Cereal-Based Staple Foods: Processing, Quality and Health Benefits

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2024) | Viewed by 13135

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Food Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210023, China
Interests: whole grain foods; natural polymer
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China
Interests: cereal quality evaluation; quality control; grain nutritional attributes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
College of Food Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China
Interests: whole grains procesing and quality control; whole grains nutrition and health benefits

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cereal-based foods are the major staples around the world. Cereal-based staple foods are, by far, the major source of energy, protein, B vitamins and minerals for the world population. The most widely used cereals are rice, wheat and maize, which provide 93% of the total cereal calories. Cereal grains are considered primarily as caloric or starchy foods and, more recently, as an important source of dietary fiber. In recent years, the health benefits of cereal-based staple foods, especially whole grain foods, have been discovered and emphasized.

For this reason, this Special Issue entitled “Cereal-Based Staple Foods: Processing, Quality and Health Benefits” of Foods is being released, focusing on the quality formation and regulation mechanisms of cereal-based staple foods during processing, dynamic changes in nutrient elements in cereal food processing, research and development of key processing technologies for the production of healthy cereal foods, etc. The aim is to provide new insights into or methods for the development of high-quality, nutritious and healthy cereal-based staple foods.

This Special Issue will include a selection of recent research and current review articles about the above aims.

Prof. Dr. Xiaozhi Tang
Dr. Yingquan Zhang
Dr. Jingwen Xu
Guest Editors

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cereal
  • wheat
  • rice
  • whole grain
  • staple food
  • processing
  • quality
  • nutrition

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 2201 KiB  
Article
Comparative Effects of Heat Stress at Booting and Grain-Filling Stage on Yield and Grain Quality of High-Quality Hybrid Rice
by Xinzhen Zhang, Qiuping Zhang, Juan Yang, Yuhao Jin, Jinshui Wu, Hang Xu, Yang Xiao, Yusha Lai, Zhiqiang Guo, Jianlong Wang and Wanju Shi
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4093; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224093 - 11 Nov 2023
Viewed by 886
Abstract
Rice plants are highly sensitive to high-temperature stress, posing challenges to grain yield and quality. However, the impact of high temperatures on the quality of high-quality hybrid rice during the booting stage, as well as the differing effects of the booting and grain-filling [...] Read more.
Rice plants are highly sensitive to high-temperature stress, posing challenges to grain yield and quality. However, the impact of high temperatures on the quality of high-quality hybrid rice during the booting stage, as well as the differing effects of the booting and grain-filling stages on grain quality, are currently not well-known. Therefore, four high-quality hybrid rice were subjected to control (CK) and high-temperature stress during the booting (HT1) and grain-filling stages (HT2). Compared to the control, HT1 significantly reduced the spikelets panicle−1 (16.1%), seed setting rate (67.5%), and grain weight (7.4%), while HT2 significantly reduced the seed setting rate (6.0%) and grain weight (7.4%). In terms of quality, both HT1 and HT2 significantly increased chalkiness, chalky grain rate, gelatinization temperature, peak viscosity (PV), trough viscosity (TV), final viscosity (FV), and protein content in most varieties, and significantly decreased grain length, grain width, total starch content, and amylose content. However, a comparison between HT1 and HT2 revealed that the increase in chalkiness, chalky grain rate, PV, TV, and FV was greater under HT2. HT1 resulted in a greater decrease in grain length, grain width, total starch content, and amylose content, as well as an increase in protein content. Additionally, HT1 led to a significant decrease in amylopectin content, which was not observed under HT2. Therefore, future efforts in breeding and cultivating high-quality hybrid rice should carefully account for the effects of high temperatures at different stages on both yield and quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal-Based Staple Foods: Processing, Quality and Health Benefits)
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19 pages, 3441 KiB  
Article
Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermentation on the Physicochemical Properties of Rice Flour and Rice Starch and on the Anti-Staling of Rice Bread
by Xinlai Dou, Xuyang Ren, Qiumei Zheng, Yinyuan He, Mingshou Lv, Linlin Liu, Ping Yang, Yanlin Hao, Fenglian Chen and Xiaozhi Tang
Foods 2023, 12(20), 3818; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12203818 - 18 Oct 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2037
Abstract
In this study, Lactococcus lactis lactis subspecies 1.2472, Streptococcus thermophilus 1.2718, and thermostable Lactobacillus rhamnosus HCUL 1.1901–1912 were used to ferment rice flour for preparing rice bread. The characteristics of fermented rice bread were studied to elucidate the mechanism by which fermentation improves [...] Read more.
In this study, Lactococcus lactis lactis subspecies 1.2472, Streptococcus thermophilus 1.2718, and thermostable Lactobacillus rhamnosus HCUL 1.1901–1912 were used to ferment rice flour for preparing rice bread. The characteristics of fermented rice bread were studied to elucidate the mechanism by which fermentation improves the anti-staling ability of rice bread. The amylose content of rice flour increased after fermentation. The peak viscosity, attenuation value, final viscosity, recovery value, and gelatinization temperature decreased. Amylopectin was partially hydrolyzed, and the amylose content decreased. The crystallinity of starch decreased, and the minimum crystallinity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis fermented rice starch (LRS) was 11.64%. The thermal characteristics of fermented rice starch, including To, Tp, Tc, and ΔH, were lower than RS (rice starch), and the △H of LRS was the lowest. Meanwhile, LRS exhibited the best anti-staling ability, and with a staling degree of 43.22%. The T22 of the LRF rice flour dough was lower, and its moisture fluidity was the weakest, indicating that moisture was more closely combined with other components. The texture characteristics of fermented rice bread were improved; among these, LRF was the best: the hardness change value was 1.421 times, the elasticity decrease was 2.35%, and the chewability change was 47.07%. There, it provides a theoretical basis for improving the shelf life of bread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal-Based Staple Foods: Processing, Quality and Health Benefits)
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19 pages, 1069 KiB  
Article
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Gluten-Free Bread: The Effect of Milling Conditions on the Technological Properties and In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Polyphenols and Minerals
by María Isabel Curti, Pablo Martín Palavecino, Marianela Savio, María Verónica Baroni and Pablo Daniel Ribotta
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3030; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163030 - 12 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1467
Abstract
The absence of gluten proteins in sorghum allows for the production of baked goods that are suitable for celiacs. Previous studies have shown that the milling process affects the performance of sorghum flour in baked products, especially those that are gluten-free (GF). This [...] Read more.
The absence of gluten proteins in sorghum allows for the production of baked goods that are suitable for celiacs. Previous studies have shown that the milling process affects the performance of sorghum flour in baked products, especially those that are gluten-free (GF). This study aimed to explore the effects of mill type (impact and roller) on flour properties and GF bread quality by assessing the technological quality, antioxidant activity, and mineral content of the bread. All particle populations of flour obtained via both millings presented a bimodal distribution, and the volume mean diameter (D 4,3) ranged from 431.6 µm to 561.6 µm. The partially refined milled flour obtained via polishing and impact milling produced bread with a soft crumb, fewer but larger alveoli in the crumb, and a structure that did not collapse during baking, showing the best performance in bread quality. In the in vitro bread digestibility assay, the total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity decreased during the digestion steps. High mineral (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) contents were also found in a portion of the bread (120 g) made with whole sorghum flour; however, their potential bioavailability was reduced in the presence of a higher amount of bran. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal-Based Staple Foods: Processing, Quality and Health Benefits)
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17 pages, 3057 KiB  
Article
Ultrasonic Treatment of Corn Starch to Improve the Freeze-Thaw Resistance of Frozen Model Dough and Its Application in Steamed Buns
by Rui Han, Jiaqi Lin, Jingyao Hou, Xiuying Xu, Saruna Bao, Chaoyue Wei, Jiayue Xing, Yuzhu Wu and Jingsheng Liu
Foods 2023, 12(10), 1962; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12101962 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
Modification of corn starch using ultrasonic waves to improve its freeze-thaw resistance in frozen model doughs and buns. Analysis was performed by rheometry, low-field-intensity nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, Fourier infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the addition of ultrasonically [...] Read more.
Modification of corn starch using ultrasonic waves to improve its freeze-thaw resistance in frozen model doughs and buns. Analysis was performed by rheometry, low-field-intensity nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, Fourier infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the addition of ultrasonically modified corn starch reduced the migration of water molecules inside the model dough, weakened the decrease of elastic modulus, and enhanced the creep recovery effect; the decrease in α-helical and β-fold content in the model dough was reduced, the destruction of internal network structure was decreased, the exposed starch granules were reduced, and the internal interaction of the dough was enhanced; the texture of the buns became softer and the moisture content increased. In conclusion, ultrasound as a physical modification means can significantly improve the freeze-thaw properties of corn starch, providing new ideas for the development and quality improvement of corn-starch-based instant frozen pasta products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal-Based Staple Foods: Processing, Quality and Health Benefits)
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13 pages, 1230 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Changes in Volatiles, Soluble Sugars, and Fatty Acids in Glutinous Rice during Cooking
by Xianqiao Hu, Changyun Fang, Lin Lu, Zhanqiang Hu, Weixing Zhang and Mingxue Chen
Foods 2023, 12(8), 1700; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081700 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1326
Abstract
Cooking is an important process before rice is consumed and constitutes the key process for rice flavor formation. In this paper, dynamic changes in aroma- and sweetness-related compounds were tracked during the entire cooking process (including washing with water, presoaking, and hydrothermal cooking). [...] Read more.
Cooking is an important process before rice is consumed and constitutes the key process for rice flavor formation. In this paper, dynamic changes in aroma- and sweetness-related compounds were tracked during the entire cooking process (including washing with water, presoaking, and hydrothermal cooking). The volatiles, fatty acids, and soluble sugars in raw rice, washed rice, presoaked rice, and cooked rice were compared. After being washed with water, the total volatiles decreased while aldehydes and unsaturated fatty acids increased. Meanwhile, oligosaccharides decreased and monosaccharides increased. The changes in fatty acids and soluble sugars caused by the presoaking process were similar to those in the water-washing process. However, different changes were observed for volatiles, especially aldehydes and ketone. After hydrothermal cooking, furans, aldehydes, alcohols, and esters increased while hydrocarbons and aromatics decreased. Moreover, all fatty acids increased; among these, oleic acids and linoleic acid increased most. Unlike with washing and presoaking, all soluble sugars except fructose increased after hydrothermal cooking. Principal component analysis showed that cooked rice possessed a volatile profile that was quite different from that of uncooked rice, while washed rice and presoaked rice possessed similar volatile profiles. These results indicated that hydrothermal cooking is the pivotal process for rice flavor formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal-Based Staple Foods: Processing, Quality and Health Benefits)
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Review

Jump to: Research

19 pages, 1909 KiB  
Review
A Review of the Impact of Starch on the Quality of Wheat-Based Noodles and Pasta: From the View of Starch Structural and Functional Properties and Interaction with Gluten
by Jinrong Wang, Yonghui Li, Xiaona Guo, Kexue Zhu and Zijian Wu
Foods 2024, 13(10), 1507; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13101507 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 424
Abstract
Starch, as a primary component of wheat, plays a crucial role in determining the quality of noodles and pasta. A deep understanding of the impact of starch on the quality of noodles and pasta is fundamentally important for the industrial progression of these [...] Read more.
Starch, as a primary component of wheat, plays a crucial role in determining the quality of noodles and pasta. A deep understanding of the impact of starch on the quality of noodles and pasta is fundamentally important for the industrial progression of these products. The starch structure exerts an influence on the quality of noodles and pasta by affecting its functional attributes and the interaction of starch–gluten proteins. The effects of starch structure (amylopectin structure, amylose content, granules size, damaged starch content) on the quality of noodles and pasta is discussed. The relationship between the functional properties of starch, particularly its swelling power and pasting properties, and the texture of noodles and pasta is discussed. It is important to note that the functional properties of starch can be modified during the processing of noodles and pasta, potentially impacting the quality of the end product, However, this aspect is often overlooked. Additionally, the interaction between starch and gluten is addressed in relation to its impact on the quality of noodles and pasta. Finally, the application of exogenous starch in improving the quality of noodles and pasta is highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal-Based Staple Foods: Processing, Quality and Health Benefits)
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16 pages, 1202 KiB  
Review
Rice-Based Gluten-Free Foods and Technologies: A Review
by Jiyoung Park and Hong-Sik Kim
Foods 2023, 12(22), 4110; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12224110 - 13 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2189
Abstract
Rice, one of the most widely consumed staples worldwide, serves as a versatile gluten-free substitute. However, review articles on technological developments in grain-free production focusing on rice are scarce. This review assesses various research results concerning the quality attributes of rice-based gluten-free foods, [...] Read more.
Rice, one of the most widely consumed staples worldwide, serves as a versatile gluten-free substitute. However, review articles on technological developments in grain-free production focusing on rice are scarce. This review assesses various research results concerning the quality attributes of rice-based gluten-free foods, including bread, pasta, and beer. To optimize the key attributes in processed products, such as dough leavening in bread and the physical and cooking properties of noodles and pasta, research has focused on blending different gluten-free grains and incorporating additives that mimic the gluten function. Additionally, various processing technologies, such as starch preprocessing and extrusion puffing processes, have been employed to boost the quality of rice-based gluten-free products. Today, a variety of products, including bread, noodles, and beer, use rice as a partial replacement for barley or wheat. With rapid advancements in technology, a noticeable portion of consumers now shows a preference for products containing rice as a substitute. This trend indicates that rice-based gluten-free foods can be enhanced by leveraging the latest developments in gluten-free product technologies, particularly in countries where rice is a staple or is predominantly cultivated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal-Based Staple Foods: Processing, Quality and Health Benefits)
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29 pages, 661 KiB  
Review
Insights into Recent Updates on Factors and Technologies That Modulate the Glycemic Index of Rice and Its Products
by Tai Van Ngo, Kannika Kunyanee and Naphatrapi Luangsakul
Foods 2023, 12(19), 3659; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12193659 - 4 Oct 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2282
Abstract
Rice is a staple food and energy source for half the world’s population. Due to its quick digestion and absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, rice is typically regarded as having a high or medium–high glycemic index (GI); however, this can vary depending on [...] Read more.
Rice is a staple food and energy source for half the world’s population. Due to its quick digestion and absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, rice is typically regarded as having a high or medium–high glycemic index (GI); however, this can vary depending on the variety, nutrient compositions, processing, and accompanying factors. This report included a table of the glycemic index for rice and rice products in different countries, which could give an overview and fundamental information on the recent GI of different rice varieties. In addition, latest updates about the mechanism effects of rice nutritional profiles and processing techniques on GI were also provided and discussed. The influence of state-of-the-art GI regulation methods was also evaluated. Furthermore, the effectiveness and efficiency of applied technologies were also given. Furthermore, this review offered some aspects about the potential nutraceutical application of rice that food scientists, producers, or consumers might consider. Diverse types of rice are grown under various conditions that could affect the GI of the product. The instinct nutrients in rice could show different effects on the digestion rate of its product. It also revealed that the rice product’s digestibility is process-dependent. The postprandial glucose response of the rice products could be changed by modifying processing techniques, which might produce the new less-digestive compound or the inhibition factor in the starch hydrolysis process. Because of the significant importance of rice, this paper also concluded the challenges, as well as some important aspects for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal-Based Staple Foods: Processing, Quality and Health Benefits)
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