Computational Fluid Dynamics

A special issue of Fluids (ISSN 2311-5521).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 August 2017) | Viewed by 57406

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Computational fluid dynamics, usually abbreviated as CFD, is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to perform the calculations required to simulate the interaction of liquids and gases with surfaces defined by boundary conditions. All computational methods are acceptable (finite difference, finite volume, finite elements), as well as commercial codes such as Fluent. The numerical method will be considered as the mean to treat an unsolved fluid mechanics problem. Although in recent years thousands of papers have been published in the field of Fluid Mechanics, there are simple and fundamentals problems that have not been treated until now. Artificial cases with extraordinary boundary conditions and cases, which are not related to reality, will not be accepted. Unsolved problems from all fields are welcomed. The results must be accurate and the review process will be very thorough.

Prof. Dr. Asterios Pantokratoras
Guest Editor

 

Keywords

  • steady and unsteady flows
  • laminar and turbulent flows
  • flows combined with heat transfer
  • boundary layer flows
  • Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids
  • porous media
  • magnetohydrodynamics
  • flows around bodies of any kind

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

6777 KiB  
Article
On the CFD Analysis of a Stratified Taylor-Couette System Dedicated to the Fabrication of Nanosensors
by Duccio Griffini, Massimiliano Insinna, Simone Salvadori, Andrea Barucci, Franco Cosi, Stefano Pelli and Giancarlo C. Righini
Fluids 2017, 2(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids2010008 - 18 Feb 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4633
Abstract
Since the pioneering work of Taylor, the analysis of flow regimes of incompressible, viscous fluids contained in circular Couette systems with independently rotating cylinders have charmed many researchers. The characteristics of such kind of flows have been considered for some industrial applications. Recently, [...] Read more.
Since the pioneering work of Taylor, the analysis of flow regimes of incompressible, viscous fluids contained in circular Couette systems with independently rotating cylinders have charmed many researchers. The characteristics of such kind of flows have been considered for some industrial applications. Recently, Taylor-Couette flows found an innovative application in the production of optical fiber nanotips, to be used in molecular biology and medical diagnostic fields. Starting from the activity of Barucci et al., the present work concerns the numerical analysis of a Taylor-Couette system composed by two coaxial counter-rotating cylinders with low aspect ratio and radius ratio, filled with three stratified fluids. An accurate analysis of the flow regimes is performed, considering both the variation of inner and outer rotational speed and the reduction of fiber radius due to etching process. The large variety of individuated flow configurations provides useful information about the possible use of the Taylor-Couette system in a wide range of engineering applications. For the present case, the final objective is to provide accurate information to manufacturers of fiber nanotips about the expected flow regimes, thus helping them in the setup of the control process that will be used to generate high-quality products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics)
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10755 KiB  
Article
RANS Simulations of Aerodynamic Performance of NACA 0015 Flapped Airfoil
by Sohaib Obeid, Ratneshwar Jha and Goodarz Ahmadi
Fluids 2017, 2(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids2010002 - 5 Jan 2017
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 17152
Abstract
An analysis of 2D subsonic flow over an NACA 0015 airfoil with a 30% trailing edge flap at a constant Reynolds number of 106 for various incidence angles and a range of flap deflections is presented. The steady-state governing equations of continuity [...] Read more.
An analysis of 2D subsonic flow over an NACA 0015 airfoil with a 30% trailing edge flap at a constant Reynolds number of 106 for various incidence angles and a range of flap deflections is presented. The steady-state governing equations of continuity and momentum conservation are solved combined with the realizable k-ε turbulence model using the ANSYS-Fluent code (Version 13.7, ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA). The primary objective of the study is to provide a comprehensive understanding of flow characteristics around the NACA 0015 airfoil as a function of the angle of attack and flap deflection at Re = 106 using the realizable k-ε turbulence model. The results are validated through comparison of the predictions with the free field experimental measurements. Consistent with the experimental observations, the numerical results show that increased flap deflections increase the maximum lift coefficient, move the zero-lift angle of attack (AoA) to a more negative value, decrease the stall AoA, while the slope of the lift curve remains unchanged and the curve just shifts upwards. In addition, the numerical simulations provide limits for lift increment Δ C l and Cl, max values to be 1.1 and 2.2, respectively, obtained at a flap deflection of 50°. This investigation demonstrates that the realizable k-ε turbulence model is capable of predicting flow features over an airfoil with and without flap deflections with reasonable accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics)
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8078 KiB  
Article
The Formation of Counter-Rotating Vortex Pair and the Nature of Liftoff-Reattachment in Film-Cooling Flow
by Hao Ming Li, Wahid Ghaly and Ibrahim Hassan
Fluids 2016, 1(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids1040039 - 2 Dec 2016
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5841
Abstract
Traditionally, the formation of the Counter-Rotating Vortex Pair (CRVP) has been attributed to three main sources: the jet-mainstream shear layer where the jet meets with the mainstream flow right outside the pipe, the in-tube boundary layer developing along the pipe wall, and the [...] Read more.
Traditionally, the formation of the Counter-Rotating Vortex Pair (CRVP) has been attributed to three main sources: the jet-mainstream shear layer where the jet meets with the mainstream flow right outside the pipe, the in-tube boundary layer developing along the pipe wall, and the in-tube vortices associated with the tube inlet vorticity; whereas the liftoff-reattachment phenomenon occurring in the main flow along the plate right downstream of the jet has been associated with the jet flow trajectory. The jet-mainstream shear layer has also been demonstrated to be the dominant source of CRVP formation, whereby the shear layer disintegrates into vortex rings that deform as the jet convects downstream, becoming a pair of CRVPs flowing within the jet and eventually turning into the main flow direction. These traditional findings are assessed qualitatively and quantitatively for film-cooling flow in gas turbines by simulating numerically the flow and evaluating the extent to which the traditional flow phenomena are taking place particularly for CRVP and for flow liftoff-reattachment. To this end, three flow simulation cases are used; they are referred to as 1—the baseline case; 2—the free-slip in-tube wall case (FSIT); and 3—the unsteady flow case. The baseline case is a typical film-cooling case. The FSIT case is used to assess the in-tube boundary layer. Cases 1 and 2 are simulated using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS), whereas Case 3 solves a Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) model. It is concluded that decreasing the strength of the CRVP, which is the case for e.g., shaped holes, provides high cooling performance, and the liftoff-reattachment phenomenon was thus found to be strongly influenced by the entrainment caused by the CRVP, rather than the jet flow trajectory. These interpretations of the flow physics that are more relevant to gas turbine cooling flow are new and provide a physics-based guideline for designing new film-cooling schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics)
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4139 KiB  
Article
Unconfined Unsteady Laminar Flow of a Power-Law Fluid across a Square Cylinder
by Asterios Pantokratoras
Fluids 2016, 1(4), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids1040037 - 18 Nov 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5694
Abstract
The flow of a non-Newtonian, power-law fluid, directed normally to a horizontal cylinder with square cross-section (two-dimensional flow) is considered in the present paper. The problem is investigated numerically with a very large calculation domain in order that the flow could be considered [...] Read more.
The flow of a non-Newtonian, power-law fluid, directed normally to a horizontal cylinder with square cross-section (two-dimensional flow) is considered in the present paper. The problem is investigated numerically with a very large calculation domain in order that the flow could be considered unconfined. The investigation covers the power-law index from 0.1 up to 2 and the Reynolds number ranges from 60 to 160. Over this range of Reynolds numbers the flow is unsteady. It is found that the drag coefficient and the Strouhal number are higher in a confined flow compared to those of an unconfined flow. In addition some flow characteristics are lost in a confined flow. Complete results for the drag coefficient and Strouhal number in the entire shear-thinning and shear-thickening region have been produced. In shear-thinning fluids chaotic structures exist which diminish at higher values of power-law index. This study represents the first investigation of unsteady, non-Newtonian power-law flow past a square cylinder in an unconfined field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics)
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16139 KiB  
Article
Baseline Model for Bubbly Flows: Simulation of Monodisperse Flow in Pipes of Different Diameters
by Sebastian Kriebitzsch and Roland Rzehak
Fluids 2016, 1(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids1030029 - 1 Sep 2016
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5550
Abstract
CFD simulations of the multiphase flow in technical equipment are feasible within the framework of interpenetrating continua, the so-called two-fluid modelling. Predictions with multiphase CFD are only possible if a fixed set of closures for the interfacial exchange terms is available that has [...] Read more.
CFD simulations of the multiphase flow in technical equipment are feasible within the framework of interpenetrating continua, the so-called two-fluid modelling. Predictions with multiphase CFD are only possible if a fixed set of closures for the interfacial exchange terms is available that has been validated for a wide range of flow conditions and can therefore reliably be used also for unknown flow problems. To this end, a baseline model, which is applicable for adiabatic bubbly flow, has been specified recently and has been implemented in OpenFOAM. In this work, we compare simulation results obtained using the baseline model with three different sets of experimental data for dispersed gas-liquid pipe flow. Air and water under similar flow conditions have been used in the different experiments, so that the main difference between the experiments is the variation of the pipe diameter from 25 mm to 200 mm. Gas fraction and liquid velocity are reasonably well reproduced, in particular in the bulk of the flow. Discrepancies can be seen in the turbulent kinetic energy, the gas velocity and in the wall peaks of the gas fraction. These can partly be explained by the simplified modelling, but to some extent must be attributed to uncertainty in the experimental data. The need for improved near-wall modelling, turbulence modelling and modelling of the bubble size distribution is highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics)
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1085 KiB  
Article
Nonlinear Convection in a Partitioned Porous Layer
by D. Andrew S. Rees
Fluids 2016, 1(3), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids1030024 - 23 Aug 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3813
Abstract
Convection in a partitioned porous layer is considered where the thin partition causes a mechanical isolation of the two identical sublayers from one another, but heat may neveretheless conduct freely. An unsteady solver that employs the multigrid method is employed to determine steady-state [...] Read more.
Convection in a partitioned porous layer is considered where the thin partition causes a mechanical isolation of the two identical sublayers from one another, but heat may neveretheless conduct freely. An unsteady solver that employs the multigrid method is employed to determine steady-state strongly nonlinear for values of the Darcy–Rayleigh number up to eight times its critical value. The predictions of linear stability theory are confirmed and the accuracy of the computations are carefully monitored and controlled. It is found that the wavenumber for which the maximum rate of heat transfer is attained at any chosen value of the Darcy–Rayleigh number, Ra increases quite strongly from roughly 2.33 at onset to 6.25 when Ra = 200 . It is also found that convection generally cannot take place with wavenumbers which are close to the left-hand branch of the neutral stability curve because nonlinear interactions favour modes selected from higher harmonics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics)
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3439 KiB  
Article
A Numerical Study on Curvilinear Free Surface Flows in Venturi Flumes
by Yebegaeshet T. Zerihun
Fluids 2016, 1(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids1030021 - 29 Jun 2016
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 8229
Abstract
Venturi flumes are one of the most important flow-measuring structures commonly investigated by physical model tests in the past. The solutions to the Venturi flume flow problems were generally found on the basis of empirical equations arising from such tests. Nonetheless, the overall [...] Read more.
Venturi flumes are one of the most important flow-measuring structures commonly investigated by physical model tests in the past. The solutions to the Venturi flume flow problems were generally found on the basis of empirical equations arising from such tests. Nonetheless, the overall accuracy and range of applicability of these equations rely on the scope of the tests. Additionally, the hydraulic characteristics of free flows in short-throated flumes cannot be modelled by the conventional hydrostatic pressure approaches. In this study, a one-dimensional model, which incorporates a higher-order dynamic pressure correction for the effects of the sidewalls and streamline vertical curvatures, is applied to simulate such flows and elucidate relevant flow features. The model equations are discretised and solved using the finite difference scheme. The computed results for free surface profiles, pressure distributions at different sections and discharge characteristics are compared to measured data. The computational results exhibit good agreement with measured data. Overall, it is shown that the developed model is capable of accurately simulating the curvilinear flows in short-throated flumes with rounded transition and bottom humps. The results also highlight the detailed dependence of the discharge characteristics of the critical-flow flumes under free flow conditions on the curvature of the streamlines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics)
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8593 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Slot-Burner Aerodynamics with Recessed-Type Nozzle Geometry
by Arafat Ahmed Bhuiyan, Md. Rezwanul Karim, James T. Hart, Peter J. Witt and Jamal Naser
Fluids 2016, 1(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids1020010 - 8 Apr 2016
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4387
Abstract
The aerodynamics of fully turbulent jets supplied from rectangular slot-burners was modelled using the Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) model. Three different turbulent models were considered, such as standard k-ε, RNG k-ε and Reynolds stress turbulence models. The recessed-type nozzle geometry was investigated to [...] Read more.
The aerodynamics of fully turbulent jets supplied from rectangular slot-burners was modelled using the Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) model. Three different turbulent models were considered, such as standard k-ε, RNG k-ε and Reynolds stress turbulence models. The recessed-type nozzle geometry was investigated to determine the effect of burner geometry on jet development. The slot-burner was based on physical models, which were designed to be representative of typical burner geometries found in tangentially-fired coal boilers. The study was validated against the physical models. The detailed flow field obtained from the simulations was used to explain the aerodynamic development of jets in such burners. It was found that the addition of a recess section to the nozzle geometry introduced significant changes to the flow due to complex pressure and mixing fields being set up inside the recess, which altered the jets once they exited into the open atmosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Fluid Dynamics)
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