Recent Advances in the Assessment of Cereal and Cereal-Based Product Quality

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Grain".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2024) | Viewed by 5884

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Animal, Veterinary and Food Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA
Interests: cereal science; linear and nonlinear rheology; wheat quality; gluten-free baking; cereal processing

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Guest Editor
Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
Interests: food materials science; linear and nonlinear rheology; computational fluid dynamics; food nanotechnology and fabrication of nanobiosensors; extrusion; mixing; bioinformatic modeling of cereal quality parameters
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cereal quality assessment includes the application of a series of physical, physicochemical, and chemical analyses on grain, flour, dough, and on cereal-based products. Such analyses are mostly based on wet chemistry or empirical methods, which have been found application in industry for predicting end-product quality. Even though these traditional cereal testing methods are widely accepted, there have some associated limitations. For instance, use of only wet chemistry methods without any direct in situ observations through imaging provides limited information about the interactions occurring between macromolecules during processing, which is known to affect end-product quality. The empirical methods fail in enabling fundamental interpretation of the data as the data are provided in arbitrary units. Moreover, most of these methods have been designed to measure the quality of wheat. Thus, it can be challenging to adjust them for the testing of systems based on other cereals. Therefore, recent techniques have been employed in the cereal science world for the assessment of cereals and cereal-based products. These techniques include fundamental rheology, bioinformatic modeling, imaging techniques (i.e., X-ray microtomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), spectroscopy techniques (i.e., FTIR, Raman, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)), and 3-D printing technology, among others.

Dr. Gamze Yazar
Prof. Dr. Jozef L. Kokini
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • grain quality
  • flour quality
  • physical dough testing
  • baking
  • cereal-based product quality

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 4237 KiB  
Article
Development of Healthy Snacks Incorporating Meal from Tenebrio molitor and Alphitobius diaperinus Using 3D Printing Technology
by Francisco Madail Herdeiro, Maria Otília Carvalho, Maria Cristiana Nunes and Anabela Raymundo
Foods 2024, 13(2), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13020179 - 5 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
This study analyzes the nutritional properties of edible insects, specifically Tenebrio molitor and Alphitobius diaperinus, and explores the potential of 3D printing technology to introduce a nutritious and tasty alternative to essential nutrients for Western consumers. An original formulation for the printing [...] Read more.
This study analyzes the nutritional properties of edible insects, specifically Tenebrio molitor and Alphitobius diaperinus, and explores the potential of 3D printing technology to introduce a nutritious and tasty alternative to essential nutrients for Western consumers. An original formulation for the printing of snacks with microalgae was adapted to incorporate edible insects. Concentrations of 10% of edible insects, both isolated and mixed, were incorporated into the developed ink-doughs. Stress and frequency sweeps were performed on the doughs to understand the rheology and the impact on the internal structure to better adapt these materials to the 3D printing process. The nutritional profile of the developed snacks was assessed, revealing a significant amount of protein, enough to claim the snacks as a “source of protein”, as well as an increased mineral profile, when compared to the control snack. The antioxidant profile and total phenolic content were equally assessed. Finally, a sensory analysis test was performed, comparing the control snack to three other samples containing 10% T. molitor, 10% A. diaperinus and 5% + 5% of T. molitor and A. diaperinus, respectively, resulting in a preference for the A. diaperinus and for the combination of the two insects. Considered as a “novel food”, foods incorporating edible insects represent, in fact, the reintroduction of foods used in the West before the Middle Ages, when the Judeo-Christian tradition began to consider insects as not kosher. Educating consumers about the transition to novel foods can be helped by 3D printing food, as an innovative process that can be used to design creative rich animal protein snacks that make final products more appealing and acceptable to consumers. Full article
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13 pages, 1174 KiB  
Article
Clipping Effect on the Grain Nitrogen and Protein Fractions of Ancient and Old Wheats Grown in a Mediterranean Environment
by Marina Mefleh, Rosella Motzo, Fatma Boukid and Francesco Giunta
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2582; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132582 - 2 Jul 2023
Viewed by 995
Abstract
This study is the first to assess the effects of clipping, cultivar, season, and their interactions on the protein composition of six old and ancient wheat cultivars (n = 6). For this, nitrogen content, the proportion of wheat protein fractions, and the molecular [...] Read more.
This study is the first to assess the effects of clipping, cultivar, season, and their interactions on the protein composition of six old and ancient wheat cultivars (n = 6). For this, nitrogen content, the proportion of wheat protein fractions, and the molecular weight distribution of the extractable and unextractable glutenin polymers were investigated as a function of cultivar and clipping in two consecutive seasons. The relationships between genotypic variation in grain nitrogen and protein fraction content under clipping and non-clipping conditions were also assessed. Clipping delayed and shortened the grain filling period of all of the cultivars. The protein composition of some cultivars behaved differently to clipping due to differences in the environmental conditions of S1 (exceptional dry season) and S2 (rainy season). In S1, clipping decreased the ratio of gliadins over glutenins (GLI/GLU) (<1) of Cappelli and Giovanni Paolo, while in S2, clipping improved the GLI/GLU of Giovanni Paolo, Monlis, and Norberto. The unextractable polymeric proteins were not affected by clipping. Khorasan was shown to be indifferent to clipping in S1 and S2. These results suggest that it is possible to have ancient/old wheats suitable for a dual-purpose system, in different climatic conditions, while maintaining good grain quality traits. The increased market demand for ancient and old wheats presents an economic opportunity for farmers who adopt the dual-purpose technique to cultivate these resilient crops again and increase their profit margins and revenues. Full article
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Review

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35 pages, 7447 KiB  
Review
Wheat Flour Quality Assessment by Fundamental Non-Linear Rheological Methods: A Critical Review
by Gamze Yazar
Foods 2023, 12(18), 3353; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12183353 - 7 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2783
Abstract
Wheat quality assessment involves physical, physicochemical, chemical, and sensory characterization of wheat kernels and the resulting wheat flour, dough, and bread. The physical tests conducted on wheat flour dough are mostly based on empirical methods. Empirical methods have been useful in industry and [...] Read more.
Wheat quality assessment involves physical, physicochemical, chemical, and sensory characterization of wheat kernels and the resulting wheat flour, dough, and bread. The physical tests conducted on wheat flour dough are mostly based on empirical methods. Empirical methods have been useful in industry and research to relate wheat flour quality to baking performance. However, these methods have the disadvantage of providing data in arbitrary units, which makes the fundamental interpretation of results difficult. Therefore, this review focuses on the use of fundamental rheological methods to determine wheat flour quality in terms of processing performance. During the transition from wheat flour to bread, wheat flour dough is mostly exposed to large deformations, and the quality of wheat flour determines its response to these large deformations and its baking quality. For this reason, this review only focuses on the application of fundamental rheological tests that are conducted in the non-linear viscoelastic region where wheat flour dough experiences large deformations. Full article
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