Advances in Food Waste Biomass Transformation into High-Value Products

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Security and Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 September 2023) | Viewed by 37898

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Calabria, Italy
Interests: food quality and safety; chromatography; antioxidants; natural and xenobiotic contaminants; functional foods; agri-food waste recovery
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Cosenza, Italy
Interests: stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems; multi-functional hydrogels; antioxidant polymers
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, waste generation has grown at an alarming rate, and among the different types of waste, agri-food wastes are of particular concern. Generated at any point in the food supply chain, they can be related to production, post-harvest, industrial processing, distribution, domestic processing, and consumption, representing not only a great economic loss but also an important ethical and environmental issue.

The modern challenge is to minimize agri-food wastes, optimize production processes, and move to a production/consumption model organized according to a circular economic strategy through a minimal waste generation and the “zero waste concept”.

In this sense, the valorization of agri-food wastes and byproducts to obtain added-value products can be regarded as a valuable strategy to responsibly approach the outstanding needs of both consumer and society.

In this context, the Special Issue should mainly focus on:

  • The recovery of valuable compounds from agri-food wastes and byproducts to be exploited for nutraceutical, agriculture, and food applications;
  • New formulation of food products with improved nutritional, technological, and/or sensory features;
  • Economic evaluations and/or consumer acceptance regarding new high-value products from agri-food wastes and food byproducts.

Prof. Dr. Donatella Restuccia
Dr. Umile Gianfranco Spizzirri
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • food wastes
  • food byproducts
  • functional foods
  • nutraceuticals
  • compound recovery
  • circular economy consumer acceptance

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 160 KiB  
Editorial
Advances in Food Waste Biomass Transformation into High-Value Products
by Umile Gianfranco Spizzirri and Donatella Restuccia
Foods 2024, 13(9), 1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13091393 - 1 May 2024
Viewed by 710
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a concerning surge in waste generation, with agri-food waste emerging as a significant issue across various stages of the food supply chain [...] Full article

Research

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19 pages, 1713 KiB  
Article
Formulation of Antioxidant Gummies Based on Gelatin Enriched with Citrus Fruit Peels Extract
by Francesca Aiello, Paolino Caputo, Cesare Oliviero Rossi, Donatella Restuccia and Umile Gianfranco Spizzirri
Foods 2024, 13(2), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020320 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 2041
Abstract
In this work, the peels of red and blonde oranges as well as lemons were efficiently (5.75–9.65% yield) extracted by hydroalcoholic solution with ultrasound assistance and employed as active molecule sources in the preparation of functional gummies. Antioxidant performances of the hydroalcoholic extracts [...] Read more.
In this work, the peels of red and blonde oranges as well as lemons were efficiently (5.75–9.65% yield) extracted by hydroalcoholic solution with ultrasound assistance and employed as active molecule sources in the preparation of functional gummies. Antioxidant performances of the hydroalcoholic extracts were characterized by colorimetric assays, whereas LC–HRMS analyses identified the main bioactive compounds (phenolic acids and flavonoids). The highest scavenging activity was recorded for lemon extract in an aqueous environment (IC50 = 0.081 mg mL−1). An ecofriendly grafting procedure was performed to anchor polyphenols to gelatin chains, providing macromolecular systems characterized by thermal analysis and antioxidant properties. Scavenger abilities (IC50 = 0.201–0.454 mg mL−1) allowed the employment of the conjugates as functional ingredients in the preparation of gummies with remarkable antioxidant and rheological properties over time (14 days). These findings confirmed the possible employment of highly polluting wastes as valuable sources of bioactive compounds for functional gummies preparation. Full article
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13 pages, 1714 KiB  
Article
Recovery of Polyphenols from Rosehip Seed Waste Using Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ultrasonic Waves Simultaneously
by Aleksandra Gavarić, Kristian Pastor, Nataša Nastić, Senka Vidović, Nemanja Živanović, Nataša Simin, Ana Rita C. Duarte and Jelena Vladić
Foods 2023, 12(19), 3655; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12193655 - 3 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1196
Abstract
Rosehips are processed and consumed in numerous forms, such as juice, wine, herbal tea, yogurt, preserved fruit, and canned products. The seeds share in fruit is 30–35% and they have recently been recognized as an important source of oil rich in unsaturated fatty [...] Read more.
Rosehips are processed and consumed in numerous forms, such as juice, wine, herbal tea, yogurt, preserved fruit, and canned products. The seeds share in fruit is 30–35% and they have recently been recognized as an important source of oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids. However, after defatting, seed waste may still contain some polar polyphenolic compounds, which have been scarcely investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the potential of the defatted seed waste as a source of polyphenols. For the defatting process, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction at 300 bar and 40 °C was applied. The capacity of eight different natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) for the recovery of phenolics from defatted rosehip seed powder (dRSP) was examined. In the extracts obtained with ultrasound-assisted NADES extraction, twenty-one phenolic compounds were identified with LC-MS/MS, among which the most abundant were quinic acid (22.43 × 103 µg/g dRSP) and catechin (571.93 µg/g dRSP). Ternary NADES formulations based on lactic acid proved to be superior. Potential correlations between identified chemical compounds, solvent polarity and viscosity, as well as the compound distributions across studied solvent combinations in PCA hyperspace, were also investigated. PCA demonstrated that more polar NADES mixtures showed improved extraction potential. The established environmentally friendly process represents an approach of transforming rosehip seed waste into value-added products with the potential to be applied in the food industry and to contribute to sustainable production. Full article
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10 pages, 903 KiB  
Article
A Case Study for the Extraction, Purification, and Co-Pigmentation of Anthocyanins from Aronia melanocarpa Juice Pomace
by Maria Cinta Roda-Serrat, Behnaz Razi Parjikolaei, Mehrdad Mohammadifakhr, Juncal Martin, Birgir Norddahl and Massimiliano Errico
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3875; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233875 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2006
Abstract
Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) pomace is a by-product from the juice industry very rich in anthocyanins and other bioactive components. Recovery and purification of anthocyanins from the pomace is a viable valorization strategy that can be implemented to produce high-value natural food [...] Read more.
Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) pomace is a by-product from the juice industry very rich in anthocyanins and other bioactive components. Recovery and purification of anthocyanins from the pomace is a viable valorization strategy that can be implemented to produce high-value natural food colorants with antioxidant properties. In this study, chokeberry pomace was subjected to enzyme-assisted extraction using commercial pectinases. The extracts were further purified by adsorption–desorption using an acrylic resin and stabilized by co-pigmentation with ferulic acid. The anthocyanin concentration and antioxidant activity of the extracts were unaffected by the enzymatic treatment at the conditions tested. The total phenolic content of the extracts suffered minor variations depending on the enzyme formulation used, whereas the dissolved solid content increased in all cases. The adsorption–desorption strategy allowed a 96% recovery of the anthocyanins initially present in the extract, whereas the co-pigmentation treatment magnified the intensity of the color in terms of absorbance, and improved the stability during storage up to one month. Full article
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14 pages, 615 KiB  
Article
Fruit Wine Obtained from Melon by-Products: Physico-Chemical and Sensory Analysis, and Characterization of Key Aromas by GC-MS
by José Ángel Salas-Millán, Arantxa Aznar, Encarnación Conesa, Andrés Conesa-Bueno and Encarna Aguayo
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3619; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223619 - 13 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3731
Abstract
About 20% of fresh fruits and vegetables are rejected for not meeting the superficial aesthetic standards (color, shape, and size). Part of the food production is not used in the human food chain. The transformation of these fresh products into novel re-valuable ones [...] Read more.
About 20% of fresh fruits and vegetables are rejected for not meeting the superficial aesthetic standards (color, shape, and size). Part of the food production is not used in the human food chain. The transformation of these fresh products into novel re-valuable ones is a challenge for a sustainable food industry. This research studies an alcoholic fermentation fruit-based wine from two melon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars: Jimbee® (smooth and yellow skin with orange flesh) and Okashi® (netted yellow-orange skin with pale green flesh). The melon juice (must) was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and enriched in sucrose and organic acids to achieve alcoholic fermentation, acidity, and flavors, obtaining a fruity-flavored and dry melon-based wine with 10° alcoholic grade, in both melon cultivars. The volatile compounds were measured by GC-MS and the odor activity value (OAV) was calculated. The Jimbee and Okashi melon wines increased their aromatic profile due to an increment in medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters such as ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, and ethyl decanoate (OAV > 1), which contributed to the fruity aroma. Other volatile compounds such as ethyl 9-decenoate and phenethyl acetate (OAV > 1) appeared in the Okashi wine, which brought a floral aroma. For sensory evaluation (40–100), the Jimbee cultivar, with its orange flesh, scored 68.2 and the Okashi cultivar, with pale green flesh, scored 82.8, which was the preferred melon-based wine. This is an example of a circular economy model to produce a fruit-based wine with commercial potential and satisfactory sensory evaluation. Full article
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22 pages, 7483 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Bioactive Compound Extraction from Eggplant Peel by Response Surface Methodology: Ultrasound-Assisted Solvent Qualitative and Quantitative Effect
by Shiva Shahabi Mohammadabadi, Mohammad Goli and Sara Naji Tabasi
Foods 2022, 11(20), 3263; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11203263 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2245
Abstract
Anthocyanin pigments, which the peel of eggplant is rich in, contribute to food quality because of their function in color, appearance, and nutritional advantages. For the first time, this study aimed to optimize the composition of the extracting solvent as three factors: factor [...] Read more.
Anthocyanin pigments, which the peel of eggplant is rich in, contribute to food quality because of their function in color, appearance, and nutritional advantages. For the first time, this study aimed to optimize the composition of the extracting solvent as three factors: factor A (ratio of ethanol to methanol 0–100% v/v), factor B (ratio of water to alcohol 0–100% v/v), and factor C (citric acid in the final solvent 0–1% w/v) using response surface methodology (RSM), central composite design (CCD) with α 2, and two repeats in axial and factorial points and four central points, for maximum total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, extraction yield, antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay of the eggplant peel dry extract assisted by ultrasound (200 watts power, frequency of 28 kHz) in 60 °C for 45 min has been investigated. The best optimal formulas determined using RSM for the final solvent comprised optimal formula 1 (i.e., ethanol-to-methanol ratio 59% and water-to-alcohol ratio 0%, and citric acid in final solvent 0.47%), and optimal formula 2 (i.e., ethanol-to-methanol ratio 67% and water-to-alcohol ratio 0%, and citric acid in final solvent 0.56%). In general, an alcoholic–acidic extract of eggplant peel made with an ethanol–methanol solvent including citric acid can be used in the food industry as a natural source of antioxidants and pigment. Full article
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18 pages, 3201 KiB  
Article
Enhancing the Nutritional and Functional Properties of Auricularia auricula through the Exploitation of Walnut Branch Waste
by Zhenkun Hao, Wen’e Zhang, Fenghua Tian, Rong Wei and Xuejun Pan
Foods 2022, 11(20), 3242; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11203242 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4086
Abstract
As the third most edible fungus in the world, Auricularia auricular needs a lot of sawdust for cultivation; thus, it is a win–win method to develop waste wood sawdust suitable for black agaric cultivation. This study evaluated the growth, agronomic characters and nutritional [...] Read more.
As the third most edible fungus in the world, Auricularia auricular needs a lot of sawdust for cultivation; thus, it is a win–win method to develop waste wood sawdust suitable for black agaric cultivation. This study evaluated the growth, agronomic characters and nutritional quality of A. auricula cultured on different ratios of miscellaneous sawdust and walnut waste wood sawdust, and comprehensively analyzed the feasibility of cultivating black agaric with walnut sawdust using principal component method (PCA). The results showed that the macro mineral elements and phenolic substances in walnut sawdust were significantly higher than those of miscellaneous sawdust by 18.32–89.00%. The overall activity of extracellular enzymes reached the highest when the ratio of the substrate was 0:4 (miscellaneous sawdust: walnut sawdust). The mycelia of 1:3 substrates grew well and fast. In addition, the growth cycle for A. auricula was significantly lower for 0:4 (116 d) than for 4:0 (126 d). Then, the single bag yield and biological efficiency (BE) were highest at 1:3. Moreover, the nutrients and mineral elements of A. auricula cultivated in walnut sawdust were significantly higher than that of miscellaneous sawdust, expect for total sugar and protein, and the highest overall value was found at 1:3. Finally, the results of comprehensive evaluation by PCA showed that the D value was the highest when the substrate was 1:3 and the lowest when the substrate was 4:0. Therefore, the substrate ratio of 1:3 was the most suitable for the growth of A. auricula. In this study, the high yield and quality of A. auricula were cultivated by waste walnut sawdust, which provided a new way to utilize walnut sawdust. Full article
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Review

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25 pages, 3914 KiB  
Review
Xylooligosaccharides: A Bibliometric Analysis and Current Advances of This Bioactive Food Chemical as a Potential Product in Biorefineries’ Portfolios
by Tainá Manicardi, Gabriel Baioni e Silva, Andreza A. Longati, Thiago D. Paiva, João P. M. Souza, Thiago F. Pádua, Felipe F. Furlan, Raquel L. C. Giordano, Roberto C. Giordano and Thais S. Milessi
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3007; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163007 - 9 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2213
Abstract
Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) are nondigestible compounds of great interest for food and pharmaceutical industries due to their beneficial prebiotic, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antitumor properties. The market size of XOS is increasing significantly, which makes its production from lignocellulosic biomass an interesting approach to the [...] Read more.
Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) are nondigestible compounds of great interest for food and pharmaceutical industries due to their beneficial prebiotic, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antitumor properties. The market size of XOS is increasing significantly, which makes its production from lignocellulosic biomass an interesting approach to the valorization of the hemicellulose fraction of biomass, which is currently underused. This review comprehensively discusses XOS production from lignocellulosic biomass, aiming at its application in integrated biorefineries. A bibliometric analysis is carried out highlighting the main players in the field. XOS production yields after different biomass pretreatment methods are critically discussed using Microsoft PowerBI® (2.92.706.0) software, which involves screening important trends for decision-making. Enzymatic hydrolysis and the major XOS purification strategies are also explored. Finally, the integration of XOS production into biorefineries, with special attention to economic and environmental aspects, is assessed, providing important information for the implementation of biorefineries containing XOS in their portfolio. Full article
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20 pages, 876 KiB  
Review
Soursop (Annona muricata) Properties and Perspectives for Integral Valorization
by Ivone Lima Santos, Antonio Manoel da Cruz Rodrigues, Edna Regina Amante and Luiza Helena Meller da Silva
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1448; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071448 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 12339
Abstract
The increased international interest in the properties of soursop (Annona muricata) alerts us to the sustainability of productive chain by-products, which are rich in phytochemicals and other properties justifying their industrial application in addition to reducing the environmental impact and generating [...] Read more.
The increased international interest in the properties of soursop (Annona muricata) alerts us to the sustainability of productive chain by-products, which are rich in phytochemicals and other properties justifying their industrial application in addition to reducing the environmental impact and generating income. Chemical characteristics of soursop by-products are widely known in the scientific community; this fruit has several therapeutic effects, especially its leaves, enabling it to be used by the pharmaceutical industry. Damaged and non-standard fruits (due to falling and crushing) (30–50%), seeds (3–8.5%), peels (7–20%), and leaves, although they constitute discarded waste, can be considered as by-products. There are other less cited parts of the plant that also have phytochemical components, such as the columella and the epidermis of the stem and root. Tropical countries are examples of producers where soursop is marketed as fresh fruit or frozen pulp, and the valorization of all parts of the fruit could represent important environmental and economic perspectives. Based on the chemical composition of the fruit as well as its by-products and leaves, this work discusses proposals for the valorization of these materials. Soursop powder, bioactive compounds, oil, biochar, biodiesel, bio-oil, and other products based on published studies are presented in this work, offering new ideas for opportunities for the regions and consumers that produce soursop. Full article
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18 pages, 2340 KiB  
Review
Brewer’s Spent Grain, Coffee Grounds, Burdock, and Willow–Four Examples of Biowaste and Biomass Valorization through Advanced Green Extraction Technologies
by Massimiliano Errico, Jose A. P. Coelho, Roumiana P. Stateva, Knud V. Christensen, Rime Bahij and Stefania Tronci
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1295; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061295 - 18 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2248
Abstract
This paper explores the transformation of biowastes from food industry and agriculture into high-value products through four examples. The objective is to provide insight into the principles of green transition and a circular economy. The first two case studies focus on the waste [...] Read more.
This paper explores the transformation of biowastes from food industry and agriculture into high-value products through four examples. The objective is to provide insight into the principles of green transition and a circular economy. The first two case studies focus on the waste generated from the production of widely consumed food items, such as beer and coffee, while the other two examine the potential of underutilized plants, such as burdock and willow, as sources of valuable compounds. Phenolic compounds are the main target in the case of brewer’s spent grain, with p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid being the most common. Lipids are a possible target in the case of spent coffee grounds with palmitic (C16:0) and linoleic (C18:2) acid being the major fatty acids among those recovered. In the case of burdock, different targets are reported based on which part of the plant is used. Extracts rich in linoleic and oleic acids are expected from the seeds, while the roots extracts are rich in sugars, phenolic acids such as chlorogenic, caffeic, o-coumaric, syringic, cinnamic, gentisitic, etc. acids, and, interestingly, the high-value compound epicatechin gallate. Willow is well known for being rich in salicin, but picein, (+)-catechin, triandrin, glucose, and fructose are also obtained from the extracts. The study thoroughly analyzes different extraction methods, with a particular emphasis on cutting-edge green technologies. The goal is to promote the sustainable utilization of biowaste and support the green transition to a more environmentally conscious economy. Full article
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20 pages, 6192 KiB  
Review
3D Printing Approach to Valorization of Agri-Food Processing Waste Streams
by Kandasamy Suppiramaniam Yoha and Jeyan Arthur Moses
Foods 2023, 12(1), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010212 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4245
Abstract
With increasing evidence of their relevance to resource recovery, waste utilization, zero waste, a circular economy, and sustainability, food-processing waste streams are being viewed as an aspect of both research and commercial interest. Accordingly, different approaches have evolved for their management and utilization. [...] Read more.
With increasing evidence of their relevance to resource recovery, waste utilization, zero waste, a circular economy, and sustainability, food-processing waste streams are being viewed as an aspect of both research and commercial interest. Accordingly, different approaches have evolved for their management and utilization. With excellent levels of customization, three-dimensional (3D) printing has found numerous applications in various sectors. The focus of this review article is to explain the state of the art, innovative interventions, and promising features of 3D printing technology for the valorization of agri-food processing waste streams. Based on recent works, this article covers two aspects: the conversion of processing waste streams into edible novel foods or inedible biodegradable materials for food packing and allied applications. However, this application domain cannot be limited to only what is already established, as there are ample prospects for several other application fields intertwining 3D food printing and waste processing. In addition, this article presents the key merits of the technology and emphasizes research needs and directions for future work on this disruptive technology, specific to food-printing applications. Full article
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