Grapes and their Derivatives in Functional Foods

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 55884

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Dear Colleagues,

Grapes have a long history and have been part of the human diet for more than 6,000 years. Through centuries they have been used in several forms, such as directly as food (table grapes), for the production of wines (wine grapes), or as dried grapes for longer shelf life (raisin grapes). The processing of grapes, especially for wine production, results in a large amount of different wastes like grape pomace, grape seeds, wine lees, etc. However these wastes, still contain various ingredients of grapes that may provide health benefits beyond nutrition. Therefore, grapes and their derivatives may be used as raw materials or as additives to provide functional properties to several foods. The demand for consumption of healt- promoting foods is growing worldwide due to the realization of the link between diet and human health. This has led to the development of a new category of foods, the so-called functional foods. Since not all foods contain ingredients with functional properties or at the desired concentrations, the addition of such ingredients is a necessity. Grapes and their derivatives may play such role to increase the functional properties of several foods or to design novel functional foods. The aim of this Special Issue is to provide the latest research in the field of i) isolation of functional ingredients from grapes and their derivatives; ii) application of grapes, their derivatives, and isolated functional ingredients in foods, iii) methods to protect functional ingredients during food processing; and iv) development of novel functional foods based on grapes and their derivatives.

Prof. Kandylis Panagiotis
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Grapes
  • Functional foods
  • Grape pomace
  • Grape seeds
  • Wine lees
  • Polyphenols

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 172 KiB  
Editorial
Grapes and Their Derivatives in Functional Foods
by Panagiotis Kandylis
Foods 2021, 10(3), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030672 - 22 Mar 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3079
Abstract
Consumer interest in the consumption of health promoting foods is growing worldwide due to the realization of the link between diet and human health [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grapes and their Derivatives in Functional Foods)

Research

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14 pages, 813 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Extractable Compounds from Tannat Grape Skin Possessing Health Promoting Properties with Potential to Reduce the Risk of Diabetes
by Adriana Maite Fernández-Fernández, Amaia Iriondo-DeHond, Tiziana Nardin, Roberto Larcher, Eduardo Dellacassa, Alejandra Medrano-Fernandez and María Dolores del Castillo
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1575; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111575 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2433
Abstract
Diabetes pathogenesis encompasses oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin malfunctioning and partial or total insulin secretion impairment, which leads to a constant hyperglycemia. Polyphenols are known to possess bioactive properties, being Tannat grape skin a natural and sustainable source of these compounds. The present study [...] Read more.
Diabetes pathogenesis encompasses oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin malfunctioning and partial or total insulin secretion impairment, which leads to a constant hyperglycemia. Polyphenols are known to possess bioactive properties, being Tannat grape skin a natural and sustainable source of these compounds. The present study aimed to find out the bioaccessibility of health-promoting molecules composing a multifunctional extract from Tannat grape skin obtained under hydro-alcoholic-acid conditions. The identification of phenolic compounds in the samples was performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Subsequently, the samples were in vitro digested mimicking the human oral gastrointestinal conditions and the bioactivity of the digest (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and modulation of glucose metabolism) was assessed. Effect on glucose metabolism was estimated by measuring carbohydrases activity and the functionality of glucose transporters of small intestine cells in presence and absence of the digested extract. Flavonoids, phenolic acids and phenolic alcohols were the major phenol compounds detected in the extract. The bioaccessible compounds protected the intestinal cells and macrophages against the induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). In addition, glucose transporters were inhibited by the digested extract. In conclusion, the bioaccessible compounds of the extract, including phenols, modulated key biochemical events involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes such as oxidative stress, inflammation and glucose absorption. The extract was effective under prevention with co-administration conditions supporting its potential for either reducing the risk or treating this disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grapes and their Derivatives in Functional Foods)
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14 pages, 909 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Quality, Sensory Analysis and Shelf Life Stability of Yogurts Containing Inulin-Type Fructans and Winery Byproducts for Sustainable Health
by Maite Iriondo-DeHond, José Manuel Blázquez-Duff, María Dolores del Castillo and Eugenio Miguel
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091199 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4202
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of winery byproduct extracts (grape pomace, seed and skin) and a mixture of inulin-type fructans (inulin and FOS) as suitable ingredients for the development of yogurts with antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. Their [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of winery byproduct extracts (grape pomace, seed and skin) and a mixture of inulin-type fructans (inulin and FOS) as suitable ingredients for the development of yogurts with antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. Their effect on the physicochemical, textural, microbiological and sensory parameters of yogurts was evaluated during 21 days of refrigerated storage. The incorporation of winery byproduct extracts in yogurt resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, compared to the controls. The grape skin yogurt showed the highest (p < 0.05) TPC (0.09 ± 0.00 mg GAE/g yogurt) and antioxidant capacity (7.69 ± 1.15 mmol TE/g yogurt). Moreover, the grape skin yogurt presented the highest (p < 0.05) inhibition of the activity of the enzyme α-glucosidase (56.46 ± 2.31%). The addition of inulin-type fructans did not significantly (p > 0.05) modify the overall antioxidant capacity or inhibition of the enzyme α-glucosidase of control and winery byproduct extract yogurts. Yogurts containing winery byproduct extracts and dietary fiber achieved high overall acceptance scores (6.33–6.67) and showed stable physicochemical, textural and microbiological characteristics during storage, assuring an optimal 21-day shelf life. According to their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, we propose the yogurt containing grape skin extract, together with inulin and FOS, as a novel food product for the promotion of sustainable health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grapes and their Derivatives in Functional Foods)
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13 pages, 1096 KiB  
Article
Yogurts Supplemented with Juices from Grapes and Berries
by Dimitra Dimitrellou, Nikoletta Solomakou, Evangelos Kokkinomagoulos and Panagiotis Kandylis
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1158; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091158 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 6127
Abstract
Nowadays, there is growing interest for the development of enriched dairy products with phenolic compounds derived from edible sources, mainly due to their safety and potential health benefits. Following that trend, in the present study, fruit juices (blueberry, aronia, and grape) were supplemented [...] Read more.
Nowadays, there is growing interest for the development of enriched dairy products with phenolic compounds derived from edible sources, mainly due to their safety and potential health benefits. Following that trend, in the present study, fruit juices (blueberry, aronia, and grape) were supplemented into yogurt as functional ingredients. The main physicochemical characteristics (pH, reducing sugars, acidity, color, and syneresis), total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and viability of yogurt starters were monitored during production and storage. The use of juices had no significant effect on milk acidification rate and on the main physicochemical characteristics of yogurts, while resulted in increased red color. Total phenolic content increased from 30 to 33% (grape and aronia) and up to 49% (blueberry), while similar results were observed in antioxidant activity. Similar values of syneresis were presented in all yogurts, probably due to exopolysaccharide producing starter culture. Streptococcus thermophilus retained high viable counts during storage especially in yogurts with fruit juices (>108 cells g−1) revealing a possible prebiotic effect of juices. The results obtained from this study show that fruit juices (aronia, blueberry, and grape) have potential to be used in yogurt production in order to optimize the benefits of probiotic products with high phenolic compound intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grapes and their Derivatives in Functional Foods)
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27 pages, 699 KiB  
Article
Extended Harvest Date Alter Flavonoid Composition and Chromatic Characteristics of Plavac Mali (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape Berries
by Ana Mucalo, Edi Maletić and Goran Zdunić
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1155; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091155 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2826
Abstract
This study delivers a comprehensive flavonoid fingerprint profile, physiochemical and external color characterization of Plavac Mali grapes through four harvest dates at two distinct vineyards (Split and Zadar) in the Eastern Adriatic region. The experimental harvest lasted 56 days, at total soluble solids [...] Read more.
This study delivers a comprehensive flavonoid fingerprint profile, physiochemical and external color characterization of Plavac Mali grapes through four harvest dates at two distinct vineyards (Split and Zadar) in the Eastern Adriatic region. The experimental harvest lasted 56 days, at total soluble solids content from 18.4 to 22.4°Brix in Split and 16.8 to 20.4°Brix in Zadar. Patterns of 27 skin and seed flavonoid compounds at each location indicate unique flavonoid composition of berries at each harvest date. Extended harvest increased six compounds in skin with maximum values of main anthocyanin malvidin-3-O-glucoside in H3 (4406.6 and 6389.5 mg kg−1, Split and Zadar, respectively) followed by a decrease in October. Peak values of seed and skin catechins and galloylated flavan-3-ol subunits are seen in H1 and H2 at Split, while constantly high values are reported in the case of Zadar, with an incoherent pattern of those in skin extracts. Minimal values of epigallocatechin were detected with an extended harvest date at both locations. Berries of extended harvest dates underwent colorimetric improvements, trough decrease in L*, a*, b* and C characteristics and increase in skin color index for red grapes CIRG. The extended harvest date promotes flavonoid composition, and improves the quality of Plavac Mali grape berries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grapes and their Derivatives in Functional Foods)
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11 pages, 2010 KiB  
Article
Ohmic Heating Extract of Vine Pruning Residue Has Anti-Colorectal Cancer Activity and Increases Sensitivity to the Chemotherapeutic Drug 5-FU
by Meirielly S. Jesus, Ana C. Carvalho, José A. Teixeira, Lucília Domingues and Cristina Pereira-Wilson
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1102; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081102 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2477
Abstract
Vine pruning residues are by-products of the wine industry that have not received much attention in the past, in spite of being rich in bioactive compounds. In this study, we aimed to test whether an ohmic extract of vine pruning residue (VPE) has [...] Read more.
Vine pruning residues are by-products of the wine industry that have not received much attention in the past, in spite of being rich in bioactive compounds. In this study, we aimed to test whether an ohmic extract of vine pruning residue (VPE) has anti-colorectal cancer (CRC) properties, and whether responses differ according with cell’s mutation profile. VPE decreased human CRC cell proliferation, accompanied by DNA effects and cell cycle modulation. VPE also increased cell sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic drug 5-FU. Our results suggest that tumors harboring BRAF mutations may be more responsive to VPE than KRAS mutated tumors. These effects of the extract were not completely reproduced by the most abundant constituents tested individually at the concentrations present in the effective dose of VPE. Globally, our results indicate that VPE, a polyphenol enriched extract produced by ohmic heating of vine pruning residue, has anti-colorectal cancer potential, including sensitizing to a chemotherapeutical drug, and its use in functional foods or nutraceuticals could be exploited in personalized anti colorectal cancer dietary strategies. Valorization of this lignocellulosic residue should encourage bio-waste recycling, adding value to this agricultural by-product and promoting the sustainable use of natural resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grapes and their Derivatives in Functional Foods)
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14 pages, 398 KiB  
Article
Influence of Grape Pomace Intake on Nutritional Value, Lipid Oxidation and Volatile Profile of Poultry Meat
by Francesca Bennato, Alessio Di Luca, Camillo Martino, Andrea Ianni, Elettra Marone, Lisa Grotta, Solange Ramazzotti, Angelo Cichelli and Giuseppe Martino
Foods 2020, 9(4), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040508 - 17 Apr 2020
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 4156
Abstract
Grape pomace (GP) represents the main solid by-product deriving from grape processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary GP intake on nutritional quality, lipid oxidation and volatile profile of chicken meat. A total of 112 Ross 508 [...] Read more.
Grape pomace (GP) represents the main solid by-product deriving from grape processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary GP intake on nutritional quality, lipid oxidation and volatile profile of chicken meat. A total of 112 Ross 508 broilers were randomly divided into 4 groups and fed for 21 days with a standard diet. For the remaining 28 days of the trial, the control group (CG) continued to receive a standard diet, while the experimental groups (EGs) were fed with diets containing different GP concentrations: 2.5% (EG1), 5% (EG2) and 7% (EG3). Following the slaughtering, samples of breast meat were collected from each group. No significant differences were observed for pH, cooking loss and meat brightness, whereas the GP intake showed effectiveness in inducing variations in drip loss, meat yellowness and redness. The experimental feeding strategy also induced changes in the fatty acid profile, with an overall increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), mainly due to the increase in concentration of linoleic acid. The dietary supplementation also induced a decrease in lipid oxidation in meat, a finding also confirmed by the reduction in volatile aldehydes in 7 days stored raw meat. The feeding strategy based on the use of GP did not induce detrimental effects on the quality of broiler meat and showed the potential to lengthen the shelf-life as a direct consequence of the improvement in the oxidative stability. Overall, the present study showed a viable way for the recovery and the valorization of an agro-industrial by-product, with potential benefits also from an environmental point of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grapes and their Derivatives in Functional Foods)
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13 pages, 826 KiB  
Article
Utilization of Grape Seed Extract as a Natural Antioxidant in the Technology of Meat Products Inoculated with a Probiotic Strain of LAB
by Justyna Libera, Agnieszka Latoch and Karolina Maria Wójciak
Foods 2020, 9(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010103 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 6249
Abstract
Grape seeds have been evaluated for use as food ingredients with stabilizing effects in meat technology. A pork neck, inoculated with probiotic monoculture (Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK900), was used as the matrix. The study compared the antioxidant potential of grape seed extract to [...] Read more.
Grape seeds have been evaluated for use as food ingredients with stabilizing effects in meat technology. A pork neck, inoculated with probiotic monoculture (Lactobacillus rhamnosus LOCK900), was used as the matrix. The study compared the antioxidant potential of grape seed extract to sodium ascorbate. Three experimental variants of the products were prepared: With grape seed extract, with sodium ascorbate, and without additives. The meat ripened for two months, and during this period of time biophysicochemical analyses (product color, pH, number of lactic acid bacteria, content of free fatty acids, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) were carried out. It was found that the extract inhibited lipid hydrolysis occurring in the neck (1% of oleic acid) and limited oxidative processes (0.46 mg MDA kg−1), with efficacy similar to that of sodium ascorbate (0.9% of oleic acid and 0.53 mg MDA kg−1, respectively). No limitation of the desired lactic acid bacteria growth (approximately 7 log cfu g−1) was noticed in the meat samples with the extract. The results are optimistic because they indicate that not only is it possible to produce fermented pork neck inoculated with probiotic, but there are also no obstacles to utilizing grape seed extract as a natural antioxidant in this technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grapes and their Derivatives in Functional Foods)
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Review

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20 pages, 1552 KiB  
Review
Dietary Grape Pomace Supplementation in Dairy Cows: Effect on Nutritional Quality of Milk and Its Derived Dairy Products
by Andrea Ianni and Giuseppe Martino
Foods 2020, 9(2), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020168 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 5556
Abstract
Grape pomace (GP) is the main solid by-product of winemaking and represents a rich source of potent bioactive compounds which could display a wide range of beneficial effects in human health for their association with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. Several studies [...] Read more.
Grape pomace (GP) is the main solid by-product of winemaking and represents a rich source of potent bioactive compounds which could display a wide range of beneficial effects in human health for their association with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. Several studies have proposed the use of GP as a macro-ingredient to obtain economically worthwhile animal feedstuffs naturally enriched by polyphenols and dietary fibers. Moreover, the research carried out in this field in the last two decades evidences the ability of GP to induce beneficial effects in cow milk and its derived dairy products. First of all, a general increase in concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was observed, and this could be considered the reflection of the high content of these compounds in the by-product. Furthermore, an improvement in the oxidative stability of dairy products was observed, presumably as a direct consequence of the high content of bioactive compounds in GP that are credited with high and well-characterized antioxidant functions. Last but not least, particularly in ripened cheeses, volatile compounds (VOCs) were identified, arising both from lipolytic and proteolytic processes and commonly associated with pleasant aromatic notes. In conclusion, the GP introduction in the diet of lactating cows made it possible to obtain dairy products characterized by improved nutritional properties and high health functionality. Furthermore, the presumable improvement of organoleptic properties seems to be effective in contributing to an increase in the consumer acceptability of the novel products. This review aims to evaluate the effect of the dietary GP supplementation on the quality of milk and dairy products deriving from lactating dairy cows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grapes and their Derivatives in Functional Foods)
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21 pages, 672 KiB  
Review
Food Applications and Potential Health Benefits of Pomegranate and its Derivatives
by Panagiotis Kandylis and Evangelos Kokkinomagoulos
Foods 2020, 9(2), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9020122 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 168 | Viewed by 16274
Abstract
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an ancient fruit that is particularly cultivated in west Asia, though it is also cultivated in the Mediterranean region and other parts of the world. Since ancient years, its consumption has been associated with numerous health benefits. [...] Read more.
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an ancient fruit that is particularly cultivated in west Asia, though it is also cultivated in the Mediterranean region and other parts of the world. Since ancient years, its consumption has been associated with numerous health benefits. In recent years, several in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed its beneficial physiological activities, especially its antioxidative, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. Furthermore, human-based studies have shown promising results and have indicated pomegranate potential as a protective agent of several diseases. Following that trend and the food industry’s demand for antioxidants and antimicrobials from natural sources, the application of pomegranate and its extracts (mainly as antioxidants and antimicrobials), has been studied extensively in different types of food products with satisfactory results. This review aims to present all the recent studies and trends in the applications of pomegranate in the food industry and how these trends have affected product’s physicochemical characteristics and shelf-life. In addition, recent in vitro and in vivo studies are presented in order to reveal pomegranate’s potential in the treatment of several diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grapes and their Derivatives in Functional Foods)
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