Starch Modifications, Properties, and Functions

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2023) | Viewed by 17686

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3083, Australia
Interests: food processing; starch; grains; cereals; value-addition; plant products; bakery products
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Guest Editor
Department of Agriculture and Forest Sciences (DAFNE), University of Tuscia, Via San Camillo de Lellis snc, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
Interests: agricultural genetics; starch; genetic biofortification; wheat; functional foods; nutritional quality
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Starch, a well-known carbohydrate obtained from plant sources with numerous functional properties, is essential to create high-quality and shelf-stable foods. Starch and its derivatives have always been attractive and highly consumed materials in many food and non-food products. It is anticipated that starch popularity and demands further increase due to the development of novel starch modification methods.

This special issue is a scholarly forum that aims to peer-review and publish the cutting-edge research findings on the latest advances in starch characterization and modification. It will be focused on the application of modern techniques to unveil novel aspects of starch including emerging opportunities and challenges to address the growing demands of the food industry for high-quality, sustainable, and environmentally-friendly. 

Moreover, the issue will address the potential uses of resistant starch to enhance human health and increase consumer satisfaction. This special issue accepts original research articles, reviews, as well as short communications for publication.

Dr. Mahsa Majzoobi
Dr. Francesco Sestili
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • native starches
  • modified starches
  • starch functional properties
  • starch characterization
  • starch digestibility
  • starch health effects
  • high amylose starch
  • resistant starch
  • novel food applications of starch

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 6586 KiB  
Article
Tremella Polysaccharide Has Potential to Retard Wheat Starch Gel System Retrogradation and Mechanism Research
by Jiaxun Wang, Shanshan Zhang, Nan Wang, Hongxiu Fan, Hanmiao Wang and Tingting Liu
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3115; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163115 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 930
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of adding different concentrations of TP (tremella polysaccharide) on the water distribution, rheological, thermal, microstructure, and retrogradation properties of WS (wheat starch) gels. The results showed that the starch aging increased during storage, and the addition of TP [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of adding different concentrations of TP (tremella polysaccharide) on the water distribution, rheological, thermal, microstructure, and retrogradation properties of WS (wheat starch) gels. The results showed that the starch aging increased during storage, and the addition of TP reduced the rate of change of the elastic modulus of the starch gel and delayed the short-term aging of WS. In the same storage period, the hardness value of the gel decreased and the texture became softer with the increase in the mass fraction of TP. TP increased the T0 (starting temperature) of the system and decreased the enthalpy of retrogradation (ΔHr). No new groups were formed after the retrogradation of the compound system, the hydrogen bonding force increased with the increase in polysaccharide, and the relative crystallinity and the degree of ordering of the system decreased. The addition of TP increased the content of bound water and immobile water, decreased the content of free water, and increased the gel water-holding capacity, indicating that it could effectively inhibit the long-term retrogradation of WS. The findings provide new theoretical insights for the production of starch-based foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch Modifications, Properties, and Functions)
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20 pages, 3330 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dry Heating on Some Physicochemical Properties of Protein-Coated High Amylose and Waxy Corn Starch
by Lili Mao, Pranita Mhaske, Asgar Farahnaky and Mahsa Majzoobi
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1350; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061350 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
The dry heat treatment (DHT) of starch and hydrocolloid mixtures is gaining acknowledgement since hydrocolloids can enhance the efficiency of DHT. However, the DHT of a starch–protein mixture has been less investigated. In this study, the effects of different proteins including sodium caseinate [...] Read more.
The dry heat treatment (DHT) of starch and hydrocolloid mixtures is gaining acknowledgement since hydrocolloids can enhance the efficiency of DHT. However, the DHT of a starch–protein mixture has been less investigated. In this study, the effects of different proteins including sodium caseinate (SC), gelatin, and whey protein isolate (WPI) added to high amylose and waxy corn starches (HACS and WCS, respectively) prepared by the dry mixing and wet method before and after DHT were studied. The DHT of both starches with WPI and SC prepared by the wet method increased the peak viscosity, but no change was observed when gelatin was added. Dry mixing of HACS with the proteins did not affect the peak viscosity before and after DHT. The gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy of both starches showed a slight decrease with the addition of all proteins and reduced further after DHT. The firmness, gumminess, and cohesiveness of the samples decreased upon DHT. The SEM results revealed that the granules were coated by proteins and formed clusters. Particle size analysis showed an increase in the particle size with the addition of proteins, which reduced after DHT. Under the conditions used, the wet method was more successful than dry mixing and the effects of WPI > SC > gelatin in enhancing the physicochemical properties of the tested starches after DHT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch Modifications, Properties, and Functions)
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14 pages, 4485 KiB  
Article
Tartary Buckwheat Starch Modified with Octenyl Succinic Anhydride for Stabilization of Pickering Nanoemulsions
by Jie Lin, Shasha Fan, Yuyue Ruan, Dingtao Wu, Ting Yang, Yichen Hu, Wei Li and Liang Zou
Foods 2023, 12(6), 1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12061126 - 07 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1241
Abstract
In this study, Tartary buckwheat starch was modified to different degrees of substitution (DS) with octenyl succinate anhydride (OS-TBS) in order to explore its potential for stabilizing Pickering nanoemulsions. OS-TBS was prepared by reacting Tartary buckwheat starch with 3, 5 or 7% ( [...] Read more.
In this study, Tartary buckwheat starch was modified to different degrees of substitution (DS) with octenyl succinate anhydride (OS-TBS) in order to explore its potential for stabilizing Pickering nanoemulsions. OS-TBS was prepared by reacting Tartary buckwheat starch with 3, 5 or 7% (w/v) octenyl succinate in an alkaline aqueous solution at pH 8.5. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy gave peaks at 1726 cm−1 (C=O) and 1573 cm−1 (RCOO−), indicating the formation of OS-TBS. We further studied the physicochemical properties of the modified starch as well as its emulsification capacity. As the DS with octenyl succinate anhydride increased, the amylose content and gelatinization temperature of the OS-TBS decreased, while its solubility increased. In contrast to the original Tartary buckwheat starch, OS-TBS showed higher surface hydrophobicity, and its particles were more uniform in size and its emulsification stability was better. Higher DS with octenyl succinate led to better emulsification. OS-TBS efficiently stabilized O/W Pickering nanoemulsions and the average particle size of the emulsion was maintained at 300–400 nm for nanodroplets. Taken together, these results suggest that OS-TBS might serve as an excellent stabilizer for nanoscale Pickering emulsions. This study may suggest and expand the use of Tartary buckwheat starch in nanoscale Pickering emulsions in various industrial processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch Modifications, Properties, and Functions)
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10 pages, 483 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Durum-Wheat Pasta Containing Resistant Starch from Debranched Waxy Rice Starch
by Mariasole Cervini, Mario Gabrielli, Giorgia Spigno and Gianluca Giuberti
Foods 2023, 12(2), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020327 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1971
Abstract
Durum wheat spaghetti samples prepared with increasing levels of resistant starch (RS) from debranched waxy rice starch (DWRS; i.e., 0, 5, 10, 15 g/100 g w/w) were analyzed for chemical composition, quality and sensory parameters and in vitro starch digestion. [...] Read more.
Durum wheat spaghetti samples prepared with increasing levels of resistant starch (RS) from debranched waxy rice starch (DWRS; i.e., 0, 5, 10, 15 g/100 g w/w) were analyzed for chemical composition, quality and sensory parameters and in vitro starch digestion. All the DWRS-containing spaghetti was “high in fibre”, the dietary fiber content being > 6 g/100 g. In addition, spaghetti with the highest level of DWRS showed the highest RS content (p < 0.05), being 11.4 g/100 g dry matter. The starch hydrolysis index decreased (p < 0.05) as the level of DWRS increased, with a reduction of >20% comparing the 15-DWRS pasta to the control. DWRS had a negative impact on quality parameters, especially at higher DWRS levels. The use of DWRS shortened the optimal cooking time and impacted the samples’ cooking loss, firmness, and stickiness. In addition, sensory analysis revealed differences among samples. However, irrespective of the level of DWRS in the recipe, the score for all attributes was > 5, which is considered the limit of acceptability. Substituting part of the semolina flour with DWRS increased the level of RS and the overall nutritional profile and affected the quality of semolina pasta, mainly at higher levels in the recipe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch Modifications, Properties, and Functions)
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16 pages, 1220 KiB  
Article
Influence of Some Spaghetti Processing Variables on Technological Attributes and the In Vitro Digestion of Starch
by Mike Sissons, Silvia Cutillo, Narelle Egan, Asgar Farahnaky and Agata Gadaleta
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3650; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223650 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
Durum semolina spaghetti is known to have a low-moderate glycaemic index but the impact of various processing variables during the manufacture and cooking of pasta does affect pasta structure and potentially could alter starch digestion. In this study, several process variables were investigated [...] Read more.
Durum semolina spaghetti is known to have a low-moderate glycaemic index but the impact of various processing variables during the manufacture and cooking of pasta does affect pasta structure and potentially could alter starch digestion. In this study, several process variables were investigated to see if they can impact the in vitro starch digestion in spaghetti while also monitoring the pasta’s technological quality. Cooking time had a large impact on pasta starch digestion and reducing cooking from fully cooked to al dente and using pasta of very high protein content (17%), reduced starch digestion extent. The semolina particle size distribution used to prepare pasta impacted pasta quality and starch digestion to a small extent indicating a finer semolina particle size (<180 µm) may promote a more compact structure and help to reduce starch digestion. The addition of a structural enzyme, Transglutaminase in the pasta formulae improved overcooking tolerance in low protein pasta comparable to high protein pasta with no other significant effects and had no effect on starch digestion over a wide protein range (8.6–17%). While cold storage of cooked pasta was expected to increase retrograded starch, the increase in resistant starch was minor (37%) with no consequent improvement in the extent of starch digestion. Varying three extrusion parameters (die temperature, die pressure, extrusion speed) impacted pasta technological quality but not the extent of starch digestion. Results suggest the potential to subtly manipulate the starch digestion of pasta through some processing procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch Modifications, Properties, and Functions)
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21 pages, 2284 KiB  
Article
Variable Effects of Twenty Sugars and Sugar Alcohols on the Retrogradation of Wheat Starch Gels
by Matthew C. Allan and Lisa J. Mauer
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3008; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193008 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
Starch retrogradation is desirable for some food textures and nutritional traits but detrimental to sensory and storage qualities of other foods. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of sweetener structure and concentration on the retrogradation of wheat starch gels. [...] Read more.
Starch retrogradation is desirable for some food textures and nutritional traits but detrimental to sensory and storage qualities of other foods. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of sweetener structure and concentration on the retrogradation of wheat starch gels. The effects of 20 sweeteners selected based on common food usage and stereochemical structures of interest, and ranging in concentration from 10 to 50%w/w, on the retrogradation of wheat starch gels were monitored spectrophotometrically over time. The sweeteners were sucrose, xylose, ribose, glucose, galactose, fructose, mannose, mannitol, L-sorbose, xylitol, tagatose, allulose, maltose, lactose, isomaltulose, isomalt, sorbitol, maltitol, and raffinose. Retrogradation rates and amounts were compared by Avrami equation rate constants (k = 0.1–0.7) and absorbance values measured on day 28 (Abs = 0.1–1.0), respectively. Both sweetener concentration and type significantly affected retrogradation. Gels made with sugar alcohols and high sweetener concentrations (≈≥40%) tended to retrograde more and faster, whereas gels made with sugars and low sweetener concentrations tended to have lower retrogradation rates and amounts. Sweeteners with more equatorial and exocyclic hydroxyl groups (e.g., glucose and maltitol) and those with larger molar volumes (e.g., isomaltulose and raffinose) tended to increase the rate and amount of retrogradation, particularly at higher concentrations. The impact of sweeteners on retrogradation was a balance of factors that promoted retrogradation (intermolecular interactions and residual short-range molecular order) and inhibiting behaviors (interference at crystallization sites), which are influenced by sweetener concentration and structure. Understanding which sweeteners at which concentrations can be used to promote or inhibit retrogradation is useful for product formulation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch Modifications, Properties, and Functions)
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14 pages, 1545 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Fresh Pasta Made of Common and High-Amylose Wheat Flour Mixtures
by Alessio Cimini, Alessandro Poliziani, Gabriele Antonelli, Francesco Sestili, Domenico Lafiandra and Mauro Moresi
Foods 2022, 11(16), 2510; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11162510 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4176
Abstract
This study aims to assess the main biochemical, technological, and nutritional properties of a few samples of fresh pasta composed of commercial common wheat flour blended with increasing percentages, ranging from 0 to 100%, of high-amylose wheat flour. Although the technological parameters of [...] Read more.
This study aims to assess the main biochemical, technological, and nutritional properties of a few samples of fresh pasta composed of commercial common wheat flour blended with increasing percentages, ranging from 0 to 100%, of high-amylose wheat flour. Although the technological parameters of such samples remained practically constant, fresh pasta samples including 50 to 100% of high-amylose wheat flour were classifiable as foods with a low in vitro glycemic index of about 43%. However, only fresh pasta made of 100% high-amylose wheat flour exhibited a resistant starch-to-total starch ratio greater than 14% and was therefore eligible to claim a physiological effect of improved glucose metabolism after a meal, as according to EU Regulation 432/2012. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch Modifications, Properties, and Functions)
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Review

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25 pages, 3840 KiB  
Review
Polyphenol-Modified Starches and Their Applications in the Food Industry: Recent Updates and Future Directions
by Tai Van Ngo, Sandra Kusumawardani, Kannika Kunyanee and Naphatrapi Luangsakul
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3384; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213384 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3405
Abstract
Health problems associated with excess calories, such as diabetes and obesity, have become serious public issues worldwide. Innovative methods are needed to reduce food caloric impact without negatively affecting sensory properties. The interaction between starch and phenolic compounds has presented a positive impact [...] Read more.
Health problems associated with excess calories, such as diabetes and obesity, have become serious public issues worldwide. Innovative methods are needed to reduce food caloric impact without negatively affecting sensory properties. The interaction between starch and phenolic compounds has presented a positive impact on health and has been applied to various aspects of food. In particular, an interaction between polyphenols and starch is widely found in food systems and may endow foods with several unique properties and functional effects. This review summarizes knowledge of the interaction between polyphenols and starch accumulated over the past decade. It discusses changes in the physicochemical properties, in vitro digestibility, prebiotic properties, and antioxidant activity of the starch–polyphenol complex. It also reviews innovative methods of obtaining the complexes and their applications in the food industry. For a brief description, phenolic compounds interact with starch through covalent or non-covalent bonds. The smoothness of starch granules disappears after complexation, while the crystalline structure either remains unchanged or forms a new structure and/or V-type complex. Polyphenols influence starch swelling power, solubility, pasting, and thermal properties; however, research remains limited regarding their effects on oil absorption and freeze–thaw stability. The interaction between starch and polyphenolic compounds could promote health and nutritional value by reducing starch digestion rate and enhancing bioavailability; as such, this review might provide a theoretical basis for the development of novel functional foods for the prevention and control of hyperglycemia. Further establishing a comprehensive understanding of starch–polyphenol complexes could improve their application in the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch Modifications, Properties, and Functions)
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