Carbon Based Composites for Advanced Sustainable Technologies

A special issue of Fibers (ISSN 2079-6439).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 19006

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, University of Messina, Contrada di Dio, Sant’Agata, 98166 Messina, Italy
Interests: carbon-based nanomaterials; energy storage; oil recovery; materials synthesis and technologies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Energy and environmental problems have attracted global interest, driving researchers to develop new and sustainable materials. Novel carbon-based materials with different morphologies and properties have been developed and studied in a wide range of applications related to water treatment, energy storage, industrial catalysts, and the biomedical sector.

For this Special Issue of Fibers on "Carbon Based Composites for Advanced Sustainable Technologies", we invite authors to submit relevant original research papers and reviews. Our goal is to collect contributions on the performance assessment of carbon-based materials that may aid in the improvement of advanced sustainable technologies.

Particular emphasis will be given to research developments in order to extend applications and the market of this class of materials.

I hope that this Special Issue will provide a thorough overview of the current research on carbon-based composites and their sustainable application fields to the scientific community.

Dr. Elpida Piperopoulos
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fibers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • carbon-based nanomaterials
  • waste carbon materials
  • carbon nanotubes
  • carbon fibers
  • graphite and graphene composites
  • sustainable technologies
  • environmental sustainability

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 9615 KiB  
Article
Development of Activated Carbon Textiles Produced from Jute and Cotton Wastes for Electromagnetic Shielding Applications
by Sema Sert, Deniz Duran Kaya and Ayşegül Körlü
Fibers 2023, 11(12), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib11120110 - 13 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1684
Abstract
Increasing amounts of waste resulting from over-consumption carry substantial risks for human and environmental health, and disposing of this waste requires enormous amounts of energy. As a result, waste-to-wealth and circular economy approaches have gained attention in both academia and the commercial sector [...] Read more.
Increasing amounts of waste resulting from over-consumption carry substantial risks for human and environmental health, and disposing of this waste requires enormous amounts of energy. As a result, waste-to-wealth and circular economy approaches have gained attention in both academia and the commercial sector in recent years. Accordingly, this study aims to develop electromagnetic shielding materials by converting non-conductive waste textiles into conductive value-added product and porous fabrics by carbonizing the structure itself rather than by adding any conductive particles. To this end, the novel contribution of the present study is that waste textiles were converted into activated carbon in a shorter time and without compromising the integrity of the fibrous network via microwave pyrolysis without inert gas. Sulfuric acid was used as a dehydration and activation agent, suppressing the release of volatile organic substances and eliminating greenhouse gas emissions. This approach also increased product yield and reduced energy consumption and sample shrinkage. The structures of the activated carbon textile showed EMI shielding within 20–30 dB (99.9% attenuation) in the 1–6 GHz frequency range. The maximum SSE/t value of 950.71 dB·cm2·g−1 was obtained with the microwave post-treated activated carbon textile. Micropores were dominant characteristics of these materials, and pore diameters increased with increased acid concentration. The maximum surface area of 383.92 m2/g was obtained with 8% acid. Ultrasound treatment reduced water-energy consumption and cost. Only 5 min of microwave post-treatment increased textile conductivity and thermal stability and contributed positively to electromagnetic shielding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Based Composites for Advanced Sustainable Technologies)
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16 pages, 2658 KiB  
Article
Wettability and Anti-Corrosion Performances of Carbon Nanotube-Silane Composite Coatings
by Luigi Calabrese, Amani Khaskoussi and Edoardo Proverbio
Fibers 2020, 8(9), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8090057 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3197
Abstract
In this paper, a sol-gel N-propyl-trimethoxy-silane coating filled with different amount of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was investigated in order to improve the aluminum corrosion resistance. The nanocomposite coating was applied, by drop casting, on AA6061 aluminum alloy substrate. The morphological analysis highlighted [...] Read more.
In this paper, a sol-gel N-propyl-trimethoxy-silane coating filled with different amount of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was investigated in order to improve the aluminum corrosion resistance. The nanocomposite coating was applied, by drop casting, on AA6061 aluminum alloy substrate. The morphological analysis highlighted that a uniform sol-gel coating was obtained with 0.4 wt.% CNT. Lower or higher nanotube contents lead to the formation of heterogeneities or agglomeration in the coating, respectively. Furthermore, all nanocomposite coatings exhibited effective adhesion to the substrate. In particular, the pull-off strength ranged in 0.82–1.17 MPa. Corrosion protection of the aluminum alloy in NaCl 3.5 wt.% electrolyte (seawater) was significantly improved after CNT addition to the base coating. The stability in electrochemical impedance was observed during three days of immersion in the sodium chloride solution. AS3-CNT2 and AS3-CNT4 batches showed advanced electrochemical stability during immersion tests. Furthermore, interesting results were evidenced in potentiodynamic polarization curves where a decrease of the corrosion current of at least two order of magnitude was observed. Moreover, the breakdown potential was shifted toward noble values. Best results were observed on AS3-CNT6 specimen which exhibited a passivation current density of approximately 1.0 × 10−5 mA/cm2 and a breaking potential of 0.620 V/AgAgClsat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Based Composites for Advanced Sustainable Technologies)
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10 pages, 5633 KiB  
Article
Stabilization and Incipient Carbonization of Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers Fixated on Aluminum Substrates
by Jan Lukas Storck, Timo Grothe, Khorolsuren Tuvshinbayar, Elise Diestelhorst, Daria Wehlage, Bennet Brockhagen, Martin Wortmann, Natalie Frese and Andrea Ehrmann
Fibers 2020, 8(9), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8090055 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3324
Abstract
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers, prepared by electrospinning, are often used as a precursor for carbon nanofibers. The thermal carbonization process necessitates a preceding oxidative stabilization, which is usually performed thermally, i.e., by carefully heating the electrospun nanofibers in an oven. One of the typical [...] Read more.
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers, prepared by electrospinning, are often used as a precursor for carbon nanofibers. The thermal carbonization process necessitates a preceding oxidative stabilization, which is usually performed thermally, i.e., by carefully heating the electrospun nanofibers in an oven. One of the typical problems occurring during this process is a strong deformation of the fiber morphologies—the fibers become thicker and shorter, and show partly undesired conglutinations. This problem can be solved by stretching the nanofiber mat during thermal treatment, which, on the other hand, can lead to breakage of the nanofiber mat. In a previous study, we have shown that the electrospinning of PAN on aluminum foils and the subsequent stabilization of this substrate is a simple method for retaining the fiber morphology without breaking the nanofiber mat. Here, we report on the impact of different aluminum foils on the physical and chemical properties of stabilized PAN nanofibers mats, and on the following incipient carbonization process at a temperature of max. 600 °C, i.e., below the melting temperature of aluminum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Based Composites for Advanced Sustainable Technologies)
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14 pages, 2098 KiB  
Article
Activated Carbons as Methanol Adsorbents for a New Cycle “Heat from Cold”
by Ilya Girnik, Alexandra Grekova, Larisa Gordeeva and Yuri Aristov
Fibers 2020, 8(8), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8080051 - 08 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2905
Abstract
Activated carbons are widely used for sustainable technology of adsorptive transformation and storage of heat. Here, we analyze the applicability of twelve commercial carbons and an innovative carbonaceous composite “LiCl confined to multi-wall carbon nanotubes” (LiCl/MWCNT) for a new cycle “Heat from Cold” [...] Read more.
Activated carbons are widely used for sustainable technology of adsorptive transformation and storage of heat. Here, we analyze the applicability of twelve commercial carbons and an innovative carbonaceous composite “LiCl confined to multi-wall carbon nanotubes” (LiCl/MWCNT) for a new cycle “Heat from Cold” (HeCol). It has recently been proposed for amplification of low- temperature ambient heat in cold countries. The analysis is made in terms of the methanol mass exchanged and the useful heat generated per cycle; the latter is the main performance indicator of HeCol cycles. The maximum specific useful heat, reaching 990 and 1750 J/g, can be obtained by using carbon Maxsorb III and the composite, respectively. For these materials, methanol adsorption dynamics under typical HeCol conditions are experimentally studied by the large pressure jump method. Before making this analysis, the fine carbon powder is consolidated by either using a binder or just pressing to obtain larger particles (ca. 2 mm). The methanol desorption from the consolidated samples of Maxsorb III at T = 2 °C is faster than for LiCl/MWCNT, and the maximum (initial) useful power reaches (2.5–4.0) kW/kg sorbent. It is very promising for designing compact HeCol units utilizing the carbon Maxsorb III. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Based Composites for Advanced Sustainable Technologies)
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14 pages, 4536 KiB  
Article
Effect of Silane Coupling Treatment on the Adhesion between Polyamide and Epoxy Based Composites Reinforced with Carbon Fibers
by Vincenzo Fiore, Vincenzo Orlando, Carmelo Sanfilippo, Dionisio Badagliacco and Antonino Valenza
Fibers 2020, 8(8), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8080048 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3856
Abstract
The increasing efforts aimed to design structures with reduced weight and better mechanical performances has led in recent years to a growing use of fiber reinforced polymer materials in several fields such as marine. However, these materials can be composed of chemically very [...] Read more.
The increasing efforts aimed to design structures with reduced weight and better mechanical performances has led in recent years to a growing use of fiber reinforced polymer materials in several fields such as marine. However, these materials can be composed of chemically very different elements and, hence, may be difficult to joint. This research aims to improve the adhesion between a thermoplastic matrix of polyamide reinforced with short carbon fibers (PA12-CR) and a carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix (CFRP). Two different silane coupling agents, (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (AM) and (3-Glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (EP), were applied, through the spray deposition method, on the PA12-CR substrate to create a reactive layer between the adherents. Different deposition methods and coupling agents curing conditions were also investigated. The wettability of the PA12-CR surface as well as the chemical modifications induced by silane treatments were investigated through contact angle and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. Furthermore, the interfacial adhesion between PA12-CR and CFRP substrates was evaluated through Mode I delamination tests (DCB). The effectiveness of the most promising treatment was finally verified on sandwich structures, having PA12-CR printed as internal core and CFRP laminates as external skins, through quasi-static three-point bending mechanical tests. Overall, the epoxy-based silane (EP) allowed significantly better resistance to the delamination up until the tensile failure of the CFRP substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Based Composites for Advanced Sustainable Technologies)
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20 pages, 5899 KiB  
Article
Carbon Nanotubes-Filled Siloxane Composite Foams for Oil Recovery Application: Compression Properties
by Elpida Piperopoulos, Luigi Calabrese, Emanuela Mastronardo, Edoardo Proverbio and Candida Milone
Fibers 2020, 8(7), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8070045 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3496
Abstract
This paper studies the correlation between oil recovery usability and mechanical behavior under compression loads of an innovative oil recovery material. The examined composites are silicone foams filled with carbon nanotubes (CNT). Here, the reutilization of oil recovery processes of the newly developed [...] Read more.
This paper studies the correlation between oil recovery usability and mechanical behavior under compression loads of an innovative oil recovery material. The examined composites are silicone foams filled with carbon nanotubes (CNT). Here, the reutilization of oil recovery processes of the newly developed composite foams is evaluated. In this regard, static and cyclic compressive tests are carried out. Samples filled with pristine and functionalized CNT are tested to evaluate the influence of the filler’s characteristics on the composite foam’s mechanical behavior. The results show that the presence of CNT (CNT-0) increases the elastic modulus (0.030 MPa) and collapse stress (0.010 MPa) of the siloxane matrix. On the contrary, as the CNT functionalization degree increases, a worsening of the composite’s mechanical performance is observed. CNT-0 foam evidences, also, the optimal mechanical stability to cyclic compressive loads, maintaining high stress values until 30 cycles. Furthermore, a correlation between the absorption capacity, elastic modulus, and cyclability is reported, highlighting a simplified approach to tailor the high absorption durability performance of filled CNT silicone foams. The promising results confirm the possible reuse of these new composite foams as absorbent materials for oil spill recovery applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Based Composites for Advanced Sustainable Technologies)
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