Cereal-Based Fermented Foods: Bioactive Components and Potential Health Benefits

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021) | Viewed by 30736

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, 26500 Patras, Greece
Interests: chemistry and technology of fermented foods (alcoholic beverages; dairy products; probiotics; fermented cereal products; exploitation of industrial by-products)
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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Technology, Ionian University, 28100 Argostoli, Greece
Interests: fermented foods; alcoholic beverages; wine; beer
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Adopting specific dietary patterns, as is the regular consumption of functional foods, has been widely recognised as a valuable means to prevent noncommunicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, obesity, several types of cancer and others. Functional foods are defined as foods that provide health benefits beyond satisfying basic nutrition requirements. They include foods that contain specific bioactive components that can impart specific physiological effects, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiaging and neuroprotective effects. Specifically, cereal-based food products have received considerable attention due to the presence of health-promoting phytochemicals such as polyphenols, fibre, vitamins, minerals and other bioactive molecules. Most of these components occur in the grain parts (bran and germ) that are usually removed during processing. On the other hand, fermentation has attracted great scientific and technological interest because it can increase the nutritional value and the beneficial health effects of the raw materials, including cereal grains, by altering the composition, solubilisation and bioaccessibility of their bioactive components. Recent advances on cereal fermentation include the applications of yeasts, fungi and bacteria (mainly the lactic acid type) in order to increase their bioactivity through changes in proteins, fibre, aminoacids, carotenoids, phenolic acids, vitamins, phytase activity, antioxidant capacity, etc., for potential applications in functional cereal-based food production.

Prof. Argyro Bekatorou
Prof. Panagiotis Kandylis
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Fermented cereals
  • Bioactive components
  • Functional food
  • Health benefits

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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24 pages, 2320 KiB  
Article
Persistence and Effect of a Multistrain Starter Culture on Antioxidant and Rheological Properties of Novel Wheat Sourdoughs and Bread
by Rossana Sidari, Alessandra Martorana, Clotilde Zappia, Antonio Mincione and Angelo Maria Giuffrè
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091258 - 08 Sep 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3047
Abstract
Food consumers make decisions primarily on the basis of a product’s nutritional, functional, and sensorial aspects. In this context, this study evaluated the persistence in sourdough of a multistrain starter culture from laboratory to bakery plant production and the effect of the starter [...] Read more.
Food consumers make decisions primarily on the basis of a product’s nutritional, functional, and sensorial aspects. In this context, this study evaluated the persistence in sourdough of a multistrain starter culture from laboratory to bakery plant production and the effect of the starter on antioxidant and rheological properties of sourdoughs and derived bread. Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis B450, Leuconostoc citreum B435, and Candida milleri L999 were used as a multispecies starter culture to produce a sourdough subsequently used to modify two traditional sourdoughs to make novel bread with improved health and rheological properties. Both these novel bakery sourdoughs showed the persistence of L. sanfranciscensis B450 and C. milleri L999, and showed a significantly different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) concentration from the traditional sourdoughs. The novel sourdough PF7 M had a higher phenolic content (170% increase) and DPPH (8% increase) than the traditional bakery sourdough PF7 F. The novel sourdough PF9 M exhibited an improvement in textural parameters. Further research would be useful on the bioavailability of bio-active compounds to obtain bread with improved characteristics. Full article
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11 pages, 863 KiB  
Article
The Inhibition of Amylase and ACE Enzyme and the Reduction of Immunoreactivity of Sourdough Bread
by Anna Diowksz, Alicja Malik, Agnieszka Jaśniewska and Joanna Leszczyńska
Foods 2020, 9(5), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050656 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 6072
Abstract
This study examines the potential health benefits of different types of wheat sourdough bread against diseases of civilization. Celiac disease, diabetes and hypertension affect large numbers of the world’s population, increasing demand for novel treatments and ways of improving patient welfare. Different types [...] Read more.
This study examines the potential health benefits of different types of wheat sourdough bread against diseases of civilization. Celiac disease, diabetes and hypertension affect large numbers of the world’s population, increasing demand for novel treatments and ways of improving patient welfare. Different types of artisan breads were subjected to in vitro simulated digestion prior to analysis. The G12 test and ELISA with human sera were used for immunoreactivity analysis. The activity of α-amylase inhibitors and angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE) was also assessed. The addition of sourdough to the analyzed wheat bread raised the content of α-amylase inhibitors and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors while reducing their immunoreactivity. However, despite decreases in the antigenicity of the wheat flour proteins, the sera showed various reactions, depending on the individual patient’s susceptibility to gluten. Full article
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10 pages, 791 KiB  
Article
Technological Methods for Reducing the Content of Fructan in Wheat Bread
by Ewa Pejcz, Radosław Spychaj and Zygmunt Gil
Foods 2019, 8(12), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120663 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4321
Abstract
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal system. Adherence to a low-FODMAP (fermenting oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) diet may be one of the solutions in this case. The major FODMAP carbohydrates found in wheat bread are fructans. The [...] Read more.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal system. Adherence to a low-FODMAP (fermenting oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) diet may be one of the solutions in this case. The major FODMAP carbohydrates found in wheat bread are fructans. The objective of this study was to produce wheat bread with a reduced fructans content. Breads were made from light and whole grain flour obtained from common wheat using two methods of dough development—I-stage method with the use of yeast, and II-stage method with the use of yeast and sourdough with a pure culture of Lactobacillus plantarum. Four different fermentation times were tested—60, 90, 120, and 150 min. Afterwards, quality attributes (loaf volume, crust and crumb color, and sensory properties) of the produced breads were evaluated, and the fructans content was determined. The results demonstrated that all the factors influenced the quality of wheat breads, as well as their fructans content. Breads made with the II-stage method and light flour had a lower content of fructans, which was decreased in breads along with extending the time of dough fermentation. The greatest impact on fructans content decrease in wheat bread was ascribed to the use of light flour, the II-stage method of dough development coupled with a dough fermentation time prolongation to 150 min. Full article
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Review

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30 pages, 833 KiB  
Review
Health Promoting Properties of Cereal Vinegars
by Panagiotis Kandylis, Argyro Bekatorou, Dimitra Dimitrellou, Iris Plioni and Kanella Giannopoulou
Foods 2021, 10(2), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020344 - 05 Feb 2021
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 4852
Abstract
Vinegar has been used for its health promoting properties since antiquity. Nowadays, these properties are investigated, scientifically documented, and highlighted. The health benefits of vinegar have been associated with the presence of a variety of bioactive components such as acetic acid and other [...] Read more.
Vinegar has been used for its health promoting properties since antiquity. Nowadays, these properties are investigated, scientifically documented, and highlighted. The health benefits of vinegar have been associated with the presence of a variety of bioactive components such as acetic acid and other organic acids, phenolic compounds, amino acids, carotenoids, phytosterols, vitamins, minerals, and alkaloids, etc. These components are known to induce responses in the human body, such as antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antitumor, antiobesity, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory effects. The diversity and levels of bioactive components in vinegars depend on the raw material and the production method used. Cereal vinegars, which are more common in the Asia-Pacific region, are usually made from rice, although other cereals, such as millet, sorghum, barley, malt, wheat, corn, rye, oats, bran and chaff, are also used. A variety of bioactive components, such as organic acids, polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, alkaloids, melanoidins, butenolides, and specific compounds such as γ-oryzanol, tetramethylpyrazine, γ-aminobutyric acid, etc., have been associated with the health properties of cereal vinegars. In this work, the bioactive components and the related health effects of cereal vinegars are reviewed, and the most recent scientific literature is presented and discussed. Full article
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25 pages, 1155 KiB  
Review
Fermented Cereal-based Products: Nutritional Aspects, Possible Impact on Gut Microbiota and Health Implications
by Panagiota Tsafrakidou, Alexandra-Maria Michaelidou and Costas G. Biliaderis
Foods 2020, 9(6), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060734 - 03 Jun 2020
Cited by 89 | Viewed by 10929
Abstract
Fermentation, as a process to increase the security of food supply, represents an integral part of food culture development worldwide. Nowadays, in the evolving functional food era where new sophisticated technological tools are leading to significant transformations in the field of nutritional sciences [...] Read more.
Fermentation, as a process to increase the security of food supply, represents an integral part of food culture development worldwide. Nowadays, in the evolving functional food era where new sophisticated technological tools are leading to significant transformations in the field of nutritional sciences and science-driven approaches for new product design, fermentation technology is brought to the forefront again since it provides a solid foundation for the development of safe food products with unique nutritional and functional attributes. Therefore, the objective of the present review is to summarize the most recent advances in the field of fermentation processes related to cereal-based products. More specifically, this paper addresses issues that are relevant to nutritional and health aspects, including their interrelation with intestinal (gut) microbiome diversity and function, although clinical trials and/or in vitro studies testing for cereal-based fermented products are still scarce. Full article
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