive compounds in food formulation, or adoption of the most recent food active packaging solutions and any possible optimization of novel mild treatment applied to fresh food. 

Prof. Dr. Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile
Prof. Dr. Amalia Conte
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Food preservation
  • Shelf life extension
  • Active compounds
  • By-products for shelf life extension
  • Active packaging
  • Nano-food-systems
  • Mild treatments
  • Hurdle technology

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

3 pages, 189 KiB  
Editorial
Introduction to the Special Issue: Advanced Strategies to Preserve Quality and Extend Shelf Life of Foods
by Amalia Conte and Matteo A. Del Nobile
Foods 2022, 11(7), 1052; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11071052 - 6 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1582
Abstract
We are pleased to present this Special Issue, which includes 13 papers that highlight the most important research activities in the field of food quality assurance and shelf-life extension [...] Full article

Research

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11 pages, 700 KiB  
Article
Vacuum Packaging Can Extend Fresh Color Characteristics of Beef Steaks during Simulated Display Conditions
by Tristan M. Reyes, Madison P. Wagoner, Virginia E. Zorn, Madison M. Coursen, Barney S. Wilborn, Tom Bonner, Terry D. Brandebourg, Soren P. Rodning and Jason T. Sawyer
Foods 2022, 11(4), 520; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11040520 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2831
Abstract
Packaging technology is evolving, and the objectives of this study were to evaluate instrumental surface color, expert color evaluation, and lipid oxidation (TBARS) on beef longissimus lumborum steaks packaged in vacuum-ready packaging (VRF) or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) overwrap packaging. Paired strip loins (Institutional [...] Read more.
Packaging technology is evolving, and the objectives of this study were to evaluate instrumental surface color, expert color evaluation, and lipid oxidation (TBARS) on beef longissimus lumborum steaks packaged in vacuum-ready packaging (VRF) or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) overwrap packaging. Paired strip loins (Institutional Meat Purchasing Specifications # 180) were cut into 2.54-cm-thick steaks and assigned randomly to one of two packaging treatments, VRF or PVC. Steaks packaged in VRF were lighter in color (p < 0.05) as the display period increased, whereas steaks packaged in PVC became darker (p < 0.05). Redness (a*) values were greater (p < 0.05) for PVC steaks until day 5, whereas VRF steaks had a greater (p < 0.05) surface redness from day 10 to 35 of the display period. Calculated spectral values of red to brown were greater (p < 0.05) for steaks in VRF than PVC. In addition, expert color evaluators confirmed VRF steaks were less brown and less discolored (p < 0.05) from day 5 to 35 of the display. Nonetheless, lipid oxidation was greater (p < 0.05) for PVC steaks from day 10 through day 35 of the display. Results from this study suggest that the use of vacuum packaging for beef steaks is plausible for maintaining surface color characteristics during extended display periods. Full article
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21 pages, 3859 KiB  
Article
An Active Peptide-Based Packaging System to Improve the Freshness and Safety of Fish Products: A Case Study
by Rosa Luisa Ambrosio, Marta Gogliettino, Bruna Agrillo, Yolande T. R. Proroga, Marco Balestrieri, Lorena Gratino, Daniela Cristiano, Gianna Palmieri and Aniello Anastasio
Foods 2022, 11(3), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030338 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3353
Abstract
Fresh fish are highly perishable, owing mainly to their moisture content, high amount of free amino acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Microorganisms and chemical reactions cause the spoilage, leading to loss in quality, human health risks and a market value reduction. Therefore, the [...] Read more.
Fresh fish are highly perishable, owing mainly to their moisture content, high amount of free amino acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Microorganisms and chemical reactions cause the spoilage, leading to loss in quality, human health risks and a market value reduction. Therefore, the fishing industry has always been willing to explore new technologies to increase quality and safety of fish products through a decrease of the microbiological and biochemical damage. In this context, antimicrobial active packaging is one such promising solution to meet consumer demands. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an active polypropylene-based packaging functionalized with the antimicrobial peptide 1018K6 on microbial growth, physicochemical properties and the sensory attributes of raw salmon fillets. The results showed that application of 1018K6-polypropylene strongly inhibited the microbial growth of both pathogenic and specific spoilage organisms (SSOs) on fish fillets after 7 days. Moreover, salmon also kept its freshness as per volatile chemical spoilage indices (CSIs) during storage. Similar results were obtained on hamburgers of Sarda sarda performing the same analyses. This work provides further evidence that 1018K6-polymers have good potential as antimicrobial packaging for application in the food market to enhance quality and preserve the sensorial properties of fish products. Full article
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7 pages, 877 KiB  
Communication
Impact of Cork Closures on the Volatile Profile of Sparkling Wines during Bottle Aging
by Filipa Amaro, Joana Almeida, Ana Sofia Oliveira, Isabel Furtado, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Paula Guedes de Pinho and Joana Pinto
Foods 2022, 11(3), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030293 - 22 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2645
Abstract
This study aimed at investigating the impact of different technical cork stoppers on the quality preservation and shelf life of sparkling wines. The volatile compositions of two Italian sparkling wines sealed with a sparkling cork with two natural cork discs (2D) and a [...] Read more.
This study aimed at investigating the impact of different technical cork stoppers on the quality preservation and shelf life of sparkling wines. The volatile compositions of two Italian sparkling wines sealed with a sparkling cork with two natural cork discs (2D) and a microagglomerated (MA) cork were determined during bottle aging (12 to 42 months) after disgorging, by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS). The volatile profile of the sparkling wine #1 sealed with 2D stoppers showed the presence of camphor from 12 to 42 months, along with significant alterations in the levels of several alcohols, ketones, and ethyl esters at 24 and 42 months. The impact of closure type was less pronounced for sparkling wine #2 which also showed the presence of camphor from 12 to 42 months in 2D samples, and significantly higher levels of esters at 24 and 42 months for 2D compared with MA. These results unveiled that the type of closure has a greater impact on the volatile composition of sparkling wines at longer post-bottling periods and 2D stoppers preserve the fruity and sweety aromas of sparkling wines better after 42 months of bottle storage. Full article
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15 pages, 3909 KiB  
Article
Development of Multifunctional Pullulan/Chitosan-Based Composite Films Reinforced with ZnO Nanoparticles and Propolis for Meat Packaging Applications
by Swarup Roy, Ruchir Priyadarshi and Jong-Whan Rhim
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2789; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112789 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 54 | Viewed by 3850
Abstract
Pullulan/chitosan-based multifunctional edible composite films were fabricated by reinforcing mushroom-mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and propolis. The ZnONPs were synthesized using enoki mushroom extract and characterized using physicochemical methods. The mushroom-mediated ZnONPs showed an irregular shape with an average size of 26.7 ± [...] Read more.
Pullulan/chitosan-based multifunctional edible composite films were fabricated by reinforcing mushroom-mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and propolis. The ZnONPs were synthesized using enoki mushroom extract and characterized using physicochemical methods. The mushroom-mediated ZnONPs showed an irregular shape with an average size of 26.7 ± 8.9 nm. The combined incorporation of ZnONPs and propolis pointedly improved the composite film’s UV-blocking property without losing transparency. The reinforcement with ZnONPs and propolis improved the mechanical strength of the pullulan/chitosan-based film by ~25%. Additionally, the water vapor barrier property and hydrophobicity of the film were slightly increased. In addition, the pullulan/chitosan-based biocomposite film exhibited good antioxidant activity due to the propolis and excellent antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens due to the ZnONPs. The developed edible pullulan/chitosan-based film was used for pork belly packaging, and the peroxide value and total number of aerobic microorganisms were significantly reduced in meat wrapped with the pullulan/chitosan/ZnONPs/propolis film. Full article
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13 pages, 2423 KiB  
Article
Effects of Gaseous Ozone on Microbiological Quality of Andean Blackberries (Rubus glaucus Benth)
by Sandra Horvitz, Mirari Arancibia, Cristina Arroqui, Erika Chonata and Paloma Vírseda
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2039; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092039 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2229
Abstract
Andean blackberries are highly perishable due to their susceptibility to water loss, softening, mechanical injuries, and postharvest diseases. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of gaseous ozone against spoilage (mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and yeasts and molds) and pathogenic (E. coli, S. enterica [...] Read more.
Andean blackberries are highly perishable due to their susceptibility to water loss, softening, mechanical injuries, and postharvest diseases. In this study, the antimicrobial efficacy of gaseous ozone against spoilage (mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and yeasts and molds) and pathogenic (E. coli, S. enterica, and B. cinerea) microorganisms was evaluated during 10 days of storage at 6 ± 1 °C. Respiration rate and mass loss were also determined. Ozone was applied prior to storage at 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7 ppm, for 3 min. The best results were observed with the higher ozone dose, with initial maximum reductions of ~0.5, 1.09, and 0.46 log units for E. coli, S. enterica, and B. cinerea, respectively. For the native microflora, maximum reductions of 1.85, 1.89, and 2.24 log units were achieved on day 1 for the mesophiles, psychrotrophs, and yeasts and molds, respectively, and this effect was maintained throughout storage. In addition, the lower respiration rate and mass loss of the blackberries ozonated at 0.7 ppm indicate that this treatment did not induce physiological damage to the fruit. Gaseous O3 could be effective in maintaining the postharvest quality of blackberries throughout refrigerated storage but higher doses could be advisable to enhance its antimicrobial activity. Full article
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16 pages, 1589 KiB  
Article
Domestic Use Simulation and Secondary Shelf Life Assessment of Industrial Pesto alla genovese
by Carola Nicosia, Patrizia Fava, Andrea Pulvirenti, Andrea Antonelli and Fabio Licciardello
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1948; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081948 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3365
Abstract
The secondary shelf life (SSL) is defined as the time after package opening during which the food product retains a required level of quality. The SSL, indicated in labels as “best if used within x days after opening”, could lead to domestic food [...] Read more.
The secondary shelf life (SSL) is defined as the time after package opening during which the food product retains a required level of quality. The SSL, indicated in labels as “best if used within x days after opening”, could lead to domestic food waste if not correctly evaluated. In this context, the SSL of two brands of industrial shelf-stable pesto products (with an indicated SSL of 5 days) was studied through a domestic use simulation performed in five households under two scenarios simulating real opening and storage conditions. The quality of pesto after opening was assessed through microbiological and sensory analyses, determination of instrumental colour parameters, pH and volatiles profiling. For both pesto sauces tested, a SSL ≥ 20 days was proven. Irrespective of the intensity of use (scenarios 1 and 2), the pesto was microbiologically stable: the maximum count for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TMB) observed during 20 days of storage was 9.64 ± 1.7 × 102 CFU/g, starting from a commercially stable product. Colour parameters L* and ΔE did not change significantly during storage (p > 0.05), while the a* and BI values significantly changed (p < 0.05) during the first 5 days, and then stabilized during the rest of the household storage. Nevertheless, the slight colour modifications were not perceived by the sensory panel. Moreover, sensory assessors were not able to discern pesto samples stored for up to 20 days after first opening, from a just-opened reference sample, proving that the sensory appreciation of pesto was not influenced by the time after opening. The results of this study suggest the possibility to significantly extend or even omit the SSL indications for industrial pesto sauces. The objective assessment of SSL could have impressive practical outcomes both for the industry and the end user. The elongation of the SSL on the food label might increase food sustainability, thanks to the potential reduction of food wastes, thus giving added value to the commercial products. In addition, the end user could benefit the increase of the useful period for the food consumption after first opening, with significant domestic food waste reduction, reduced household stock turnover and consequent cost savings. Full article
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17 pages, 3168 KiB  
Article
Shelf Life Extension of Chilled Pork by Optimal Ultrasonicated Ceylon Spinach (Basella alba) Extracts: Physicochemical and Microbial Properties
by Yuthana Phimolsiripol, Srirana Buadoktoom, Pimporn Leelapornpisid, Kittisak Jantanasakulwong, Phisit Seesuriyachan, Thanongsak Chaiyaso, Noppol Leksawasdi, Pornchai Rachtanapun, Nareekan Chaiwong, Sarana Rose Sommano, Charles S. Brennan and Joe M. Regenstein
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1241; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061241 - 29 May 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3601
Abstract
The effect of ultrasonication on the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Ceylon spinach (Basella alba) extracts (CE) and the shelf life of chilled pork with CE were studied. The CE were ultrasonicated at different power levels (60–100%) for 10–40 min in [...] Read more.
The effect of ultrasonication on the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Ceylon spinach (Basella alba) extracts (CE) and the shelf life of chilled pork with CE were studied. The CE were ultrasonicated at different power levels (60–100%) for 10–40 min in an ultrasonic bath with the rise of antioxidant activities (p ≤ 0.05) proportional to the ultrasonication time. The additional investigation of antibacterial activities showed that the ultrasonicated extracts (100 mg/mL) could inhibit and inactivate Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with the optimal condition of 80% power for 40 min. For shelf life testing, fresh pork treated with the ultrasonicated extracts at 100 and 120 mg/mL had lower values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) than the control (without dipping). For food safety as measured by the total microbial count, the fresh pork dipped with 100–120 mg/mL CE extract could be kept at 0 °C for 7 days, 2 to 3 days longer than control meat at 0 and 4 °C, respectively. A sensory evaluation using a nine-point hedonic scale showed that fresh pork dipped with 100-mg/mL CE extracts was accepted by consumers. It is suggested that CE extracts can be applied in the food industry to enhance the quality and extend the shelf life of meat products. Full article
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13 pages, 985 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Potential of Algae Extracts for Extending the Shelf Life of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fillets
by María I. Sáez, María D. Suárez, Francisco J. Alarcón and Tomás F. Martínez
Foods 2021, 10(5), 910; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10050910 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3121
Abstract
This study evaluates the potential of different algae extracts (Crassiphycus corneus, Cc; Ulva ohnoi, Uo; Arthrospira platensis, Ap; Haematococcus pluvialis, Hp) as additives for the preservation of rainbow trout fillets. The extracts were prepared [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the potential of different algae extracts (Crassiphycus corneus, Cc; Ulva ohnoi, Uo; Arthrospira platensis, Ap; Haematococcus pluvialis, Hp) as additives for the preservation of rainbow trout fillets. The extracts were prepared with different water to ethanol ratios from the four algae species. The highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was observed in Uo extracted in 80% ethanol. Ap aqueous extract also had considerable FRAP activity, in agreement with a high total phenolic content. Radical scavenging activity (DPPH) was higher in Cc 80% ethanol extract, in agreement with a high total carotenoid content. In fact, when the algae aqueous extracts were assayed on the fish fillets, their antioxidant activity exceeded that of ascorbic acid (ASC). All algae extracts delayed microbial growth and lipid oxidation processes in trout fillets throughout the cold storage period compared to controls, and also improved textural parameters, these effects being more evident for Ap and Hp. With respect to the color parameters, the Hp extract prevented the a* values (redness) from decreasing throughout cold storage, a key point when it comes to colored species, not least salmonids. On the other hand, the Ap extract was not as effective as the rest of treatments in avoiding a* and b* decrease throughout the storage period, and thereby the color parameters were impaired. The results obtained, together with the natural origin and the viability for large-scale cultivation, make algae extracts interesting fish preservative agents for the food industry. Full article
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16 pages, 1785 KiB  
Article
Effect of Cross-Linked Alginate/Oil Nanoemulsion Coating on Cracking and Quality Parameters of Sweet Cherries
by Camilo Gutiérrez-Jara, Cristina Bilbao-Sainz, Tara McHugh, Bor-Sen Chiou, Tina Williams and Ricardo Villalobos-Carvajal
Foods 2021, 10(2), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020449 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3089
Abstract
The cracking of sweet cherries causes significant crop losses. Sweet cherries (cv. Bing) were coated by electro-spraying with an edible nanoemulsion (NE) of alginate and soybean oil with or without a CaCl2 cross-linker to reduce cracking. Coated sweet cherries were stored at [...] Read more.
The cracking of sweet cherries causes significant crop losses. Sweet cherries (cv. Bing) were coated by electro-spraying with an edible nanoemulsion (NE) of alginate and soybean oil with or without a CaCl2 cross-linker to reduce cracking. Coated sweet cherries were stored at 4 °C for 28 d. The barrier and fruit quality properties and nutritional values of the coated cherries were evaluated and compared with those of uncoated sweet cherries. Sweet cherries coated with NE + CaCl2 increased cracking tolerance by 53% and increased firmness. However, coated sweet cherries exhibited a 10% increase in water loss after 28 d due to decreased resistance to water vapor transfer. Coated sweet cherries showed a higher soluble solid content, titratable acidity, antioxidant capacity, and total soluble phenolic content compared with uncoated sweet cherries. Therefore, the use of the NE + CaCl2 coating on sweet cherries can help reduce cracking and maintain their postharvest quality. Full article
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22 pages, 1898 KiB  
Article
Effects of Whey Protein Isolate-Based Film Incorporated with Tarragon Essential Oil on the Quality and Shelf-Life of Refrigerated Brook Trout
by Maria-Ioana Socaciu, Melinda Fogarasi, Elemér Lajos Simon, Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc, Sonia Ancuţa Socaci, Andersina Simina Podar and Dan Cristian Vodnar
Foods 2021, 10(2), 401; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020401 - 11 Feb 2021
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3875
Abstract
The efficiency of some films prepared from heat-denatured whey protein isolate solutions on the quality and shelf-life of brook trout samples during storage at 4 °C was studied in this research (WPIf-a film based on whey protein isolate and WPIf+2.5%TEO-a film based on [...] Read more.
The efficiency of some films prepared from heat-denatured whey protein isolate solutions on the quality and shelf-life of brook trout samples during storage at 4 °C was studied in this research (WPIf-a film based on whey protein isolate and WPIf+2.5%TEO-a film based on whey protein isolate incorporated with 2.5% tarragon essential oil). The control and covered fish samples were periodically assessed (at 3 days) over 15 days of storage for the physicochemical (pH; EC, electrical conductivity; TVB-N, total volatile basic nitrogen; TBARS, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; color), microbiological (TVC, total viable count; PTC, psychrotrophic count; LAB, lactic acid bacteria; H2S-producing bacteria), and sensory properties (color discoloration; odor; overall acceptability). The WPIf+2.5%TEO has proven enhanced quality preservation effects compared to WPIf by showing lower values for physicochemical parameters, lower microbial loads, and higher sensory scores in the fish sample. All these effects have led to an extension of the sample’s shelf-life. In conclusion, the tarragon essential oil has conferred antioxidant and antimicrobial properties to the film. Thus, the WPIf+2.5%TEO could be a promising material for the packaging of fresh brook trout during refrigerated storage. Full article
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12 pages, 1345 KiB  
Article
Food By-Products to Extend Shelf Life: The Case of Cod Sticks Breaded with Dried Olive Paste
by Olimpia Panza, Valentina Lacivita, Carmen Palermo, Amalia Conte and Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1902; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121902 - 19 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2473
Abstract
Recently, the interest in recovery bioactive compounds from food industrial by-products is growing abundantly. Olive oil by-products are a source of valuable bioactive compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. One of the most interesting by-products of olive oil obtained by a two-phase decanter [...] Read more.
Recently, the interest in recovery bioactive compounds from food industrial by-products is growing abundantly. Olive oil by-products are a source of valuable bioactive compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. One of the most interesting by-products of olive oil obtained by a two-phase decanter is the olive paste, a wet homogeneous pulp free from residuals of the kernel. To valorize the olive paste, ready-to-cook cod sticks breaded with dried olive oil by-products were developed. Shelf-life tests were carried out on breaded cod sticks and during 15 days of storage at 4 °C pH evolution, microbiological aspects, and sensory properties were also monitored. In addition, the chemical quality of both control and active samples was assessed in terms of total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. The enrichment with olive paste increased the total phenols, the flavonoids, and the antioxidant activity of the breaded fish samples compared to the control. Furthermore, the bioactive compounds acted as antimicrobial agents, without compromising the sensory parameters. Therefore, the new products recorded a longer shelf life (12 days) than the control fish sample that remained acceptable for nine days. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

20 pages, 540 KiB  
Review
State-of-Art on the Recycling of By-Products from Fruits and Vegetables of Mediterranean Countries to Prolong Food Shelf Life
by Sara Nardella, Amalia Conte and Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile
Foods 2022, 11(5), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11050665 - 24 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4352
Abstract
Annually, 1.3 billion tons of food are wasted and this plays a major role in increasing pollution. Food waste increases domestic greenhouse gas emissions mainly due to the gas emissions associated with its production. Fruit and vegetable industrial by-products occur in the form [...] Read more.
Annually, 1.3 billion tons of food are wasted and this plays a major role in increasing pollution. Food waste increases domestic greenhouse gas emissions mainly due to the gas emissions associated with its production. Fruit and vegetable industrial by-products occur in the form of leaves, peel, seeds, pulp, as well as a mixture of them and represent the most abundant food waste. The disposal of agricultural by-products costs a large amount of money under certain governmental regulations. However, fruit and vegetable by-products are rich in valuable bioactive compounds, thus justifying their use as food fortifier, active food packaging or as food ingredients to preserve food quality over time. The present review collects the most recent utilization carried out at lab-scale on Mediterranean fruit and vegetable by-products as valid components to prolong food shelf life, providing a detailed picture of the state-of-art of literature on the topic. Bibliographic research was conducted by applying many keywords and filters in the last 10 years. Several scientific findings demonstrate that by-products, and in particular their extracts, are effectively capable of prolonging the shelf life of dairy food, fresh-cut produce, meat and fish-based products, oil, wine, paste and bakery products. All of the studies provide clear advances in terms of food sustainability, highlight the potential of by-products as a source of bioactive compounds, and promote a culture in which foods are intended to receive a second useful life. The same final considerations were also included regarding the current situation, which still limits by-products diffusion. In addition, a conclusion on a future perspective for by-products recycling was provided. The most important efforts have to be conducted by research since only a multidisciplinary approach for an advantageous investigation could be an efficient method to promote the scale up of by-products and encourage their adoption at the industrial level. Full article
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20 pages, 1048 KiB  
Review
Fresh Fish Degradation and Advances in Preservation Using Physical Emerging Technologies
by Jéssica Tavares, Ana Martins, Liliana G. Fidalgo, Vasco Lima, Renata A. Amaral, Carlos A. Pinto, Ana M. Silva and Jorge A. Saraiva
Foods 2021, 10(4), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040780 - 5 Apr 2021
Cited by 69 | Viewed by 11183
Abstract
Fresh fish is a highly perishable food characterized by a short shelf-life, and for this reason, it must be properly handled and stored to slow down its deterioration and to ensure microbial safety and marketable shelf-life. Modern consumers seek fresh-like, minimally processed foods [...] Read more.
Fresh fish is a highly perishable food characterized by a short shelf-life, and for this reason, it must be properly handled and stored to slow down its deterioration and to ensure microbial safety and marketable shelf-life. Modern consumers seek fresh-like, minimally processed foods due to the raising concerns regarding the use of preservatives in foods, as is the case of fresh fish. Given this, emergent preservation techniques are being evaluated as a complement or even replacement of conventional preservation methodologies, to assure food safety and extend shelf-life without compromising food safety. This paper reviews the main mechanisms responsible for fish spoilage and the use of conventional physical methodologies to preserve fresh fish, encompassing the main effects of each methodology on microbiological and chemical quality aspects of this highly perishable food. In this sense, conventional storage procedures (refrigeration and freezing) are counterpointed with more recent cold-based storage methodologies, namely chilling and superchilling. In addition, the use of novel food packaging methodologies (edible films and coatings) is also presented and discussed, along with a new storage methodology, hyperbaric storage, that states storage pressure control to hurdle microbial development and slow down organoleptic decay at subzero, refrigeration, and room temperatures. Full article
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