Processing Foods to Design Structures for Optimal Functionality

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2021) | Viewed by 36954

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Guest Editor
Riddet Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
Interests: understanding structures; interactions and functions of food proteins; food emulsions, encapsulation, protection and delivery of bioactive compounds in foods and food formulations
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Guest Editor
Riddet Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
Interests: relationships between the food structure; digestion and release of nutrients and bioactive compounds; encapsulation of active food ingredients; strategies to develop future food systems with better nutrition value
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Foods are formed in nature through the complex assembly of macromolecules that interact to form hierarchical structures. These structures are transformed by processing. Traditional food processing is designed to preserve, destroy, and re-create food structures to develop desirable food products and functional food ingredients. For example, whole foods such as meat, fish, nuts, fruits, and vegetables undergo minimal processing in order to preserve their natural structures. On the other hand, the controlled destruction of natural structures results in a variety of ingredients, including starches, flours, oils, and protein isolates. These ingredients are then reassembled and transformed into various fabricated foods. Interactions of food components and the creation of appropriate structural characteristics are achieved through processing operations such as thermal treatment, homogenization, and shear, as well as microbiological or biochemical transformations. In recent years, these approaches have led to the concept of “food structure design” as a new way of guiding food product development, particularly in relation to the development of foods with reduced levels of fat, salt, and sugar. Efforts have also been made in restructuring plant-based materials to develop meat and dairy analogues with acceptable product functionality. 

In this Special Issue, we invite papers that deal with our understanding of the impact of food processing (conventional and novel processing) on the structures and interactions of food components and how these structures/interactions can be optimized to enhance the functionality of food products. We welcome high-quality submissions from research scholars working on the topics listed below: 

  1. Influence of conventional and novel processing technologies on food material interactions and functionality.
  2. Structuring food materials through processing and formulation technologies to reduce salt, sugar, and fat content.
  3. Processing of plant materials to create new structures that mimic meat and dairy products.
  4. Relationships between ingredient interactions, food structure, and sensory aspects of foods.

Prof. Dr. Harjinder Singh
Dr. Alejandra Acevedo-Fani
Guest Editors

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Food structure
  • Ingredient interactions
  • Food functionality
  • Conventional processing
  • Salt/sugar reduction
  • Fat reduction
  • Plant-based foods
  • Novel processing

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 3129 KiB  
Article
3D Printing of Textured Soft Hybrid Meat Analogues
by Tianxiao Wang, Lovedeep Kaur, Yasufumi Furuhata, Hiroaki Aoyama and Jaspreet Singh
Foods 2022, 11(3), 478; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030478 - 6 Feb 2022
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 6946
Abstract
Meat analogue is a food product mainly made of plant proteins. It is considered to be a sustainable food and has gained a lot of interest in recent years. Hybrid meat is a next generation meat analogue prepared by the co-processing of both [...] Read more.
Meat analogue is a food product mainly made of plant proteins. It is considered to be a sustainable food and has gained a lot of interest in recent years. Hybrid meat is a next generation meat analogue prepared by the co-processing of both plant and animal protein ingredients at different ratios and is considered to be nutritionally superior to the currently available plant-only meat analogues. Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is becoming increasingly popular in food processing. Three-dimensional food printing involves the modification of food structures, which leads to the creation of soft food. Currently, there is no available research on 3D printing of meat analogues. This study was carried out to create plant and animal protein-based formulations for 3D printing of hybrid meat analogues with soft textures. Pea protein isolate (PPI) and chicken mince were selected as the main plant protein and meat sources, respectively, for 3D printing tests. Then, rheology and forward extrusion tests were carried out on these selected samples to obtain a basic understanding of their potential printability. Afterwards, extrusion-based 3D printing was conducted to print a 3D chicken nugget shape. The addition of 20% chicken mince paste to PPI based paste achieved better printability and fibre structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing Foods to Design Structures for Optimal Functionality)
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16 pages, 3854 KiB  
Article
Role of Flaxseed Gum and Whey Protein Microparticles in Formulating Low-Fat Model Mayonnaises
by Keying Yang, Ruoting Xu, Xiyu Xu and Qing Guo
Foods 2022, 11(3), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11030282 - 21 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2451
Abstract
Flaxseed gum (FG) and whey protein microparticles (WPMs) were used to substitute fats in model mayonnaises. WPMs were prepared by grinding the heat-set whey protein gel containing 10 mM CaCl2 into small particles (10–20 µm). Then, 3 × 4 low-fat model mayonnaises [...] Read more.
Flaxseed gum (FG) and whey protein microparticles (WPMs) were used to substitute fats in model mayonnaises. WPMs were prepared by grinding the heat-set whey protein gel containing 10 mM CaCl2 into small particles (10–20 µm). Then, 3 × 4 low-fat model mayonnaises were prepared by varying FG (0.3, 0.6, 0.9 wt%) and WPM (0, 8, 16, 24 wt%) concentrations. The effect of the addition of FG and WPMs on rheology, instrumental texture and sensory texture and their correlations were investigated. The results showed that all samples exhibited shear thinning behavior and ‘weak gel’ properties. Although both FG and WPMs enhanced rheological (e.g., viscosity and storage modulus) and textural properties (e.g., hardness, consistency, adhesiveness, cohesiveness) and kinetic stability, this enhancement was dominated by FG. FG and WPMs affected bulk properties through different mechanisms, (i.e., active filler and entangled polysaccharide networks). Panellists evaluated sensory texture in three stages: extra-oral, intra-oral and after-feel. Likewise, FG dominated sensory texture of model mayonnaises. With increasing FG concentration, sensory scores for creaminess and mouth-coating increased, whereas those of firmness, fluidity and spreadability decreased. Creaminess had a linear negative correlation with firmness, fluidity and spreadability (R2 > 0.985), while it had a linear positive correlation with mouth-coating (R2 > 0.97). A linear positive correlation (R2 > 0.975) was established between creaminess and viscosity at different shear rates/instrumental texture parameters. This study highlights the synergistic role of FG and WPMs in developing low-fat mayonnaises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing Foods to Design Structures for Optimal Functionality)
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17 pages, 4114 KiB  
Article
Lubrication and Sensory Properties of Emulsion Systems and Effects of Droplet Size Distribution
by Qi Wang, Yang Zhu, Zhichao Ji and Jianshe Chen
Foods 2021, 10(12), 3024; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10123024 - 6 Dec 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3177
Abstract
The functional and sensory properties of food emulsion are thought to be complicated and influenced by many factors, such as the emulsifier, oil/fat mass fraction, and size of oil/fat droplets. In addition, the perceived texture of food emulsion during oral processing is mainly [...] Read more.
The functional and sensory properties of food emulsion are thought to be complicated and influenced by many factors, such as the emulsifier, oil/fat mass fraction, and size of oil/fat droplets. In addition, the perceived texture of food emulsion during oral processing is mainly dominated by its rheological and tribological responses. This study investigated the effect of droplet size distribution as well as the content of oil droplets on the lubrication and sensory properties of o/w emulsion systems. Friction curves for reconstituted milk samples (composition: skimmed milk and milk cream) and Casein sodium salt (hereinafter referred to as CSS) stabilized model emulsions (olive oil as oil phase) were obtained using a soft texture analyzer tribometer with a three ball-on-disc setup combined with a soft surfaces (PDMS) tribology system. Sensory discrimination was conducted by 22 participants using an intensity scoring method. Stribeck curve analyses showed that, for reconstituted milk samples with similar rheological properties, increasing the volume fraction of oil/fat droplets in the size range of 1–10 µm will significantly enhance lubrication, while for CSS-stabilized emulsions, the size effect of oil/fat droplets reduced to around 1 µm. Surprisingly, once the size of oil/fat droplets of both systems reached nano size (d90 = 0.3 µm), increasing the oil/fat content gave no further enhancement, and the friction coefficient showed no significant difference (p > 0.05). Results from sensory analysis show that consumers are capable of discriminating emulsions, which vary in oil/fat droplet size and in oil/fat content (p < 0.01). However, it appeared that the discrimination capability of the panelist was significantly reduced for emulsions containing nano-sized droplets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing Foods to Design Structures for Optimal Functionality)
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15 pages, 5152 KiB  
Article
Structural and Physicochemical Characteristics of Oil Bodies from Hemp Seeds (Cannabis sativa L.)
by Francesca Louise Garcia, Sihan Ma, Anant Dave and Alejandra Acevedo-Fani
Foods 2021, 10(12), 2930; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122930 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3300
Abstract
The structural and physicochemical characteristics of oil bodies from hemp seeds were explored in this study. Oil bodies from several plant-based sources have been previously studied; however, this is the first time a characterisation of oil bodies from the seeds of industrial hemp [...] Read more.
The structural and physicochemical characteristics of oil bodies from hemp seeds were explored in this study. Oil bodies from several plant-based sources have been previously studied; however, this is the first time a characterisation of oil bodies from the seeds of industrial hemp is provided. The morphology of oil bodies in hemp seeds and after extraction was investigated using cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), and the interfacial characteristics of isolated oil bodies were studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Proteins associated with oil bodies were characterised using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The effect of pH and ionic strength on colloidal properties of the oil bodies was investigated. Oil bodies in hemp seeds appeared spherical and sporadically distributed in the cell, with diameters of 3 to 5 μm. CLSM images of isolated oil bodies revealed the uniform distribution of phospholipids and proteins at their interface. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were predominant in the lipid fraction and linoleic acid accounted for ≈61% of the total fatty acids. The SDS-PAGE analysis of washed and purified oil bodies revealed major bands at 15 kDa and 50–25 kDa, which could be linked to membrane-specific proteins of oil bodies or extraneous proteins. The colloidal stability of oil bodies in different pH environments indicated that the isoelectric point was between pH 4 and 4.5, where oil bodies experienced maximum aggregation. Changes in the ionic strength decreased the interfacial charge density of oil bodies (ζ-potential), but it did not affect their mean particle size. This suggested that the steric hindrance provided by membrane-specific proteins at the interface of the oil bodies could have prevented them from flocculation at low interfacial charge density. The results of this study provide new tertiary knowledge on the structure, composition, and colloidal properties of oil bodies extracted from hemp seeds, which could be used as natural emulsions or lipid-based delivery systems for food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing Foods to Design Structures for Optimal Functionality)
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18 pages, 3470 KiB  
Article
Microencapsulation of Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja Extracts: A Promising Technique to Protect Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacities
by Xiao Chen, Senghak Chhun, Jiqian Xiang, Pipat Tangjaidee, Yaoyao Peng and Siew Young Quek
Foods 2021, 10(12), 2910; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10122910 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1864
Abstract
This study aimed to protect phenolic compounds of Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja (C. paliurus) using a microencapsulation technique. Ethanol and aqueous extracts were prepared from C. paliurus leaves and microencapsulated via microfluidic-jet spray drying using three types of wall material: (1) [...] Read more.
This study aimed to protect phenolic compounds of Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja (C. paliurus) using a microencapsulation technique. Ethanol and aqueous extracts were prepared from C. paliurus leaves and microencapsulated via microfluidic-jet spray drying using three types of wall material: (1) maltodextrin (MD; 10–13, DE) alone; (2) MD:gum acacia (GA) of 1:1 ratio; (3) MD:GA of 1:3 ratio. The powders’ physicochemical properties, microstructure, and phenolic profiles were investigated, emphasizing the retentions of the total and individual phenolic compounds and their antioxidant capacities (AOC) after spray drying. Results showed that all powders had good physical properties, including high solubilities (88.81 to 99.12%), low moisture contents (4.09 to 6.64%) and low water activities (0.11 to 0.19). The extract type used for encapsulation was significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the powder color, and more importantly the retention of total phenolic compounds (TPC) and AOC. Overall, the ethanol extract powders showed higher TPC and AOC values (50.93–63.94 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and 444.63–513.49 µM TE/g, respectively), while powders derived from the aqueous extract exhibited superior solubility, attractive color, and good retention of individual phenolic compounds after spray drying. The high-quality powders obtained in the current study will bring opportunities for use in functional food products with potential health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing Foods to Design Structures for Optimal Functionality)
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14 pages, 4327 KiB  
Article
Effect of Water Temperature and Time during Heating on Mass Loss and Rheology of Cheese Curds
by Ran Feng, Søren K. Lillevang and Lilia Ahrné
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2881; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112881 - 22 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4089
Abstract
During the manufacturing of mozzarella, cheese curds are heated to the desired stretching temperature traditionally by immersion in water, which influences the curd characteristics before stretching, and consequently the final cheese properties. In this study, cheese curds were immersed in hot water at [...] Read more.
During the manufacturing of mozzarella, cheese curds are heated to the desired stretching temperature traditionally by immersion in water, which influences the curd characteristics before stretching, and consequently the final cheese properties. In this study, cheese curds were immersed in hot water at 60, 70, 80 and 90 °C up to 16 min and the kinetics of mass loss and changes of rheological properties were investigated. The total mass of cooked curds increased up to 10% during the first minute, independent of the temperature, as a consequence of water retention. Fat was the main component lost into the cooking water (<3.5% w/w), while the concentration of protein increased up to 3.4% (w/w) compared to uncooked curds due to the loss of other components. Curds macrostructure during cooking showed that curds fully fuse at 70 °C/4 min; 80 °C/2 min and 90 °C/1 min, while after intensive cooking (>8 min) they lost the ability to fuse as a consequence of protein contraction and fat loss. Storage modulus, representing the curd strength, was dependent on cooking temperature and positively, and linearly, correlated with curd protein content (21.7–24.9%). This work shows the potential to modify curd composition and structure, which will have consequences for further processing and final product properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing Foods to Design Structures for Optimal Functionality)
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28 pages, 4382 KiB  
Article
Understanding In Vivo Mastication Behaviour and In Vitro Starch and Protein Digestibility of Pulsed Electric Field-Treated Black Beans after Cooking
by Marbie Alpos, Sze Ying Leong, Veronica Liesaputra, Candace E. Martin and Indrawati Oey
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2540; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10112540 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2667
Abstract
The aim of this study was to understand (i) the in vivo mastication behaviour of cooked black beans (chewing duration, texture perception, oral bolus particle size, microstructure, and salivary α-amylase) and (ii) the in vitro digestibility of starch and protein of in vivo-generated [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to understand (i) the in vivo mastication behaviour of cooked black beans (chewing duration, texture perception, oral bolus particle size, microstructure, and salivary α-amylase) and (ii) the in vitro digestibility of starch and protein of in vivo-generated black bean oral bolus under simulated gastrointestinal condition. The beans were pre-treated using pulsed electric field (PEF) with and without calcium chloride (CaCl2) addition prior to cooking. The surface response model based on least square was used to optimise PEF processing condition in order to achieve the same texture properties of cooked legumes except for chewiness. In vivo mastication behaviour of the participants (n = 17) was characterized for the particle size of the resulting bolus, their salivary α-amylase activity, and the total chewing duration before the bolus was deemed ready for swallowing. In vitro starch and protein digestibility of the masticated bolus generated in vivo by each participant along the gastrointestinal phase were then studied. This study found two distinct groups of chewers—fast and slow chewers who masticated all black bean beans, on average, for <25 and >29 s, respectively, to achieve a bolus ready for swallowing. Longer durations of chewing resulted in boluses with small-sized particles (majorly composed of a higher number of broken-down cotyledons (2–5 mm2 particle size), fewer seed coats (5–13 mm2 particle size)), and higher activity of α-amylase. Therefore, slow chewers consistently exhibited a higher in vitro digestibility of both the starch and protein of processed black beans compared to fast chewers. Despite such distinct difference in the nutritional implication for both groups of chewers, the in vivo masticated oral bolus generated by fast chewers revealed that the processing conditions involving the PEF and addition of CaCl2 of black beans appeared to significantly (p < 0.05) enhance the in vitro digestibility of protein (by two-fold compared to untreated samples) without stimulating a considerable increase in the starch digestibility. These findings clearly demonstrated that the food structure of cooked black beans created through PEF treatment combined with masticatory action has the potential to modulate a faster hydrolysis of protein during gastrointestinal digestion, thus offering an opportunity to upgrade the quality of legume protein intake in the daily diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing Foods to Design Structures for Optimal Functionality)
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15 pages, 1661 KiB  
Article
Antioxidants Bioaccessibility and Lactobacillus salivarius (CECT 4063) Survival Following the In Vitro Digestion of Vacuum Impregnated Apple Slices: Effect of the Drying Technique, the Addition of Trehalose, and High-Pressure Homogenization
by Cristina Gabriela Burca-Busaga, Noelia Betoret, Lucía Seguí, Jorge García-Hernández, Manuel Hernández and Cristina Barrera
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2155; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092155 - 12 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1644
Abstract
To benefit the health of consumers, bioactive compounds must reach an adequate concentration at the end of the digestive process. This involves both an effective release from the food matrix where they are contained and a high resistance to exposure to gastrointestinal conditions. [...] Read more.
To benefit the health of consumers, bioactive compounds must reach an adequate concentration at the end of the digestive process. This involves both an effective release from the food matrix where they are contained and a high resistance to exposure to gastrointestinal conditions. Accordingly, this study evaluates the impact of trehalose addition (10% w/w) and homogenization (100 MPa), together with the structural changes induced in vacuum impregnated apple slices (VI) by air-drying (AD) and freeze-drying (FD), on Lactobacillus salivarius spp. salivarius (CECT 4063) survival and the bioaccessibility of antioxidants during in vitro digestion. Vacuum impregnated apple slices conferred maximum protection to the lactobacillus strain during its passage through the gastrointestinal tract, whereas drying with air reduced the final content of the living cells to values below 10 cfu/g. The bioaccessibility of antioxidants also reached the highest values in the VI samples, in which the release of both the total phenols and total flavonoids to the liquid phase increased with in vitro digestion. The addition of trehalose and homogenization at 100 MPa increased the total bioaccessibility of antioxidants in FD and AD apples and the total bioaccessibility of flavonoids in the VI samples. Homogenizing at 100 MPa also increased the survival of L. salivarius during in vitro digestion in FD samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing Foods to Design Structures for Optimal Functionality)
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18 pages, 5168 KiB  
Article
Dynamic In Vitro Gastric Digestion of Sheep Milk: Influence of Homogenization and Heat Treatment
by Zheng Pan, Aiqian Ye, Siqi Li, Anant Dave, Karl Fraser and Harjinder Singh
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1938; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081938 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3061
Abstract
Milk is commonly exposed to processing including homogenization and thermal treatment before consumption, and this processing could have an impact on its digestion behavior in the stomach. In this study, we investigated the in vitro gastric digestion behavior of differently processed sheep milks. [...] Read more.
Milk is commonly exposed to processing including homogenization and thermal treatment before consumption, and this processing could have an impact on its digestion behavior in the stomach. In this study, we investigated the in vitro gastric digestion behavior of differently processed sheep milks. The samples were raw, pasteurized (75 °C/15 s), homogenized (200/20 bar at 65 °C)–pasteurized, and homogenized–heated (95 °C/5 min) milks. The digestion was performed using a dynamic in vitro gastric digestion system, the human gastric simulator with simulated gastric fluid without gastric lipase. The pH, structure, and composition of the milks in the stomach and the emptied digesta, and the rate of protein hydrolysis were examined. Curds formed from homogenized and heated milk had much looser and more fragmented structures than those formed from unhomogenized milk; this accelerated the curd breakdown, protein digestion and promoted the release of protein, fat, and calcium from the curds into the digesta. Coalescence and flocculation of fat globules were observed during gastric digestion, and most of the fat globules were incorporated into the emptied protein/peptide particles in the homogenized milks. The study provides a better understanding of the gastric emptying and digestion of processed sheep milk under in vitro gastric conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing Foods to Design Structures for Optimal Functionality)
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16 pages, 3756 KiB  
Article
Impact of Ultra-High-Pressure Homogenization of Buttermilk for the Production of Yogurt
by Louise Krebs, Amélie Bérubé, Jean Iung, Alice Marciniak, Sylvie L. Turgeon and Guillaume Brisson
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1757; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081757 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3295
Abstract
Despite its nutritional properties, buttermilk (BM) is still poorly valorized due to its high phospholipid (PL) concentration, impairing its techno-functional performance in dairy products. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH) on the techno-functional properties [...] Read more.
Despite its nutritional properties, buttermilk (BM) is still poorly valorized due to its high phospholipid (PL) concentration, impairing its techno-functional performance in dairy products. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH) on the techno-functional properties of BM in set and stirred yogurts. BM and skimmed milk (SM) were pretreated by conventional homogenization (15 MPa), high-pressure homogenization (HPH) (150 MPa), and UHPH (300 MPa) prior to yogurt production. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis showed that UHPH promoted the formation of large covalently linked aggregates in BM. A more particulate gel microstructure was observed for set SM, while BM gels were finer and more homogeneous. These differences affected the water holding capacity (WHC), which was higher for BM, while a decrease in WHC was observed for SM yogurts with an increase in homogenization pressure. In stirred yogurts, the apparent viscosity was significantly higher for SM, and the pretreatment of BM with UHPH further reduced its viscosity. Overall, our results showed that UHPH could be used for modulating BM and SM yogurt texture properties. The use of UHPH on BM has great potential for lower-viscosity dairy applications (e.g., ready-to-drink yogurts) to deliver its health-promoting properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing Foods to Design Structures for Optimal Functionality)
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17 pages, 1429 KiB  
Article
The Application of Pureed Butter Beans and a Combination of Inulin and Rebaudioside A for the Replacement of Fat and Sucrose in Sponge Cake: Sensory and Physicochemical Analysis
by Aislinn M. Richardson, Andrey A. Tyuftin, Kieran N. Kilcawley, Eimear Gallagher, Maurice G. O’Sullivan and Joseph P. Kerry
Foods 2021, 10(2), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020254 - 26 Jan 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2654
Abstract
Determining minimum levels of fat and sucrose needed for the sensory acceptance of sponge cake while increasing the nutritional quality was the main objective of this study. Sponge cakes with 0, 25, 50 and 75% sucrose replacement (SR) using a combination of inulin [...] Read more.
Determining minimum levels of fat and sucrose needed for the sensory acceptance of sponge cake while increasing the nutritional quality was the main objective of this study. Sponge cakes with 0, 25, 50 and 75% sucrose replacement (SR) using a combination of inulin and Rebaudioside A (Reb A) were prepared. Sensory acceptance testing (SAT) was carried out on samples. Following experimental results, four more samples were prepared where fat was replaced sequentially (0, 25, 50 and 75%) in sucrose-replaced sponge cakes using pureed butter beans (Pbb) as a replacer. Fat-replaced samples were investigated using sensory (hedonic and intensity) and physicochemical analysis. Texture liking and overall acceptability (OA) were the only hedonic sensory parameters significantly affected after a 50% SR in sponge cake (p < 0.05). A 25% SR had no significant impact on any hedonic sensory properties and samples were just as accepted as the control sucrose sample. A 30% SR was chosen for further experiments. After a 50% fat replacement (FR), no significant differences were found between 30% sucrose-replaced sponge cake samples in relation to all sensory (hedonic and intensity) parameters investigated. Flavour and aroma intensity attributes such as buttery and sweet and, subsequently, liking and OA of samples were negatively affected after a 75% FR (p < 0.05). Instrumental texture properties (hardness and chewiness (N)) did not discriminate between samples with increasing levels of FR using Pbb. Moisture content increased significantly with FR (p < 0.05). A simultaneous reduction in fat (42%) and sucrose was achieved (28%) in sponge cake samples without negatively affecting OA. Optimised samples contained significantly more dietary fibre (p < 0.05). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing Foods to Design Structures for Optimal Functionality)
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