Food Bioactives: Impact on Brain and Cardiometabolic Health – Findings from In Vitro to Human Studies

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 37593

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Discipline of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra 2617, ACT, Australia
2. Functional Foods and Nutrition Research (FFNR) Laboratory, University of Canberra, Ngunnawal Land 2617, Australia
3. University of Canberra Research Institute for Sport and Exercise (UCRISE), Canberra 2617, ACT, Australia
4. Discipline of Nutrition-Dietetics, Harokopio University, 17671 Athens, Greece
Interests: green tea; plant polyphenols; catechins; EGCG; bioactives, nutrition; the effects of resveratrol supplementation on obesity in humans; plant bioactives; nutraceuticals
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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Translational Medicine and for Romagna, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
Interests: nutrition and metabolic health; energy metabolism; obesity; type 2 diabetes; regulation of energy balance by the hypothalamus; Lipotoxicity and fatty acid metabolism; mitochondria dysfunction and insulin resistance; metabolic inflammation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleague,

The search for dietary patterns or food bioactive derivatives that may serve as a panacea for health issues has been a topic of interest for several millennia. It is not surprising that this trend in food research is continuing today particularly in relation to brain and cardiometabolic health, given the huge burden they pose on human health, with no geographical boundaries. Currently, there is an increasing demand for ‘pure’ and ‘clean’ foods as well as potent bioactive ingredients that can promote beneficial health outcomes. Several studies, including in vitro investigations, clinical trials, and observational studies related to food and nutritional patterns have already identified, proposed, and in some cases challenged the mechanisms of action of these foods and food ingredients.

Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue “Food bioactives and impact on brain and cardiometabolic health findings from in vitro to human studies” is to gather innovative, high-quality research manuscripts (letters to the editor, original research and review papers) on bioactive constituents of foods and dietary patterns which can directly impact upon brain and cardiometabolic health. We encourage the submission of manuscripts reporting on different areas of this research field, from the description of new conceptual ideas, mechanisms of action, and structural modelling to clinical trials and observational studies. This Special Issue is expected to provide up-to-date information on any aspects of bioactive compounds, with empirical emphasis on brain and cardiometabolic health.

Prof. Nenad Naumovski
Dr. Domenico Sergi
Guest Editors

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Food bioactive derivatives
  • Cardiometabolic risk
  • Dietary patterns
  • Psycho-cardiology
  • Foods
  • Functional foods
     

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 170 KiB  
Editorial
Food Bioactives: Impact on Brain and Cardiometabolic Health—Findings from In Vitro to Human Studies
by Nenad Naumovski and Domenico Sergi
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051045 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2027
Abstract
Modern society is currently (and probably more than ever) immersed in the changing concept of food, seeking the beneficial functions of foods rather than only as a mean to quench hunger and support basic nutritional needs [...] Full article

Research

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14 pages, 2445 KiB  
Article
Anti-Apoptotic and Anti-Inflammatory Role of Trans ε-Viniferin in a Neuron–Glia Co-Culture Cellular Model of Parkinson’s Disease
by Domenico Sergi, Alex Gélinas, Jimmy Beaulieu, Justine Renaud, Emilie Tardif-Pellerin, Jérôme Guillard and Maria-Grazia Martinoli
Foods 2021, 10(3), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030586 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3108
Abstract
The polyphenol trans-ε-viniferin (viniferin) is a dimer of resveratrol, reported to hold antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aims of our study were to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of viniferin in the nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells, a dopaminergic cellular model of Parkinson’s [...] Read more.
The polyphenol trans-ε-viniferin (viniferin) is a dimer of resveratrol, reported to hold antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aims of our study were to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of viniferin in the nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells, a dopaminergic cellular model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and assess its anti-inflammatory properties in a N9 microglia–neuronal PC12 cell co-culture system. The neuronal cells were pre-treated with viniferin, resveratrol or their mixture before the administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), recognized to induce parkinsonism in rats. Furthermore, N9 microglia cells, in a co-culture system with neuronal PC12, were pre-treated with viniferin, resveratrol or their mixture to investigate whether these polyphenols could reduce lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Our results show that viniferin as well as a mixture of viniferin and resveratrol protects neuronal dopaminergic cells from 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Furthermore, when viniferin, resveratrol or their mixture was used to pre-treat microglia cells in our co-culture system, they reduced neuronal cytotoxicity induced by glial activation. Altogether, our data highlight a novel role for viniferin as a neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory molecule in a dopaminergic cellular model, paving the way for nutraceutical therapeutic avenues in the complementary treatments of PD. Full article
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15 pages, 2084 KiB  
Article
Effect of a Nutritional Support System (Diet and Supplements) for Improving Gross Motor Function in Cerebral Palsy: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
by Fernando Leal-Martínez, Denise Franco, Andrea Peña-Ruiz, Fabiola Castro-Silva, Andrea A. Escudero-Espinosa, Oscar G. Rolón-Lacarrier, Mardia López-Alarcón, Ximena De León, Mariana Linares-Eslava and Antonio Ibarra
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1449; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101449 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6008
Abstract
Background: Most patients with cerebral palsy (CP) do not respond to physical therapy due to deterioration in their nutritional status, secondary to gastrointestinal disorders and the catabolic state of the disease itself. However, basic treatments only contemplate the energy requirements and do not [...] Read more.
Background: Most patients with cerebral palsy (CP) do not respond to physical therapy due to deterioration in their nutritional status, secondary to gastrointestinal disorders and the catabolic state of the disease itself. However, basic treatments only contemplate the energy requirements and do not consider supplementation with glutamine, zinc, selenium, colecalciferol, spirulina, omega 3 or even vegetal proteins. Objective: In this study, we determined the effect of using a nutritional support system (NSS): diet and supplements, on the gross motor function in children with CP with spastic diparesic and Gross Motor Function Classification System III (GMFCS III). Methods: An exploratory study was performed. Thirty patients (from 4 to 12 years old) were randomly assigned to: (1) dietary surveillance (FG), (2) deworming and WHO diet (CG), or (3) deworming and the NSS (IG). Gross motor function was evaluated using the gross motor function measure (GMFM) scale. Results: The IG-treated group presented a significant improvement in standing and walking parameters analyzed in the GMFM compared with FG and CG groups. Fifty percent of the IG-treated patients managed to walk, while in the other groups, no patients were able to walk. Conclusions: The NSS used in the present work improves gross motor function and promotes walking in patients with CP. Full article
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14 pages, 998 KiB  
Article
The Effect of L-Theanine Incorporated in a Functional Food Product (Mango Sorbet) on Physiological Responses in Healthy Males: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial
by Jackson Williams, Andrew J. McKune, Ekavi N. Georgousopoulou, Jane Kellett, Nathan M. D’Cunha, Domenico Sergi, Duane Mellor and Nenad Naumovski
Foods 2020, 9(3), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030371 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6929
Abstract
Consumption of L-Theanine (L-THE) has been associated with a sensation of relaxation, as well as a reduction of stress. However, these physiological responses have yet to be elucidated in humans where L-THE is compared alongside food or as a functional ingredient within the [...] Read more.
Consumption of L-Theanine (L-THE) has been associated with a sensation of relaxation, as well as a reduction of stress. However, these physiological responses have yet to be elucidated in humans where L-THE is compared alongside food or as a functional ingredient within the food matrix. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological responses of a single intake of a potential functional food product (mango sorbet) containing L-THE (ms-L-THE; 200 mgw/w) in comparison to a flavour and colour-matched placebo (ms). Eighteen healthy male participants were recruited in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The participants were required to consume ms-L-THE or placebo and their blood pressure (BP) (systolic and diastolic), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) were monitored continuously over 90 minutes. Eleven males (age 27.7 ± 10.8 years) completed the study. Changes in area under the curve for systolic and diastolic blood pressure and HRV over the 90 minute observation period indicated no differences between the three conditions (all p > 0.05) or within individual groups (all p > 0.05). The values for heart rate were also not different in the placebo group (p = 0.996) and treatment group (p = 0.066), while there was a difference seen at the baseline (p = 0.003). Based on the findings of this study, L-THE incorporated in a food matrix (mango sorbet) demonstrated no reduction in BP or HR and showed no significant parasympathetic interaction as determined by HRV high-frequency band and low-frequency/high-frequency ratio. Further studies should be focussed towards the comparison of pure L-THE and incorporation within the food matrix to warrant recommendations of L-THE alongside food consumption. Full article
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15 pages, 735 KiB  
Article
Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Are Associated with Blood Pressure and Hypertension over 10-Years in Black South African Adults Undergoing Nutritional Transition
by Manja M. Zec, Aletta E. Schutte, Cristian Ricci, Jeannine Baumgartner, Iolanthe M. Kruger and Cornelius M. Smuts
Foods 2019, 8(9), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090394 - 6 Sep 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3545
Abstract
Nutritional transition in Africa is linked with increased blood pressure (BP). We examined 10-year fatty acid status and longitudinal associations between individual long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), BP and status of hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg and/or medication use) in black South Africans. We included [...] Read more.
Nutritional transition in Africa is linked with increased blood pressure (BP). We examined 10-year fatty acid status and longitudinal associations between individual long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), BP and status of hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg and/or medication use) in black South Africans. We included 300 adults (>30 years) participating in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study, and analysed data from three consecutive examinations (2005, 2010 and 2015 study years). Fatty acids in plasma phospholipids were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We applied sequential linear mixed models for continuous outcomes and generalized mixed models for the hypertension outcome, in the complete sample and separately in urban and rural subjects. Mean baseline systolic/diastolic BP was 137/89 mmHg. Ten-year hypertension status increased among rural (48.6% to 68.6%, p = 0.001) and tended to decrease among urban subjects (67.5% to 61.9%, p = 0.253). Regardless of urbanisation, n-6 PUFA increased and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n-3) decreased over the 10-years. Subjects in the highest tertile of arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) had 3.81 mmHg lower systolic (95% confidence interval (CI): −7.07, −0.54) and 3.82 mmHg lower diastolic BP (DBP) (95% CI: −5.70, −1.95) compared to the reference tertile, irrespective of lifestyle and clinical confounders. Similarly, osbond acid (C22:5 n-6) was inversely associated with DBP. Over the 10-years, subjects in the highest EPA tertile presented with +2.92 and +1.94 mmHg higher SBP and DBP, respectively, and with 1.46 higher odds of being hypertensive. In black South African adults, individual plasma n-6 PUFA were inversely associated with BP, whereas EPA was adversely associated with hypertension, supporting implementation of dietary fat quality in national cardiovascular primary prevention strategies. Full article
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Review

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20 pages, 1826 KiB  
Review
Bioactive Candy: Effects of Licorice on the Cardiovascular System
by Mikkel R. Deutch, Daniela Grimm, Markus Wehland, Manfred Infanger and Marcus Krüger
Foods 2019, 8(10), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100495 - 14 Oct 2019
Cited by 55 | Viewed by 14544
Abstract
Licorice, today chiefly utilized as a flavoring additive in tea, tobacco and candy, is one of the oldest used herbs for medicinal purposes and consists of up to 300 active compounds. The main active constituent of licorice is the prodrug glycyrrhizin, which is [...] Read more.
Licorice, today chiefly utilized as a flavoring additive in tea, tobacco and candy, is one of the oldest used herbs for medicinal purposes and consists of up to 300 active compounds. The main active constituent of licorice is the prodrug glycyrrhizin, which is successively converted to 3β-monoglucuronyl-18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (3MGA) and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) in the intestines. Despite many reported health benefits, 3MGA and GA inhibit the 11-β-hydrogenase type II enzyme (11β-HSD2) oxidizing cortisol to cortisone. Through activation of mineralocorticoid receptors, high cortisol levels induce a mild form of apparent mineralocorticoid excess in the kidney and increase systemic vascular resistance. Continuous inhibition of 11β-HSD2 related to excess licorice consumption will create a state of hypernatremia, hypokalemia and increased fluid volume, which can cause serious life-threatening complications especially in patients already suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Two recent meta-analyses of 18 and 26 studies investigating the correlation between licorice intake and blood pressure revealed statistically significant increases both in systolic (5.45 mmHg) and in diastolic blood pressure (3.19/1.74 mmHg). This review summarizes and evaluates current literature about the acute and chronic effects of licorice ingestion on the cardiovascular system with special focus on blood pressure. Starting from the molecular actions of licorice (metabolites) inside the cells, it describes how licorice intake is affecting the human body and shows the boundaries between the health benefits of licorice and possible harmful effects. Full article
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