Topical Collection "New Aspect on Wine Fermentation"

A topical collection in Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This collection belongs to the section "Fermentation for Food and Beverages".

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Research Centre-Vila Real (CQ-VR), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: wine microbiology; volatile acidity bio-reduction; food sensory evaluation; wine sensory evaluation
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Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The world is changing, and the COVID-19 pandemic is showing that we must take care of ourselves and, not less important, the environment.

Wine consumers worldwide are also changing their behavior when deciding which wine to purchase. This change includes consumers’ purchasing decisions based on how well products satisfy their needs, in terms of pleasantness, health, and nutritional value, as well as how these products affect the environment.

Modern winemakers must promote fermentation that can produce high levels of polyphenols and other health-promoting compounds and, at the same time, minimize concentrations of risky wine ingredients such as sulfites, biogenic amines, heavy metals, mycotoxins, and proteins with allergenic potential.

Therefore, winemakers have been facing additional challenges due to current market demands.

Moreover, they must design wines exhibiting more individual flavors when working with grapes grown under stressful conditions due to distinct climate changes. Innovative winemaking techniques and new yeast strains contribute to solving some of these problems including the increased sugar concentration of grapes at grape maturity and stuck fermentations that may occur under nitrogen limitations.

The current advances in “omics” technologies and analytical techniques have permitted us to better understand the grape/wine microbial ecosystem and have revealed new perceptions into wine microbiology. It is well-known that non-conventional Saccharomyces species considered as spoiling microorganisms in the past are valued as being beneficial today, as they improve the wine aroma profile when grown in controlled mixed starter fermentations together with S. cerevisiae. Additionally, current biological approaches are in progress for wine deacidification using Saccharomyces yeasts, in addition to the traditional lactic acid bacteria Oenococcus oenii and Lactobacillus plantarum.

The advance in molecular techniques has allowed the construction of yeast species already with the status of ‘Generally Regarded As Safe’ (GRAS) from the FDA and, therefore, able to be commercialized. The ML01 yeast, a Prise de Mousse strain that contains the malate transport gene (mae1), and the 522EC- urea-degrading yeast, able to reduce the production of ethyl carbamate in wine, are genetically manipulated yeasts already available in the market.

Notwithstanding these advances, we are still far behind in knowing all about the diverse and vital roles of different microbial species, namely, yeasts and bacteria, in wine production, quality, and safety. Several questions regarding the role of individual microorganisms or possible microbial interactions during wine production remain to be answered, including microorganisms that may negatively affect wine quality.

This Topical Collection includes innovative studies aiming to address wine consumers’ challenges not only in terms of product quality but also in terms of environmental consciousness.

Dr. Alice Vilela
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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  • wine aroma and flavor
  • starter cultures
  • mixed fermentations
  • stuck fermentations
  • yeast hybrids
  • genetically modified microorganisms
  • microbial ecology
  • enzymes
  • malolactic fermentation
  • human health

Published Papers (1 paper)


Impact of Steam Extraction and Maceration Duration on Wines from Frozen ‘Frontenac’ Must
Fermentation 2023, 9(4), 317; - 23 Mar 2023
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The enology industry in North Dakota is extremely young, with less than twenty years of existence. At times throughout the development of the North Dakota viticulture and enology industries, commercial wine producers have elected to purchase or store fresh harvested grapes as frozen [...] Read more.
The enology industry in North Dakota is extremely young, with less than twenty years of existence. At times throughout the development of the North Dakota viticulture and enology industries, commercial wine producers have elected to purchase or store fresh harvested grapes as frozen musts. To investigate the fermentation outcomes related to skin contact for red grapevine musts, a postfreeze fermentation experiment was conducted with fruit from ‘Frontenac’, one of the most widely grown red grapevines in the Upper Midwest U.S. and North Dakota. Four fermentation treatments were applied to frozen ‘Frontenac’ grapevine musts: steam juice extraction, rosé, 1 day after inoculation (DAI) skin contact, and 9 DAI skin contact. Samples were collected daily for ten days and analyzed for fermentation progress and spectrophotometric monitoring of wine color attributes and total phenolics. The final wines were analyzed two years after bottling. Steam-extracted musts were initially darkest; however, they were lighter as final wines than the 9 DAI wines and similar to rosé wines in lightness. Total phenolics were greatest for 9 DAI wines and total red pigments were lowest for steam-extracted wines. While differences between treatments were detected, the wines remained visually similar; this indicates that color extraction within the freeze–thaw processes of musts may obliterate subtly and make it difficult to produce wines of light color when stored under these conditions. Continued work with additional grapevines beyond ‘Frontenac’ may help fine-tune must and fermentation extraction procedures for small-scale wineries growing cold-hardy grapevines. Full article
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