Contaminants in Seafood: Prevention, Control, and Detection

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Quality and Safety".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2023) | Viewed by 8201

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
College of Food Science and Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China
Interests: food safety; microbiology; pathogenesis; host–pathogen interaction; biocontrol

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Billions of people in the world are at risk of unsafe food. Many millions become sick while hundreds of thousand die annually due to the consumption of contaminated food. Seafood provides more than 4.5 billion people with at least 15% of their average per capita intake of animal protein. Nevertheless, along with the fast growth of human fisheries and aquaculture, the intensive coastal aquaculture and excessive use of additives and antibiotics have become new challenges to food safety, particularly in developing nations. The resulting substantial changes in coastal ecosystems consequently increase the risk of seafood-borne infectious diseases. On the other hand, rapid global urbanization and industrialization may lead to the increasing pollution of the oceans, into which substantial amounts of waste are discharged, including hazardous heavy metals, organic pollutants, plastics, and radioactive compounds. Due to their long-term persistence and non-degradable nature, their accumulation in humans through the seafood chain continues to pose substantial threats to marine ecosystems and human health. Therefore, confronting these challenges requires rigorous scientific research. Advances in this field are expected to impact the food production/testing industry, governments, and food consumers.

Original and review papers dealing with all aspects of “Contaminants in Seafood: Prevention, Control, and Detection” are welcome for inclusion in this Special Issue of Foods, MDPI. Research reports will focus on the following areas: development and/or improvement of rapid methods for the detection and/or identification of seafood-borne pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and chemical contaminants; new approaches and/or strategies for controlling seafood-borne pathogens and spoilages, and non-biological contaminants; and recent discoveries in resurgence, pathogenesis, determining and/or characterizing of seafood-borne pathogens.

Prof. Dr. Lanming Chen
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • seafood-borne pathogens
  • seafood-borne spoilage microorganims
  • antibiotic residues
  • heavy metal residues
  • rapid detection techniques
  • eliminating and controlling of contaminants in seafood
  • resurgence and pathogenesis of seafood-borne pathogens

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 311 KiB  
Article
Microbiological and Toxicological Investigations on Bivalve Molluscs Farmed in Sicily
by Annamaria Castello, Vincenzina Alio, Gaetano Cammilleri, Sonia Sciortino, Andrea Macaluso, Vincenzo Ferrantelli, Sonia Dall’Ara, Fiorella Pino, Irene Servadei, Giuseppa Oliveri and Antonella Costa
Foods 2024, 13(4), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13040552 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1104
Abstract
Bivalves can concentrate biological and chemical pollutants, causing foodborne outbreaks whose occurrence is increasing, due to climatic and anthropic factors that are difficult to reverse, hence the need for improved surveillance. This study aimed to evaluate the hygienic qualities of bivalves sampled along [...] Read more.
Bivalves can concentrate biological and chemical pollutants, causing foodborne outbreaks whose occurrence is increasing, due to climatic and anthropic factors that are difficult to reverse, hence the need for improved surveillance. This study aimed to evaluate the hygienic qualities of bivalves sampled along the production and distribution chain in Sicily and collect useful data for consumer safety. Bacteriological and molecular analyses were performed on 254 samples of bivalves for the detection of enteropathogenic Vibrio, Arcobacter spp., Aeromonas spp., Salmonella spp., and beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli. A total of 96 out of 254 samples, collected in the production areas, were processed for algal biotoxins and heavy metals detection. Bacterial and algal contaminations were also assessed for 21 samples of water from aquaculture implants. Vibrio spp., Arcobacter spp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli were detected in 106/254, 79/254, 12/254, 16/254, and 95/254 molluscs, respectively. A total of 10/96 bivalves tested positive for algal biotoxins, and metals were under the legal limit. V. alginolyticus, A. butzleri, and E. coli were detected in 5, 3, and 3 water samples, respectively. Alexandrium minutum, Dinophysis acuminata, Lingulodinium polyedra, and Pseudonitzschia spp. were detected in water samples collected with the biotoxin-containing molluscs. Traces of yessotoxins were detected in molluscs from water samples containing the corresponding producing algae. Despite the strict regulation by the European Commission over shellfish supply chain monitoring, our analyses highlighted the need for efficiency improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contaminants in Seafood: Prevention, Control, and Detection)
14 pages, 2938 KiB  
Article
A Novel RAA Combined Test Strip Method Based on Dual Gene Targets for Pathogenic Vibrio vulnificus in Aquatic Products
by Wenyue Liu, Guangying Zhang, Di Xu, Jingqin Ye and Ying Lu
Foods 2023, 12(19), 3605; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12193605 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 814
Abstract
Vibrio vulnificus can cause disease in aquatic animals and humans, therefore, rapid and simple field detection of pathogenic V. vulnificus is important for early disease prevention. In this study, a novel recombinase-aided amplification (RAA) combined test strip with double T-lines (RAA-TS-DTL) was developed [...] Read more.
Vibrio vulnificus can cause disease in aquatic animals and humans, therefore, rapid and simple field detection of pathogenic V. vulnificus is important for early disease prevention. In this study, a novel recombinase-aided amplification (RAA) combined test strip with double T-lines (RAA-TS-DTL) was developed for the rapid detection of V. vulnificus in aquatic products. Pathogenic V. vulnificus was detected using the virulence vvhA gene and the housekeeping gene gyrB gene as the dual target of the test strip. The RAA-TS-DTL method showed 100% specificity for V. vulnificus, and no cross-reaction was observed with Vibrio spp. or other bacteria (n = 14). Furthermore, sensitive detection of V. vulnificus in oysters was achieved. The LODs of the gyrB and vvhA genes were 6 CFU/mL and 23 CFU/mL, respectively, which was about five times higher than that of the commercial test strip. The method was validated with spiked samples (n = 60) of fish, shrimp and oyster. The consistency between RAA-TS-DTL and the traditional culture method was 97.9%. In addition, the entire process of detection, including preparation of the sample, could be completed within 50 min. Our results indicated that the developed RAA-TS-DTL was a reliable and useful tool for rapid screening or on-site detection of pathogenic V. vulnificus in aquatic products and aquaculture water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contaminants in Seafood: Prevention, Control, and Detection)
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17 pages, 3112 KiB  
Article
Analytical Method Optimization of Tetrodotoxin and Its Contamination in Gastropods
by Jian-Long Han, Lei Zhang, Ping-Ping Zhou, Jiao-Jiao Xu, Xiao-Dong Pan, Pei Cao and Xiao-Min Xu
Foods 2023, 12(16), 3103; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12163103 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is an extremely potent marine biotoxin. An analytical method was developed for both trace contamination and extremely high levels of TTX in gastropods by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with clean-up of cation exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) in this study. [...] Read more.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is an extremely potent marine biotoxin. An analytical method was developed for both trace contamination and extremely high levels of TTX in gastropods by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with clean-up of cation exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) in this study. The limit of detection (LOD) in the sample matrix was 0.5 μg/kg. With the calibration of a screened internal standard (validamycin, IS), the linear range was 0.1–100 ng/mL (1.5–1500 μg/kg in sample matrix) with a correlation coefficient of r2 > 0.999. The average recoveries at three spiking levels (1.5 μg/kg, 44 μg/kg, and 1500 μg/kg) were 82.6–94.4% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 8.4%. TTX levels in seven gastropods (741 samples) were studied. The contamination and analogues in Neverita didyma (N. didyma, 565 samples collected in Zhejiang province, China, from 2016 to 2022) were first reported. The detection rate of TTX in N. didyma was 34.2%. The average concentration was 23.1 μg/kg, and the maximum value was 2327 μg/kg. The time distribution study indicated that high contaminations of TTX occurred from May to August for N. didyma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contaminants in Seafood: Prevention, Control, and Detection)
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15 pages, 2472 KiB  
Article
Detection of Clostridium botulinum in Some Egyptian Fish Products, Its Control In Vitro Using Citrus Leaves Extracts, and Applicability of Citrus limon Leaf Extract in Tuna
by Gamal Hamad, Elsayed E. Hafez, Sherien E. Sobhy, Taha Mehany, Reham A. Elfayoumy, Eman M. Elghazaly, Michael Eskander, Rasha G. Tawfik, Saleh M. Hussein and Leonel Pereira
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12071466 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2538
Abstract
This study aims to detect Clostridium botulinum and its control using natural leaf extracts of Citrus limon, Citrus sinensis, and Citrus unshiu in Egyptian fish products, e.g., canned tuna, canned sardine, canned mackerel, fesikh, moloha, and renga, as well the application [...] Read more.
This study aims to detect Clostridium botulinum and its control using natural leaf extracts of Citrus limon, Citrus sinensis, and Citrus unshiu in Egyptian fish products, e.g., canned tuna, canned sardine, canned mackerel, fesikh, moloha, and renga, as well the application of C. limon in tuna. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the C. limon leaf extract was also estimated. In the water extract, ascorbic acid, total flavonoid content (TFC), and total phenolic content (TPC) were determined by volumetric, aluminum chloride, and Folin–Ciocalteu approaches, respectively. The antioxidant ability of the extract was analyzed in vitro via free radical scavenging (DPPH) and Ferric reducing assays. The results showed variability in the distribution of the total number of positive C. botulinum in fish samples from three different governorates under study, which were (24) Alexandria, (16) Beheira, and (17) Gharbia, out of the 120 tested samples in each governorate. Additionally, the findings revealed that all three Citrus extracts contain an appropriate number of secondary metabolites, with a sustainable presence of saponin and tannins in the C. limon extract. Furthermore, all Citrus extracts inhibited bacterial growth by increasing the inhibition zone, with C. limon being the best extract (25 mm) compared to C. sinensis and C. unshiu. The overall results showed the high antioxidant and anti-Clostridium powers (p < 0.05) of C. limon leaf extract, indicating its preservative activity in fishery products during storage. Finally, C. limon leaf extract can fight off C. botulinum and is considered a promising natural preservation candidate in ensuring safe and fresh fishery products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contaminants in Seafood: Prevention, Control, and Detection)
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22 pages, 2788 KiB  
Article
Genomic and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveal Multiple Strategies for the Cadmium Tolerance in Vibrio parahaemolyticus N10-18 Isolated from Aquatic Animal Ostrea gigas Thunberg
by Pan Yu, Lianzhi Yang, Juanjuan Wang, Chenli Su, Si Qin, Chaoxi Zeng and Lanming Chen
Foods 2022, 11(23), 3777; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11233777 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1941
Abstract
The waterborne Vibrio parahaemolyticus can cause acute gastroenteritis, wound infection, and septicemia in humans. Pollution of heavy metals in aquatic environments is proposed to link high incidence of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen. Nevertheless, the genome evolution and heavy metal tolerance mechanism of V. [...] Read more.
The waterborne Vibrio parahaemolyticus can cause acute gastroenteritis, wound infection, and septicemia in humans. Pollution of heavy metals in aquatic environments is proposed to link high incidence of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogen. Nevertheless, the genome evolution and heavy metal tolerance mechanism of V. parahaemolyticus in aquatic animals remain to be largely unveiled. Here, we overcome the limitation by characterizing an MDR V. parahaemolyticus N10-18 isolate with high cadmium (Cd) tolerance using genomic and transcriptomic techniques. The draft genome sequence (4,910,080 bp) of V. parahaemolyticus N10-18 recovered from Ostrea gigas Thunberg was determined, and 722 of 4653 predicted genes had unknown function. Comparative genomic analysis revealed mobile genetic elements (n = 11) and heavy metal and antibiotic-resistance genes (n = 38 and 7). The bacterium significantly changed cell membrane structure to resist the Cd2+ (50 μg/mL) stress (p < 0.05). Comparative transcriptomic analysis revealed seven significantly altered metabolic pathways elicited by the stress. The zinc/Cd/mercury/lead transportation and efflux and the zinc ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transportation were greatly enhanced; metal and iron ABC transportation and thiamine metabolism were also up-regulated; conversely, propanoate metabolism and ribose and maltose ABC transportation were inhibited (p < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrate multiple strategies for the Cd tolerance in V. parahaemolyticus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contaminants in Seafood: Prevention, Control, and Detection)
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