Fire Prevention and Control in Urban Infrastructure and Underground Space

A special issue of Fire (ISSN 2571-6255). This special issue belongs to the section "Fire Risk Assessment and Safety Management in Buildings and Urban Spaces".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 24158

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Safety Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China
Interests: urban fire protection theory, including fire spread and disaster behavior; intelligent fire protection; new urban fire protection theory and technology; urban emergency rescue technology, including hardware and software system development of emergency rescue equipment; emergency rescue auxiliary decision systems
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Shenzhen Urban Public Safety and Technology Institute, Shenzhen 518000, China
Interests: urban public safety; big data application; safety risk monitoring and early warning; emergency intelligent decision and simulation; intelligent fire fighting
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Safety Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China
Interests: fire mechanism; fire engineering; building fire protection theory and engineering applications; fire protection and emergency rescue in urban underground space such as subways or tunnels; emergency rescue technology and equipment; UAV fire rescue technology and intelligent fire fighting
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Safety Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China
Interests: fire mechanism; fire engineering; building fire protection theory and engineering application; fire protection and emergency rescue in urban underground space such as subway and tunnel, emergency rescue technology and equipment, UAV fire rescue technology and intelligent fire fighting, etc

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the continuous increase of population, it has brought certain pressure to urban development, and the above-ground space has become saturated. It is necessary to give full play to the underground space to solve the current resource and environmental problems, and create comfortable living conditions for people. The comprehensive development and utilization of large-scale and diversified urban underground space is a major measure to solve the three major problems of urban population, environment and resources, and it is the main trend of underground space development and utilization. In the large-scale development and utilization of underground space, fire safety is the most striking issue. Due to the particularity of underground space, its potential risk factors are far greater than those of ground buildings, especially underground public gathering places. Evacuation and rescue are far more difficult than the ground, and the damage will be much higher than the ground. Most underground spaces are very small, and once a fire occurs, serious consequences will be caused, which will not only cause damage to the structure of the underground space, but even threaten the life safety of the people inside. People have a narrow vision underground and a poor sense of orientation. Accidents can easily lead to panic. Underground space mainly includes civil defense engineering, commercial space, subway, etc. There are certain differences in various space forms, which cause troubles to fire prevention and control work. Traditional fire prevention measures show certain limitations, and cannot meet the fire protection requirements of modern underground spaces, and it is difficult to meet fire safety standards. Therefore, in-depth analysis of the characteristics and causes of fires in underground spaces, comprehensive optimization and improvement of relevant fire prevention measures combined with the basic characteristics of underground spaces, research on fire prevention countermeasures, and prevention of fire occurrences are a major subject to strengthen fire prevention in underground spaces.

Dr. Guowei Zhang
Prof. Dr. Diping Yuan
Prof. Dr. Guoqing Zhu
Dr. Hongyong Liu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • fire mechanism
  • fire risk assessment
  • monitoring and early warning
  • emergency rescue
  • fire fighting
  • smart fire fighting
  • Internet of Things
  • big data application

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 4931 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation on Fire Smoke Temperature under Forced Ventilation Conditions in a Bifurcated Tunnel with Fires Situated in a Branch Tunnel
by Hanwen Guo, Zhengyuan Yang, Peiyao Zhang, Yunji Gao and Yuchun Zhang
Fire 2023, 6(12), 473; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6120473 - 17 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1309
Abstract
In this work, a number of experiments were conducted in a reduced scale bifurcation tunnel with a ratio of 1:10 to explore the influence of the position of longitudinal fires (placed in branch tunnel) on smoke temperature profile under forced ventilation. Three heat [...] Read more.
In this work, a number of experiments were conducted in a reduced scale bifurcation tunnel with a ratio of 1:10 to explore the influence of the position of longitudinal fires (placed in branch tunnel) on smoke temperature profile under forced ventilation. Three heat release rates, six ventilation velocities, and three fire locations were considered. The main findings are summarized below, as follows: The temperature of smoke downstream of the main tunnel decreases with the rate of ventilation and longitudinal fire location. In contrast, the smoke temperature downstream of the fire source inside the branch tunnel drops with the ventilation velocity; the maximum temperature of the flame under the ceiling of the tunnel rises with longitudinal fire location. The dimensionless longitudinal smoke temperatures downstream of the main tunnel decrease exponentially with longitudinal distance, and the same observation is found in the branch tunnel. The attenuation coefficient k in the main tunnel increases with longitudinal ventilation velocity according to a power law but does not change significantly with longitudinal fire locations. However, the exponential coefficient k′ in the branch tunnel decreases linearly with ventilation velocity, whereas it increases with longitudinal fire location inside the branch tunnel. Lastly, modified models are established for estimating the longitudinal profile of temperatures downstream of the main tunnel and branch tunnel, where the influence of the rate of ventilation and location of the fire are taken into account. Full article
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17 pages, 1441 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Tunnel Users’ Literacy on Expressway Tunnel Fire Safety: Questionnaire Analysis and Policy Decisions
by Ying Li, Dingli Liu, Hong Jiang, Shanbin Chen, Weijun Liu, Sicheng Zhu, Jingya Wang and Tian Zhou
Fire 2023, 6(12), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6120458 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1205
Abstract
The number of tunnel fire accidents has increased with the scale of expressway tunnel construction and traffic flow. Due to the severity of tunnel fires, improving tunnel fire safety and reducing fire accident hazards has become a societal concern. It is essential to [...] Read more.
The number of tunnel fire accidents has increased with the scale of expressway tunnel construction and traffic flow. Due to the severity of tunnel fires, improving tunnel fire safety and reducing fire accident hazards has become a societal concern. It is essential to explore and evaluate tunnel fire safety literacy among the population. In this study, an online and on-site questionnaire survey was conducted in Hunan Province, China. A total of 1990 questionnaires were collected, of which 1573 were valid. Overall statistical analysis, descriptive statistics, and correlation analysis were performed on valid questionnaires. The results show that the overall level score rate of awareness of drivers and passengers regarding tunnel fire safety was only 0.43. In total, 58.42% of people were unaware of the pedestrian cross passages in expressway tunnels, and 68.40% were unable to recognize them. Similarly, 46.47% of people were unable to recognize evacuation signs in expressway tunnels. In addition, 39.29% of people chose the wrong evacuation behavior. The percentage of people who were aware of the correct usage of firefighting facilities in expressway tunnels was below 50.00%. Correlation analysis results show that tunnel users’ demographic characteristics significantly affected their cognition of expressway tunnel escape methods. This study shows that tunnel users’ emergency escape knowledge regarding tunnels is relatively low. Corresponding countermeasures were proposed to guide policy decisions for enhancing tunnel fire safety. Full article
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16 pages, 4295 KiB  
Article
Study on the Influence of Ventilation Speed on Smoke and Temperature Characteristics of Complex Underground Spaces
by Jianchun Ou, Xinyu Wang, Yuyang Ming and Xixi Sun
Fire 2023, 6(11), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6110436 - 13 Nov 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1456
Abstract
This study explores the intricate behaviors of smoke flow, temperature distribution, carbon monoxide (CO) levels, and visibility dynamics within complex underground spaces during fire incidents. A key revelation is the profound impact of ventilation speed, with the identification of a critical range between [...] Read more.
This study explores the intricate behaviors of smoke flow, temperature distribution, carbon monoxide (CO) levels, and visibility dynamics within complex underground spaces during fire incidents. A key revelation is the profound impact of ventilation speed, with the identification of a critical range between 2 and 3 m/s that consistently proves to be instrumental in curbing smoke-related hazards and ensuring the safe evacuation of personnel. Furthermore, this paper underscores the influence of accelerated longitudinal winds on temperature profiles, particularly under high HRR conditions, underscoring the importance of accounting for wind effects in comprehensive fire response strategies. Regarding CO concentration, which is a critical safety concern, this study demonstrates that higher ventilation speeds effectively reduce hazardous gas levels, thereby fortifying overall safety measures. The visibility is analyzed, with the findings indicating that elevated ventilation speeds enhance visibility, albeit with considerations about potential drawbacks on personnel evacuation due to excessive wind speed. In conclusion, this paper offers a comprehensive understanding of the pivotal role played by ventilation speed in underground space safety by encompassing smoke control and temperature management. Full article
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12 pages, 5341 KiB  
Article
Research on the Fire Extinguishing Efficiency of Low-Pressure Water Mist in Urban Underground Utility Tunnel Cable Fires
by Boyan Jia, Yanwei Xia, Zhaoyu Ning, Bin Li, Guowei Zhang and Zhiwei Zhang
Fire 2023, 6(11), 433; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6110433 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1502
Abstract
Low-pressure water mist fire extinguishing systems are a cost-effective and highly reliable option for fire protection. However, they have not yet seen widespread use in urban underground utility tunnels. To validate the fire extinguishing effectiveness of the system in cable fires within urban [...] Read more.
Low-pressure water mist fire extinguishing systems are a cost-effective and highly reliable option for fire protection. However, they have not yet seen widespread use in urban underground utility tunnels. To validate the fire extinguishing effectiveness of the system in cable fires within urban utility tunnels and to identify the key factors influencing its efficiency, a scaled-down test platform for low-pressure water mist fire extinguishing in utility tunnels was constructed, and a series of fire extinguishing tests was conducted. The test results demonstrate that low-pressure water mist can rapidly and effectively extinguish cable fires in utility tunnels, with the quickest fire extinguishing time of 7 s. Within 50 s of activating the system, the internal temperature of the tunnel can be reduced from 650 °C to 40 °C. Among the influencing factors, the pressure and nozzle flow coefficient have a significant impact on the fire extinguishing efficiency, while nozzle spacing has a relatively smaller effect. Thus, when the nozzle spacing meets the requirement of “no dead zones”, priority should be given to increasing the pressure and nozzle flow coefficient. Full article
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19 pages, 6669 KiB  
Article
Study on the Temperature and Smoke Movement in the Event of a Fire in a Semiclosed Tunnel under Water Spray
by Bolun Li, Wei Zhang, Yucheng Li, Zhitao Zhang, Jinyang Dong and Yunan Cui
Fire 2023, 6(8), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6080324 - 20 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1066
Abstract
Semiclosed tunnels are very common in engineering construction. They are not connected, so they easily accumulate heat. Once a fire breaks out in a semiclosed tunnel, the route for rescue workers to enter is limited, so it is tough to get close to [...] Read more.
Semiclosed tunnels are very common in engineering construction. They are not connected, so they easily accumulate heat. Once a fire breaks out in a semiclosed tunnel, the route for rescue workers to enter is limited, so it is tough to get close to the fire source. In this paper, taking a mine excavation roadway with local pressure ventilation as an example, the temperature field distribution and water spray fire prevention characteristics of the excavation roadway face were studied using numerical simulation and theoretical analysis. This paper provides an explanation of a dynamics-based smoke management method for water spraying in a semiclosed tunnel as well as the equilibrium relationship between droplet drag force and smoke buoyancy. A method was first developed to calculate the quantity of smoke blockage based on the thickness of the smoke congestion. The local ventilation and smoke movement created a circulating flow in the excavation face, which was discovered by investigating the velocity and temperature fields of the excavation face. The size of the high-temperature area and the pattern of temperature stratification varied due to this circulating flow. When local ventilation and sprinkler systems were operating simultaneously, when the volume of smoke was small, the smoke avoided the majority of the water spray effect with the circulation flow; however, when the volume of smoke was large, the effect of the circulation flow decreased and the smoke gathered close to the sprinkler head. At this time, the blocking effect of the water spray was significant. The mean square error analysis revealed that activating the sprinkler had the most significant cooling impact on the wall on one side of the air duct. Full article
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29 pages, 13001 KiB  
Article
The Contamination of the Lower Layer in Sloped Tunnel Fires
by Elio Ortega, João C. Viegas and Pedro J. Coelho
Fire 2023, 6(6), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6060245 - 20 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1068
Abstract
Fires in tunnels are a major concern due to the casualties they may cause. Therefore, forced ventilation is mandatory in long tunnels, despite the significant associated costs. In shorter tunnels, however, natural ventilation may be sufficient to comply with safety regulations. Accordingly, the [...] Read more.
Fires in tunnels are a major concern due to the casualties they may cause. Therefore, forced ventilation is mandatory in long tunnels, despite the significant associated costs. In shorter tunnels, however, natural ventilation may be sufficient to comply with safety regulations. Accordingly, the analysis of natural fire smoke flow is relevant for tunnels shorter than 1000 m. This paper presents a computational investigation of the influence of the tunnel slope on the contamination of the cold lower layer with smoke and discusses how it impairs the user’s egress. Large-eddy simulations of the smoke propagation show three different regimes, namely, a quasi-horizontal tunnel behavior for a slope of 0.5%, a transitional behavior for slopes in the range of 1% to 5% and a quasi-forced ventilation behavior for a slope of 7%. The computational results are compared with the application of 1D equations to predict the upper layer temperature, the average mass flow rate, the upper layer mass flow rate, the upper layer velocity and the lower layer velocity. The distance from the fire to the location where the lower layer contamination with smoke starts is accurately predicted by the one-dimensional model for slopes of 2% and 3.5%. However, in the case of lower or higher slopes, the one-dimensional model performs poorly and needs further improvement. Full article
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16 pages, 12781 KiB  
Article
Acoustic Based Fire Event Detection System in Underground Utility Tunnels
by Byung-Jin Lee, Mi-Suk Lee and Woo-Sug Jung
Fire 2023, 6(5), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6050211 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Underground utility tunnels (UUTs) are convenient for the integrated management of various infrastructure facilities. They ensure effective control of underground facilities and reduce occupied space. However, aging UUTs require effective management and preventive measures for fire safety. The fundamental problems in operating UUTs [...] Read more.
Underground utility tunnels (UUTs) are convenient for the integrated management of various infrastructure facilities. They ensure effective control of underground facilities and reduce occupied space. However, aging UUTs require effective management and preventive measures for fire safety. The fundamental problems in operating UUTs are the frequent occurrence of mold, corrosion, and damage caused to finishing materials owing to inadequate waterproofing, dehumidification, and ventilation facilities, which result in corrosion-related electrical leakage in wiring and cables. To prevent this, an abnormal sound detection technology is developed in this study based on acoustic sensing. An acoustic sensor is used to detect electric sparks in the moldy environments of UUTs using a system to collect and analyze the sound generated in the UUTs. We targeted the sound that had the highest impact on detecting electric sparks and performed U-Net-based noise reduction and two-dimensional convolutional neural network-based abnormal sound detection. A mock experiment was conducted to verify the performance of the proposed model. The results indicated that local and spatial features could capture the internal characteristics of both abnormal and normal sounds. The superior performance of the proposed model verified that the local and spatial features of electric sparks are crucial for detecting abnormal sounds. Full article
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17 pages, 3884 KiB  
Article
A Fire Evacuation and Control System in Smart Buildings Based on the Internet of Things and a Hybrid Intelligent Algorithm
by Ali Mohammadiounotikandi, Hassan Falah Fakhruldeen, Maytham N. Meqdad, Banar Fareed Ibrahim, Nima Jafari Navimipour and Mehmet Unal
Fire 2023, 6(4), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6040171 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2853
Abstract
Concerns about fire risk reduction and rescue tactics have been raised in light of recent incidents involving flammable cladding systems and fast fire spread in high-rise buildings worldwide. Thus, governments, engineers, and building designers should prioritize fire safety. During a fire event, an [...] Read more.
Concerns about fire risk reduction and rescue tactics have been raised in light of recent incidents involving flammable cladding systems and fast fire spread in high-rise buildings worldwide. Thus, governments, engineers, and building designers should prioritize fire safety. During a fire event, an emergency evacuation system is indispensable in large buildings, which guides evacuees to exit gates as fast as possible by dynamic and safe routes. Evacuation plans should evaluate whether paths inside the structures are appropriate for evacuations, considering the building’s electric power, electric controls, energy usage, and fire/smoke protection. On the other hand, the Internet of Things (IoT) is emerging as a catalyst for creating and optimizing the supply and consumption of intelligent services to achieve an efficient system. Smart buildings use IoT sensors for monitoring indoor environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, luminosity, and air quality. This research proposes a new way for a smart building fire evacuation and control system based on the IoT to direct individuals along an evacuation route during fire incidents efficiently. This research utilizes a hybrid nature-inspired optimization approach, Emperor Penguin Colony, and Particle Swarm Optimization (EPC-PSO). The EPC algorithm is regulated by the penguins’ body heat radiation and spiral-like movement inside their colony. The behavior of emperor penguins improves the PSO algorithm for sooner convergences. The method also uses a particle idea of PSO to update the penguins’ positions. Experimental results showed that the proposed method was executed accurately and effectively by cost, energy consumption, and execution time-related challenges to ensure minimum life and resource causalities. The method has decreased the execution time and cost by 10.41% and 25% compared to other algorithms. Moreover, to achieve a sustainable system, the proposed method has decreased energy consumption by 11.90% compared to other algorithms. Full article
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18 pages, 25240 KiB  
Article
Fire Protection and Evacuation Analysis in Underground Interchange Tunnels by Integrating BIM and Numerical Simulation
by Zhen Liu, Xingyu Gu and Rui Hong
Fire 2023, 6(4), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6040139 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
Rescue and evacuation of underground interchange tunnels after a fire are challenging. Therefore, a method of integrating building information modeling (BIM) and a fire dynamic simulator (FDS) was proposed to analyze fire characteristics and personnel escapes in underground interchange tunnels. A BIM model [...] Read more.
Rescue and evacuation of underground interchange tunnels after a fire are challenging. Therefore, a method of integrating building information modeling (BIM) and a fire dynamic simulator (FDS) was proposed to analyze fire characteristics and personnel escapes in underground interchange tunnels. A BIM model of underground interchange tunnels was built, and then different formats (DXF and CAD) were generated and imported into Pyrosim software and Pathfinder software. With an increase in ventilation velocity, the CO concentration and temperature downstream of the fire source increased, and visibility decreased, according to simulation results. The critical ventilation velocity was 3.6 m/s at 30 MW. Evacuation simulation results suggested that the congestion of the transverse passage was very unfavorable for personnel escape: the escape time increased by 14.9% and 20% when the interior and entrance of the transverse passage were severely congested, while a 2.5 m wide transverse passage effectively reduced the escape time. Visibility was the first indicator that it did not meet the safety of the escape. After the tunnel’s personnel have been evacuated, the air supply or exhaust system should be started, and smoke should be expelled at a higher velocity. It is necessary to clear the passageway quickly or increase the automatic firefighting facilities when congestion is severe. Full article
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16 pages, 5443 KiB  
Article
Integrating Space Syntax and Location-Allocation Model for Fire Station Location Planning in a China Mega City
by Fengshi Tian, Junjun Lei, Xin Zheng and Yanfu Yin
Fire 2023, 6(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020064 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1468
Abstract
The appropriate planning of infrastructure protects people’s lives and property. Fire stations are an essential part of a city’s infrastructure and they must be precisely located to shorten emergency response times and reduce casualties. Recently, the focus of the city emergency service has [...] Read more.
The appropriate planning of infrastructure protects people’s lives and property. Fire stations are an essential part of a city’s infrastructure and they must be precisely located to shorten emergency response times and reduce casualties. Recently, the focus of the city emergency service has shifted from fire suppression to technical rescues. We compared the spatial distribution of fire suppression and technical rescues at a city scale to show the variation in their influences. An integrated road-network accessibility and location-allocation model (RNALA) for the location planning of a fire station was proposed. Specific sites for fire stations were identified using the L-A model. Then, the spatial design network analysis was performed to quantify areas around the selected site with high road network accessibility. The RNALA model was used to extend the selection from a point to a region by introducing road network accessibility to accomplish coverage and efficiency requirements. A quantitative and universal approach that focuses on fire station location planning based on emergency services is proposed. This methodology provides a practical solution for implementation, as a specific identified location might not be available for implementation. These results can serve as a reference for identifying fire station locations in cities. Full article
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17 pages, 10296 KiB  
Article
Study on Temperature Attenuation in Diagonal Ventilation Network during Fire
by Junqiao Li, Wei Zhang and Yucheng Li
Fire 2022, 5(6), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire5060217 - 18 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1367
Abstract
The interaction between ventilation and fire development in diagonal pipe networks makes the study of temperature characteristics extremely complex. The thermodynamic effect caused by high temperature will change the original ventilation state, cause smoke flow retrogression and airflow reversal, and expand the disaster [...] Read more.
The interaction between ventilation and fire development in diagonal pipe networks makes the study of temperature characteristics extremely complex. The thermodynamic effect caused by high temperature will change the original ventilation state, cause smoke flow retrogression and airflow reversal, and expand the disaster range. Therefore, exploring the temperature attenuation characteristics in diagonal pipe networks is necessary. In this article, the temperature distribution and attenuation in a diagonal pipe network are studied using the numerical simulation method based on the theoretical model of temperature attenuation in a single roadway. In the diagonal branch, the St number in the temperature attenuation model is optimized. The temperature attenuation of the left and right paths can be divided into two stages. The optimal St number of the temperature attenuation model under different wind speeds in the left way is determined. The fitting relationship of wind speed, distance, and temperature in the first stage of the right way is established, and the fire source distance in the second stage of the right way has the most significant influence on the temperature attenuation by using the method of multivariate statistics. The temperature of the smoke backflow front in the left and right paths decreases gradually with the increase in the fire source, and the temperature of the smoke backflow front in the left way is higher than that in the right way. Full article
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12 pages, 2341 KiB  
Article
A CNN Based Anomaly Detection Network for Utility Tunnel Fire Protection
by Haitao Bian, Zhichao Zhu, Xiaowei Zang, Xiaohan Luo and Min Jiang
Fire 2022, 5(6), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire5060212 - 09 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2322
Abstract
Fire accident is one of the significant threats to the urban utility tunnel (UUT) during operation, and the emergency response is challenging due to the compact tunnel structure and potential hazard sources involved. Traditional fire detection techniques are reviewed in this study, and [...] Read more.
Fire accident is one of the significant threats to the urban utility tunnel (UUT) during operation, and the emergency response is challenging due to the compact tunnel structure and potential hazard sources involved. Traditional fire detection techniques are reviewed in this study, and it has been determined that their performance cannot satisfy the requirements for early fire incident detection. Integrating advanced sensing technologies and data-driven anomaly detection has recently been regarded as a feasible solution for intelligent safety system implementation. This article proposed an approach that utilized a fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) system and deep anomaly detection models to monitor the fire exotherm during the early stages of accidents. The variable fire exotherm is simulated with an embedded-system controlled electrical heating platform. Moreover, autoencoder (AE) based and convolutional neural network (CNN) based methods have been designed for anomaly detection. The temperature data collected from the FO-DTS in the experiment was employed as the training set for the data-driven models. Furthermore, the anomaly detection models were tested, and the results showed that the proposed CNN model can achieve a higher accuracy rate in detecting the simulated fire exotherm. Full article
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18 pages, 9002 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigations on the Influencing Factors of Rapid Fire Spread of Flammable Cladding in a High-Rise Building
by Md Kamrul Hassan, Md Delwar Hossain, Michael Gilvonio, Payam Rahnamayiezekavat, Grahame Douglas, Sameera Pathirana and Swapan Saha
Fire 2022, 5(5), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire5050149 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2541
Abstract
This paper investigates aluminium composite panels (ACPs) to understand the fire behaviour of combustible cladding systems under different fire scenarios. A fire dynamics simulator (FDS) is used to develop the numerical model of full-scale fire tests of combustible cladding systems using the procedures [...] Read more.
This paper investigates aluminium composite panels (ACPs) to understand the fire behaviour of combustible cladding systems under different fire scenarios. A fire dynamics simulator (FDS) is used to develop the numerical model of full-scale fire tests of combustible cladding systems using the procedures of the British BS 8414.1 standards. The results obtained from the FDS models are verified with test data. Seven test scenarios are investigated with four distinct parameters, i.e., cavity barrier, air-cavity gap, panel mounting (with and without joining gaps between the panels), and material combustibility qualities. A critical air-cavity gap (50–100 mm) is established at which maximum fire spread is noticed. Furthermore, variations in the cavity barrier, panel mounting, and material combustibility significantly impact the rapid fire spread of ACP cladding systems and the internal failure criterion. The results from the present study can serve as a basis for future research on the full-scale fire-test development of combustible ACPs. Full article
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15 pages, 3840 KiB  
Essay
An Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Flow and Pipe Diameter on the Fire Extinguishing Efficiency of Nitrogen Injection in a Narrow Confined Underground Space
by Guowei Zhang, Dong Guo, Bin Li, Zhiwei Zhang and Diping Yuan
Fire 2022, 5(6), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire5060202 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1388
Abstract
In this study, an underground pipe gallery was taken as the research subject to explore the influence of nitrogen injection flow rate and pipe diameter on the fire extinguishing efficiency in an underground narrow confined space. A liquid nitrogen fire extinguishing test system [...] Read more.
In this study, an underground pipe gallery was taken as the research subject to explore the influence of nitrogen injection flow rate and pipe diameter on the fire extinguishing efficiency in an underground narrow confined space. A liquid nitrogen fire extinguishing test system for the underground narrow confined space was built. The fire extinguishing time, flame height, temperature, and oxygen concentration under different conditions were recorded by liquid nitrogen fire extinguishing tests, and the variations in the characteristics of these data were analyzed. Furthermore, the fire suppression factor, cooling factor, and asphyxiation factor were introduced to quantify the influence of the nitrogen flow rate and pipe diameter on extinguishing efficiency. According to the results, the fire was effectively extinguished by liquid nitrogen in the underground confined space through asphyxiation as the main fire extinguishing mechanism, and the extinguishing time was about 95.5% less than that in the self-extinguishing test. Although the fire suppression efficiency is positively related to the nitrogen injection flow, the asphyxiation efficiency can be reduced when the flow rate is excessive or too weak. Additionally, the asphyxiation factor and fire suppression factor are highly sensitive to the injection pipe diameter. Therefore, a valuable reference is provided in this study for promoting the future engineering application of liquid nitrogen fire extinguishment. Full article
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