Effect of Processing on Cow’s Milk Protein and Its Immunogenicity

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Dairy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2020) | Viewed by 10835

Special Issue Editors

Wageningen Food & Biobased Research, Wageningen UR, The Netherlands
Interests: immunology; biochemistry; food chemistry; food allergies; allergies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dairy Science and Technology, Food Quality and Design Group, Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
Interests: dairy processing; milk protein; protein digestion; milk allergy; infant development; breast milk

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Milk has been part of the human diet since the first agricultural revolution, about 10,000 years BC. For long, milk has been looked upon mainly as a source of nutrients in the diet. With the growing awareness of the relationship between consumption of nutrients and its impact on health and wellbeing in the longer term, there is a renewed interest in the role that milk can play in this respect. Another growing awareness is the pivotal role that our immune system plays in our health and wellbeing, considering that a slowly but steadily increasing inflammatory status throughout out lifespan plays a role in the onset of difficult to combat, noncommunicable, diseases.

Presently, milk is processed with a range of different technologies into numerous dairy products. Heating takes a central role in milk processing, as it prolongs the shelf life of dairy products. Such thermal processing, however, does a lot to the constituents of milk, and in particular to its proteins. Additionally, this thereby also impacts the immunological response to milk after consumption. How about raw milk, though? Is that beneficial for the developing immune system, and if so, why would this be so? Further, if we process milk (components) at different intensity, will this also cause a different impact on the physiological response (digestion & immunogenicity) to this milk?

This Special Issue will attempt to make an inventory of the immune modulating properties of both raw and processed milk, and to describe the state-of-the-art in our understanding of this.

Prof. Harry Wichers
Dr. Kasper Arthur Hettinga
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Milk processing
  • Immunological response
  • Milk protein

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

17 pages, 1060 KiB  
Review
Cow’s Milk Processing—Friend or Foe in Food Allergy?
Foods 2021, 10(3), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030572 - 09 Mar 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 5019
Abstract
Cow’s milk (CM) is an integral part of our daily diet starting in infancy and continuing throughout our lifetime. Its composition is rich in proteins with a high nutritional value, bioactive components, milk minerals including calcium, and a range of immunoactive substances. However, [...] Read more.
Cow’s milk (CM) is an integral part of our daily diet starting in infancy and continuing throughout our lifetime. Its composition is rich in proteins with a high nutritional value, bioactive components, milk minerals including calcium, and a range of immunoactive substances. However, cow’s milk can also induce a range of immune-mediated diseases including non-IgE-mediated food allergies and IgE-mediated food allergies. Cow’s milk allergens have been identified and characterized and the most relevant ones can be assigned to both, the whey and casein fraction. For preservation a range of processing methods are applied to make cow’s milk and dairy products safe for consumers. However, these methods affect milk components and thus alter the overall immunogenic activity of cow’s milk. This review summarizes the current knowledge on cow’s milk allergens and immunoactive substances and the impact of the different processes up- or downregulating the immunogenicity of the respective proteins. It highlights the gaps of knowledge of the related disease mechanisms and the still unidentified beneficial immunomodulating compounds of cow’s milk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Processing on Cow’s Milk Protein and Its Immunogenicity)
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23 pages, 1424 KiB  
Review
Milk Processing Affects Structure, Bioavailability and Immunogenicity of β-lactoglobulin
Foods 2020, 9(7), 874; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070874 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 5264
Abstract
Bovine milk is subjected to various processing steps to warrant constant quality and consumer safety. One of these steps is pasteurization, which involves the exposure of liquid milk to a high temperature for a limited amount of time. While such heating effectively ameliorates [...] Read more.
Bovine milk is subjected to various processing steps to warrant constant quality and consumer safety. One of these steps is pasteurization, which involves the exposure of liquid milk to a high temperature for a limited amount of time. While such heating effectively ameliorates consumer safety concerns mediated by pathogenic bacteria, these conditions also have an impact on one of the main nutritional whey constituents of milk, the protein β-lactoglobulin. As a function of heating, β-lactoglobulin was shown to become increasingly prone to denaturation, aggregation, and lactose conjugation. This review discusses the implications of such heat-induced modifications on digestion and adsorption in the gastro-intestinal tract, and the responses these conformations elicit from the gastro-intestinal immune system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Processing on Cow’s Milk Protein and Its Immunogenicity)
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