New Aspect on Wine Fermentation

A topical collection in Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This collection belongs to the section "Fermentation for Food and Beverages".

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Editor

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The world is changing, and the COVID-19 pandemic is showing that we must take care of ourselves and, not less important, the environment.

Wine consumers worldwide are also changing their behavior when deciding which wine to purchase. This change includes consumers’ purchasing decisions based on how well products satisfy their needs, in terms of pleasantness, health, and nutritional value, as well as how these products affect the environment.

Modern winemakers must promote fermentation that can produce high levels of polyphenols and other health-promoting compounds and, at the same time, minimize concentrations of risky wine ingredients such as sulfites, biogenic amines, heavy metals, mycotoxins, and proteins with allergenic potential.

Therefore, winemakers have been facing additional challenges due to current market demands.

Moreover, they must design wines exhibiting more individual flavors when working with grapes grown under stressful conditions due to distinct climate changes. Innovative winemaking techniques and new yeast strains contribute to solving some of these problems including the increased sugar concentration of grapes at grape maturity and stuck fermentations that may occur under nitrogen limitations.

The current advances in “omics” technologies and analytical techniques have permitted us to better understand the grape/wine microbial ecosystem and have revealed new perceptions into wine microbiology. It is well-known that non-conventional Saccharomyces species considered as spoiling microorganisms in the past are valued as being beneficial today, as they improve the wine aroma profile when grown in controlled mixed starter fermentations together with S. cerevisiae. Additionally, current biological approaches are in progress for wine deacidification using Saccharomyces yeasts, in addition to the traditional lactic acid bacteria Oenococcus oenii and Lactobacillus plantarum.

The advance in molecular techniques has allowed the construction of yeast species already with the status of ‘Generally Regarded As Safe’ (GRAS) from the FDA and, therefore, able to be commercialized. The ML01 yeast, a Prise de Mousse strain that contains the malate transport gene (mae1), and the 522EC- urea-degrading yeast, able to reduce the production of ethyl carbamate in wine, are genetically manipulated yeasts already available in the market.

Notwithstanding these advances, we are still far behind in knowing all about the diverse and vital roles of different microbial species, namely, yeasts and bacteria, in wine production, quality, and safety. Several questions regarding the role of individual microorganisms or possible microbial interactions during wine production remain to be answered, including microorganisms that may negatively affect wine quality.

This Topical Collection includes innovative studies aiming to address wine consumers’ challenges not only in terms of product quality but also in terms of environmental consciousness.

Dr. Alice Vilela
Collection Editor

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Keywords

  • wine aroma and flavor
  • starter cultures
  • mixed fermentations
  • stuck fermentations
  • yeast hybrids
  • genetically modified microorganisms
  • microbial ecology
  • enzymes
  • malolactic fermentation
  • human health

Published Papers (6 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023

28 pages, 2260 KiB  
Review
Aged to Perfection: The Scientific Symphony behind Port Wine, Vinegar, and Acetic Acid Bacteria
by João Mota and Alice Vilela
Fermentation 2024, 10(4), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation10040200 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1667
Abstract
This review critically examines the multifaceted role of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) in the intricate production process of port wine vinegar, particularly in its transformative process from port wine. With the emergence of port wine vinegar as a distinctive agricultural product in 2018, [...] Read more.
This review critically examines the multifaceted role of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) in the intricate production process of port wine vinegar, particularly in its transformative process from port wine. With the emergence of port wine vinegar as a distinctive agricultural product in 2018, producers have been faced with a diverse array of challenges, ranging from reducing the high alcohol content to preserving the inherent sweetness. Through an exhaustive exploration of acetic fermentation processes and the indispensable role of AAB, this review meticulously elucidates the complex biochemistry underlying vinegar formation, delving into the nuanced interactions between microbial activity and chemical composition. Furthermore, this review underscores the importance of sensory characteristics and consumer perception derived from vinegar production, providing invaluable insights into these fermented products’ sensory profiles and marketability. In summary, this study offers valuable insights into the evolution of port wine into vinegar, highlighting its significance in agricultural and culinary contexts. Full article
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11 pages, 987 KiB  
Article
Development of a Novel Approach for Controlling and Predicting Residual Sugars in Wines
by Ronit Yaa’ri, Eitan Schneiderman, Vicky Ben Aharon, Maria Stanevsky and Elyashiv Drori
Fermentation 2024, 10(3), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation10030125 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1198
Abstract
Residual sugars (RS) in wine are the sugars that remain in a wine after fermentation is complete. In some wine styles, such as semi-dry wines, the accurate measurement of the RS concentration is critical for both qualitative and legislative reasons. Brix, measured by [...] Read more.
Residual sugars (RS) in wine are the sugars that remain in a wine after fermentation is complete. In some wine styles, such as semi-dry wines, the accurate measurement of the RS concentration is critical for both qualitative and legislative reasons. Brix, measured by a simple refractometer, can give a good estimation of the RS concentration in the must, but during fermentation, the presence of alcohol leads to inaccurate sugar measurements. In order to measure the RS accurately, other more precise techniques are used, most of which are expensive or require professional skills. Therefore, novel approaches for rapid, easy, and practical measurements for estimating the sugar content have been suggested over the years. However, most of these methods do not supply an actual measurement of RS but rather give brix values, and those that measure RS involve special equipment, which is less relevant for small wineries. This study suggests a novel model for predicting and controlling the wine’s residual sugar. The data the model uses is the initial brix of the must before fermentation and its density during fermentation. The model was created by measuring actual residual sugars during the fermentation of natural and synthetic musts, with various degrees of initial brix levels, while simultaneously measuring their densities and correlating the two measurements. Linear regression between the residual sugar of the wine and its density was obtained for all treatments and repetitions (i.e., different values of must initial brix) with R2 values above 0.97. Using the model, one can calculate (before commencing the fermentation) the density values at which the fermentation will reach a particular desired residual sugar value for a specific initial brix level; the model is applicable for the fermentation conditions used in this work, i.e., brix levels of 18–27 °Bx, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (fx-33 and fx-10) in common conditions of fermentation regarding temperature and aeration. Full article
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2023

Jump to: 2024

13 pages, 5285 KiB  
Article
Effect of Vine Age, Dry Farming and Supplemental Irrigation on Color and Phenolic Extraction of cv. Zinfandel Wines from California
by L. Federico Casassa, Jocelyn Alvarez Arredondo and Jean Catherine Dodson Peterson
Fermentation 2023, 9(11), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9110974 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1099
Abstract
A dry-farmed vineyard block with vines of varying ages including young vines (5 to 12 years old), control vines (2:1 ratio of old to young vines), and old vines (40 to 60 years old) was either submitted to irrigation or dry-farmed. The experimental [...] Read more.
A dry-farmed vineyard block with vines of varying ages including young vines (5 to 12 years old), control vines (2:1 ratio of old to young vines), and old vines (40 to 60 years old) was either submitted to irrigation or dry-farmed. The experimental design yielded six treatments, namely, Irrigated Control, Irrigated Young, Irrigated Old, Dry-farmed Control, Dry-farmed Young, and Dry-farmed Old. Irrigated Young wines were lower in alcohol, anthocyanins, and tannins, as well as higher in pH and hue angle values (H*), than the remaining treatments. Dry-farmed Young wines were higher in anthocyanins and small polymeric pigments, and showed higher color saturation and red hue. However, the magnitude of these differences was small. At pressing, the anthocyanin composition of these Zinfandel wines was largely dominated by malvidin-3-glucoside (60 to 65%), but after 15 months of bottle aging their anthocyanin profile shifted to 60% of anthocyanin derivatives, with small polymeric pigments accounting for more than 70% of the total polymeric pigment content of the wines. Irrigated Old wines and Dry-farmed Old wines did not differ to any significant extent in their basic chemistry, phenolic chemistry (including detailed anthocyanin composition), and chromatic composition. Full article
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18 pages, 1450 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Conventional and Organic Wines Produced in Kutnohorsk Region (Czech Republic)
by Dani Dordevic, Ludmila Kalcakova, Anna Zackova, Sanja Ćavar Zeljković, Simona Dordevic and Bohuslava Tremlova
Fermentation 2023, 9(9), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9090832 - 12 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 969
Abstract
A healthy lifestyle and environmental protection play a big role in today’s modern society. The production of organic wine, as with other organic commodities, is therefore becoming increasingly popular with consumers. The selling price of organic wine is higher than that of wine [...] Read more.
A healthy lifestyle and environmental protection play a big role in today’s modern society. The production of organic wine, as with other organic commodities, is therefore becoming increasingly popular with consumers. The selling price of organic wine is higher than that of wine that is not declared organic or BIO, so the question arises from consumers as to whether these wines contain more bioactive compounds and substances beneficial to the body. From a general point of view, it is known that grapevines contain a wide range of natural phenols and polyphenols. These substances affect the sensory properties of wines, especially color and taste. The most phenolic substances are found in red wines, slightly less in orange wines, and the lowest amounts are found in white wines. However, the representation of individual substances and their ratios differs based on the varieties and age of the wines. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the profile (chemical, physical, and sensory) of organic wines compared to wines created from nonorganic grapes, which are grown in a selected wine region—Kutná Hora. The analyzed wines were created from the same grape wine cultivar in the Kutná Hora area. The following analyses were performed on the wine samples: the phenolic and antioxidant profiles, the content of sulfites (free and total), alcohol, sugars, vitamins, density determination, and also sensory evaluation. The present study showed exact differences between samples of wines produced from the same cultivar and the same region, but declared as organic wines and wines from conventional production. Although a higher number of bioactive substances is expected in wines from organic production, in most cases it did not show a statistically significant difference in the sense of a higher amount in BIO wines; on the contrary, in many cases, the content of these substances was higher in wines from integrated production. Full article
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14 pages, 2382 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Main Ingredient Ratio, Metabolomics Analysis, and Antioxidant Activity Analysis of Lycopene-Enriched Compound Fruit Wine
by Kunyi Liu, Xiangyu Liu, Teng Wang, Qi Wang, Lei Feng, Rui Su, Meng Zhang, Bin Xu, Fei Chen and Pingping Li
Fermentation 2023, 9(7), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9070591 - 25 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 995
Abstract
To find the optimal main ingredient ratio of compound fruit wine for enriching the varieties of lycopene-enriched fruit products and improving their economic value, fuzzy mathematics sensory evaluation and the D-optimal mixture design were considered. Under the main ingredient ratios of tomato juice, [...] Read more.
To find the optimal main ingredient ratio of compound fruit wine for enriching the varieties of lycopene-enriched fruit products and improving their economic value, fuzzy mathematics sensory evaluation and the D-optimal mixture design were considered. Under the main ingredient ratios of tomato juice, papaya juice, carrot juice, and gac fruit juice of 27.2%, 27.5%, 10.0%, and 35.3%, respectively, a clear and transparent compound fruit wine with a full-bodied fruit and wine aroma and mellow taste can be obtained. Meanwhile, a total of 406 metabolites were identified in the compound fruit wine, which were classified into nine superclasses including lipids and lipid-like molecules (150), organic acids and derivatives (69), and others. The relative levels of 54 metabolites after optimization were decreased significantly (VIP > 1.0, p < 0.05, FC < 0.5), while the relative levels of 106 metabolites including lycopene and (13Z)-lycopene were increased significantly (VIP > 1.0, p < 0.05, FC > 2). Furthermore, the EC50 values of this compound fruit wine after optimization of the main ingredient ratio for scavenging ABTS+·, DPPH·, O2·, and ·OH were 78.62%, 57.74%, 42.85%, and 59.91%, respectively. Together, a compound fruit wine rich in lycopene with antioxidant activities was manufactured, which has application potential in the development of functional foods. Full article
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15 pages, 2407 KiB  
Article
Impact of Steam Extraction and Maceration Duration on Wines from Frozen ‘Frontenac’ Must
by Andrej Svyantek, Zhuoyu Wang and Harlene Hatterman-Valenti
Fermentation 2023, 9(4), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9040317 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1144
Abstract
The enology industry in North Dakota is extremely young, with less than twenty years of existence. At times throughout the development of the North Dakota viticulture and enology industries, commercial wine producers have elected to purchase or store fresh harvested grapes as frozen [...] Read more.
The enology industry in North Dakota is extremely young, with less than twenty years of existence. At times throughout the development of the North Dakota viticulture and enology industries, commercial wine producers have elected to purchase or store fresh harvested grapes as frozen musts. To investigate the fermentation outcomes related to skin contact for red grapevine musts, a postfreeze fermentation experiment was conducted with fruit from ‘Frontenac’, one of the most widely grown red grapevines in the Upper Midwest U.S. and North Dakota. Four fermentation treatments were applied to frozen ‘Frontenac’ grapevine musts: steam juice extraction, rosé, 1 day after inoculation (DAI) skin contact, and 9 DAI skin contact. Samples were collected daily for ten days and analyzed for fermentation progress and spectrophotometric monitoring of wine color attributes and total phenolics. The final wines were analyzed two years after bottling. Steam-extracted musts were initially darkest; however, they were lighter as final wines than the 9 DAI wines and similar to rosé wines in lightness. Total phenolics were greatest for 9 DAI wines and total red pigments were lowest for steam-extracted wines. While differences between treatments were detected, the wines remained visually similar; this indicates that color extraction within the freeze–thaw processes of musts may obliterate subtly and make it difficult to produce wines of light color when stored under these conditions. Continued work with additional grapevines beyond ‘Frontenac’ may help fine-tune must and fermentation extraction procedures for small-scale wineries growing cold-hardy grapevines. Full article
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