Yeast, Biofuels, and Value-Added Products

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Industrial Fermentation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 27932

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Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8, Canada
Interests: fermentation; barley; value-added products; flax; toxicology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The demand for renewable fuel sources continues to attract global interest. However, food sources such as cereal grains and sugar crops are the dominant feedstocks for bioethanol production. Significant research has been conducted investigating alternatives to food-based feedstocks (e.g., lignan-based feedstock), as well as improving process designs to increase bioethanol production yields. Strategies to improve bioethanol yields are also being evaluated, including genetic modifications of fermentation organisms and cereal plants.

Value-added bioproducts produced from fermentative processes have also garnered interest. At a commercial scale, biogas produced from bioethanol operations has been used as an internal energy source. In addition, distillers’ grains have traditionally been used as an inexpensive animal feed; however, recent research has investigated methods to upgrade and enrich this substrate. Other value-added co-products (biomaterials, fine chemicals, polymers, glycerin, etc.) have also been identified in biofuel production, and are of interest to further support a sustainable circular bioeconomy.

The goal of this Special Issue is to publish and curate recent and innovative research regarding advances in yeast genetics, fermentation technologies, processes, and strategies, as well as feedstock selections to improve bioethanol production. Special interest is given to secondary added-value products which will also be considered to further support the growth and sustainability of this renewable energy source. If you would like to contribute a review paper, please contact one of the Guest Editors to discuss the topic’s relevance before submitting the manuscript.

Dr. Timothy J. Tse
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • biofuels
  • yeast
  • genetics
  • fermentation
  • enzymatic hydrolysis
  • biorefineries
  • value-added products

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 2684 KiB  
Article
Transcriptional Response of Multi-Stress-Tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Sequential Stresses
by Ane Catarine Tosi Costa, Mariano Russo, A. Alberto R. Fernandes, James R. Broach and Patricia M. B. Fernandes
Fermentation 2023, 9(2), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9020195 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2034
Abstract
During the fermentation process, yeast cells face different stresses, and their survival and fermentation efficiency depend on their adaptation to these challenging conditions. Yeast cells must tolerate not only a single stress but also multiple simultaneous and sequential stresses. However, the adaptation and [...] Read more.
During the fermentation process, yeast cells face different stresses, and their survival and fermentation efficiency depend on their adaptation to these challenging conditions. Yeast cells must tolerate not only a single stress but also multiple simultaneous and sequential stresses. However, the adaptation and cellular response when cells are sequentially stressed are not completely understood. To explore this, we exposed a multi-stress-tolerant strain (BT0510) to different consecutive stresses to globally explore a common response, focusing on the genes induced in both stresses. Gene Ontology, pathway analyses, and common transcription factor motifs identified many processes linked to this common response. A metabolic shift to the pentose phosphate pathway, peroxisome activity, and the oxidative stress response were some of the processes found. The SYM1, STF2, and HSP genes and the transcription factors Adr1 and Usv1 may play a role in this response. This study presents a global view of the transcriptome of a multi-resistance yeast and provides new insights into the response to sequential stresses. The identified response genes can indicate future directions for the genetic engineering of yeast strains, which could improve many fermentation processes, such as those used for bioethanol production and beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast, Biofuels, and Value-Added Products)
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19 pages, 2131 KiB  
Article
Bioconversion of a Lignocellulosic Hydrolysate to Single Cell Oil for Biofuel Production in a Cost-Efficient Fermentation Process
by Zora S. Rerop, Nikolaus I. Stellner, Petra Graban, Martina Haack, Norbert Mehlmer, Mahmoud Masri and Thomas B. Brück
Fermentation 2023, 9(2), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9020189 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2123
Abstract
Cutaneotrichosporon oleaginosus is a highly efficient single cell oil producer, which in addition to hexoses and pentoses can metabolize organic acids. In this study, fed-batch cultivation with consumption-based acetic acid feeding was further developed to integrate the transformation of an industrial paper mill [...] Read more.
Cutaneotrichosporon oleaginosus is a highly efficient single cell oil producer, which in addition to hexoses and pentoses can metabolize organic acids. In this study, fed-batch cultivation with consumption-based acetic acid feeding was further developed to integrate the transformation of an industrial paper mill lignocellulosic hydrolysate (LCH) into yeast oil. Employing pentose-rich LCH as a carbon source instead of glucose significantly improved both biomass formation and lipid titer, reaching 55.73 ± 5.20 g/L and 42.1 ± 1.7 g/L (75.5% lipid per biomass), respectively. This hybrid approach of using acetic acid and LCH in one process was further optimized to increase the share of bioavailable carbon from LCH using a combination of consumption-based and continuous feeding. Finally, the techno-economic analysis revealed a 26% cost reduction when using LCH instead of commercial glucose. In summary, we developed a process leading to a holistic approach to valorizing a pentose-rich industrial waste by converting it into oleochemicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast, Biofuels, and Value-Added Products)
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11 pages, 1289 KiB  
Article
High-Gravity Fermentation for Bioethanol Production from Industrial Spent Black Cherry Brine Supplemented with Whey
by Javier Ricardo Gómez Cardozo, Jean-Baptiste Beigbeder, Julia Maria de Madeiros Dantas and Jean-Michel Lavoie
Fermentation 2023, 9(2), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9020170 - 14 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2295
Abstract
By-products from different industries could represent an available source of carbon and nitrogen which could be used for bioethanol production using conventional Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. Spent cherry brine and whey are acid food by-products which have a high organic matter content and toxic [...] Read more.
By-products from different industries could represent an available source of carbon and nitrogen which could be used for bioethanol production using conventional Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. Spent cherry brine and whey are acid food by-products which have a high organic matter content and toxic compounds, and their discharges represent significant environmental and economic challenges. In this study, different combinations of urea, yeast concentrations, and whey as a nutrient source were tested for bioethanol production scale-up using 96-well microplates as well as 7.5 L to 100 L bioreactors. For bioethanol production in vials, the addition of urea allowed increasing the bioethanol yield by about 10%. Bioethanol production in the 7.5 L and 100 L bioreactors was 73.2 g·L−1 and 103.5 g·L−1 with a sugar consumption of 81.5% and 94.8%, respectively, using spent cherry brine diluted into whey (200 g·L−1 of total sugars) supplemented with 0.5 g·L−1 urea and 0.5 g·L−1 yeast at 30 °C and a pH of 5.0 after 96 h of fermentation for both systems. The results allow these by-products to be considered low-economic-value alternatives for fuel- or food-grade bioethanol production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast, Biofuels, and Value-Added Products)
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12 pages, 2078 KiB  
Article
Xylitol Production from Pineapple Cores (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr) by Enzymatic and Acid Hydrolysis Using Microorganisms Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida tropicalis
by Efri Mardawati, Agus T. Hartono, Bambang Nurhadi, Hana Nur Fitriana, Euis Hermiati and Riksfardini Annisa Ermawar
Fermentation 2022, 8(12), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8120694 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1801
Abstract
Hydrolysis and fermentation processes are key stages in xylitol production from lignocellulosic materials. In this study, pineapple cores, one of the wastes from the canned pineapple industry, were used as raw material for xylitol production. Two methods was used for hydrolysis: enzymatically using [...] Read more.
Hydrolysis and fermentation processes are key stages in xylitol production from lignocellulosic materials. In this study, pineapple cores, one of the wastes from the canned pineapple industry, were used as raw material for xylitol production. Two methods was used for hydrolysis: enzymatically using commercial enzyme Cellic HTec2, and acid hydrolysis using 4% H2SO4. In contrast, the fermentation process was carried out with two selected yeasts commonly employed in xylitol fermentation, Debaryomycess hansenii, and Candida tropicalis. Before these two processes, the pineapple cores were characterized using the Van Soest method to determine their lignocellulosic content. The hemicellulose content was 36.06%, the cellulose content was 14.20%, and the lignin content was 10.05%. This result indicates that the hemicellulose content of pineapple cores has the potential to be used as a raw material in the production of xylitol. The hydrolysis efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis was 21% higher than that of acid hydrolysis. The highest xylitol and biomass yield of 0.371 gxylitol/gxylose and 0.225 gcell/gxylose were observed by C. tropicalis using an enzymatic hydrolysate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast, Biofuels, and Value-Added Products)
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18 pages, 8518 KiB  
Article
Qualitative Screening of Yeast Biodiversity for Hydrolytic Enzymes Isolated from the Gastrointestinal Tract of a Coprophage “Gymnopleurus sturmi” and Dung of Ruminants
by Touijer Hanane, Benchemsi Najoua, Hamdi Salsabil, Janati Idrissi Abdellatif, Bousta Dalila, Irfan Ahmad, Sayyad Ali Raza BukharI, Muhammad Irfan, Lijing Chen and Bekkari Hicham
Fermentation 2022, 8(12), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8120692 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2078
Abstract
In this study, thirty yeast strains isolated from the gut of coprophagous “Gymnopleurus sturmi” and twenty-four from the dung of ruminants were shown to be producers of cellulases. Cellulolytic yeast isolates could also produce other hydrolytic enzymes such as pectinase, lipase, [...] Read more.
In this study, thirty yeast strains isolated from the gut of coprophagous “Gymnopleurus sturmi” and twenty-four from the dung of ruminants were shown to be producers of cellulases. Cellulolytic yeast isolates could also produce other hydrolytic enzymes such as pectinase, lipase, β-glucosidase, catalase, inulinase, urease, gelatinase, and protease. The oroduction of amylase was present in only one isolate of dung of ruminants. On the other hand, the production of tannase was absent in these isolates. All the yeasts isolated from two sources could utilize various carbon sources, including sorbitol, sucrose, and raffinose, and withstand high concentrations of glucose (300 g/L), salt (100 g/L), and exogenous ethanol. They could grow in a wide pH range of 3 to 11. The growth was stable up to a temperature of 40 °C for isolates from the gut of coprophage and 37 °C for the yeast from the dung of ruminants. These activities and growing conditions were similar to the diet of coprophagous insects and the composition of ruminant manure, likely because the adaptation and distribution of these microorganisms depend on the phenology and trophic preferences of these insects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast, Biofuels, and Value-Added Products)
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11 pages, 1934 KiB  
Article
Comparative Fatty Acid Compositional Profiles of Rhodotorula toruloides Haploid and Diploid Strains under Various Storage Conditions
by Yue Zhang, Rasool Kamal, Qing Li, Xue Yu, Qian Wang and Zongbao Kent Zhao
Fermentation 2022, 8(9), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8090467 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2434
Abstract
Microbial-based fatty acids (FAs), biofuels and oleochemicals are potential alternatives to fossil fuels and other non-renewable resources. Rhodotorula toruloides (formerly Rhodosporidium toruloides) is a basidiomycetous oleaginous yeast, and cells of the wild-type diploids can accumulate lipids to over 70 wt% on a [...] Read more.
Microbial-based fatty acids (FAs), biofuels and oleochemicals are potential alternatives to fossil fuels and other non-renewable resources. Rhodotorula toruloides (formerly Rhodosporidium toruloides) is a basidiomycetous oleaginous yeast, and cells of the wild-type diploids can accumulate lipids to over 70 wt% on a dry cell weight basis in nutrient-limited conditions. Meanwhile, several haploid strains have been applied as hosts for producing high-value fatty acid derivatives through genetic modification and metabolic engineering. However, the differences in fatty acid compositional profiles and their stability between diploid and haploid strains remain unknown in this oleaginous yeast. Here, we grew a haploid strain R. toruloides NP11 and its parental diploid strain R. toruloides CGMCC 2.1389 (4#) under identical conditions and compared the profiles in terms of cell growth, lipid production, fatty acid compositions of lipids as well as storage stability of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). It was found that lipids from R. toruloides composed of fatty acids in terms of chain length ranged from short-chain FAs (C6–C9) to very long-chain FAs (VLCFAs, C20–C24) and some odd-chain FAs (C15 and C17), while long-chain fatty acids (C14–C18) were the most abundant ones. In addition, NP11 produced a little more (1 wt%) VLCFAs than that of the diploid strain 4#. Moreover, no major changes were found for FAMEs being held under varied storage conditions, suggesting that FAMEs samples were stable and robust for fatty acid compositional analysis of microbial lipids. This work revealed the fatty acid profiles of lipids from R. toruloides haploid and diploid strains, and their stability under various storage conditions. The information is valuable for reliable assessment of fatty acid compositions of lipids from oleaginous yeasts and related microbial cell factories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast, Biofuels, and Value-Added Products)
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18 pages, 1468 KiB  
Article
Sugarcane Bagasse-Based Ethanol Production and Utilization of Its Vinasse for Xylitol Production as an Approach in Integrated Biorefinery
by Sreyden Hor, Mallika Boonmee Kongkeitkajorn and Alissara Reungsang
Fermentation 2022, 8(7), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8070340 - 19 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3433
Abstract
Biorefinery of sugarcane bagasse into ethanol and xylitol was investigated in this study. Ethanol fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate was carried out by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After ethanol distillation, the vinasse containing xylose was used to produce xylitol through fermentation by Candida guilliermondii [...] Read more.
Biorefinery of sugarcane bagasse into ethanol and xylitol was investigated in this study. Ethanol fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate was carried out by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After ethanol distillation, the vinasse containing xylose was used to produce xylitol through fermentation by Candida guilliermondii TISTR 5068. During the ethanol fermentation, it was not necessary to supplement a nitrogen source to the hydrolysate. Approximately 50 g/L of bioethanol was produced after 36 h of fermentation. The vinasse was successfully used to produce xylitol. Supplementing the vinasse with 1 g/L of yeast extract improved xylitol production 1.4-fold. Cultivating the yeast with 10% controlled dissolved oxygen resulted in the best xylitol production and yields of 10.2 ± 1.12 g/L and 0.74 ± 0.04 g/g after 60 h fermentation. Supplementing the vinasse with low fraction of molasses to improve xylitol production did not yield a positive result. The supplementation caused decreases of up to 34% in xylitol production rate, 24% in concentration, and 24% in yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast, Biofuels, and Value-Added Products)
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11 pages, 2835 KiB  
Article
Isolation of Novel Yeast from Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Water and Phenotypic Examination as the Potential Parameters in Bioethanol Production
by Getari Kasmiarti, Dwita Oktiarni, Poedji Loekitowati Hariani, Novia Novia and Hermansyah Hermansyah
Fermentation 2022, 8(6), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8060283 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2682
Abstract
Yeast is a fermentation agent for producing bioethanol as an environmentally friendly alternative energy. Therefore, this study aims to find novel yeasts with the capability to persevere under acidic, high temperature, and high sugar content conditions, which are required in the bioethanol industry. [...] Read more.
Yeast is a fermentation agent for producing bioethanol as an environmentally friendly alternative energy. Therefore, this study aims to find novel yeasts with the capability to persevere under acidic, high temperature, and high sugar content conditions, which are required in the bioethanol industry. The yeasts were isolated and identified from coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water by a DNA sequencing method and phenotypic test. Yeast isolation has been completed with a serial dilution procedure and purification was conducted with HiPurA Genomic DNA Purification Spin Kits, which were analyzed by DNA Sequencing. The phenotypic test was carried out with thermotolerant (30 °C and 41 °C), high acidity (lactic acid), and sugar content (molasses 35 °brix) parameters in the media as the initial step of yeast ability screening. Based on the results, the three species of Candida tropicalis K5 (Candida tropicalis strain L2), K15 (Candida tropicalis strain MYA-3404), and K20 (Candida tropicalis strain Y277) obtained met the phenotypic standards. This showed that the yeasts have the potential to produce molasses-based bioethanol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast, Biofuels, and Value-Added Products)
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23 pages, 2434 KiB  
Article
Trials of Commercial- and Wild-Type Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains under Aerobic and Microaerophilic/Anaerobic Conditions: Ethanol Production and Must Fermentation from Grapes of Santorini (Greece) Native Varieties
by Kalliopi Basa, Seraphim Papanikolaou, Maria Dimopoulou, Antonia Terpou, Stamatina Kallithraka and George-John E. Nychas
Fermentation 2022, 8(6), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8060249 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2437
Abstract
In modern wine-making technology, there is an increasing concern in relation to the preservation of the biodiversity, and the employment of “new”, “novel” and wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as cell factories amenable for the production of wines that are not “homogenous”, expressing their [...] Read more.
In modern wine-making technology, there is an increasing concern in relation to the preservation of the biodiversity, and the employment of “new”, “novel” and wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as cell factories amenable for the production of wines that are not “homogenous”, expressing their terroir and presenting interesting and “local” sensory characteristics. Under this approach, in the current study, several wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (LMBF Y-10, Y-25, Y-35 and Y-54), priorly isolated from wine and grape origin, selected from the private culture collection of the Agricultural University of Athens, were tested regarding their biochemical behavior on glucose-based (initial concentrations ca 100 and 200 g/L) shake-flask experiments. The wild yeast strains were compared with commercial yeast strains (viz. Symphony, Cross X and Passion Fruit) in the same conditions. All selected strains rapidly assimilated glucose from the medium converting it into ethanol in good rates, despite the imposed aerobic conditions. Concerning the wild strains, the best results were achieved for the strain LMBF Y-54 in which maximum ethanol production (EtOHmax) up to 68 g/L, with simultaneous ethanol yield on sugar consumed = 0.38 g/g were recorded. Other wild strains tested (LMBF Y-10, Y-25 and Y-35) achieved lower ethanol production (up to ≈47 g/L). Regarding the commercial strains, the highest ethanol concentration was achieved by S. cerevisiae Passion Fruit (EtOHmax = 91.1 g/L, yield = 0.45 g/g). Subsequently, the “novel” strain that presented the best technological characteristics regards its sugar consumption and alcohol production properties (viz. LMBF Y-54) and the commercial strain that equally presented the best previously mentioned technological characteristics (viz. Passion Fruit) were further selected for the wine-making process. The selected must originated from red and white grapes (Assyrtiko and Mavrotragano, Santorini Island; Greece) and fermentation was performed under wine-making conditions showing high yields for both strains (EtOHmax = 98–106 g/L, ethanol yield = 0.47–0.50 g/g), demonstrating the production efficiency under microaerophilic/anaerobic conditions. Molecular identification by rep-PCR carried out throughout fermentations verified that each inoculated yeast was the one that dominated during the whole bioprocess. The aromatic compounds of the produced wines were qualitatively analyzed at the end of the processes. The results highlight the optimum technological characteristics of the selected “new” wild strain (S. cerevisiae LMBF Y-54), verifying its suitability for wine production while posing great potential for future industrial applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast, Biofuels, and Value-Added Products)
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14 pages, 1690 KiB  
Article
Optimization of cis-9-Heptadecenoic Acid Production from the Oleaginous Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica
by Wendy Al Sahyouni, Sally El Kantar, Anissa Khelfa, Young-Kyoung Park, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Nicolas Louka and Mohamed Koubaa
Fermentation 2022, 8(6), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8060245 - 25 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2523
Abstract
Odd-chain fatty acids (OCFA) have been studied for their therapeutic and nutritional properties, as well as for their potential use in the chemical industry for the production of biofuel. Genetic modification strategies have demonstrated an improved production of OCFA by oleaginous microorganisms. In [...] Read more.
Odd-chain fatty acids (OCFA) have been studied for their therapeutic and nutritional properties, as well as for their potential use in the chemical industry for the production of biofuel. Genetic modification strategies have demonstrated an improved production of OCFA by oleaginous microorganisms. In this study, the production of OCFA-enriched lipids by fermentation using a genetically engineered Yarrowia lipolytica strain was investigated. The major fatty acid produced by this strain was the cis-9-heptadecenoic acid (C17:1). Its biosynthesis was optimized using a design of experiment strategy involving a central composite design. The optimal responses maximizing the cell density (optical density at 600 nm) and the C17:1 content (%) in lipids were found using 52.4 g/L sucrose, 26.9 g/L glycerol, 10.4 g/L sodium acetate, 5 g/L sodium propionate, and 4 g/L yeast extract. Under these conditions, in a 5 L scale bioreactor, the respective contents of lipids and C17:1 in culture medium were 2.52 ± 0.05 and 0.82 ± 0.01 g/L after 96 h fermentation. The results obtained in this work pave the way toward the process upscale of C17:1 and encourage its industrial production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast, Biofuels, and Value-Added Products)
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Review

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21 pages, 3999 KiB  
Review
Bioactive Compounds from and against Yeasts in the One Health Context: A Comprehensive Review
by Viviani Tadioto, Anderson Giehl, Rafael Dorighello Cadamuro, Iara Zanella Guterres, Angela Alves dos Santos, Stefany Kell Bressan, Larissa Werlang, Boris U. Stambuk, Gislaine Fongaro, Izabella Thaís Silva and Sérgio Luiz Alves, Jr.
Fermentation 2023, 9(4), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9040363 - 7 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2816
Abstract
Yeasts are the most used microorganisms for biotechnological purposes. Although they have been mainly recognized for their application in the beverage and bioethanol industries, these microorganisms can be efficiently employed in pharmaceutical and food production companies. In these industrial sectors, yeasts are highly [...] Read more.
Yeasts are the most used microorganisms for biotechnological purposes. Although they have been mainly recognized for their application in the beverage and bioethanol industries, these microorganisms can be efficiently employed in pharmaceutical and food production companies. In these industrial sectors, yeasts are highly desirable for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds from simple substrates, including wastes. In this review, we present the state of the art of bioactive compound production in microbial cell factories and analyze the avenues to increase the productivity of these molecules, which benefit human and environmental health. The article addresses their vast biological activities, from preventing to treating human diseases and from pre to postharvest control on agroindustrial streams. Furthermore, different yeast species, genetically engineered or not, are herein presented not only as biofactories of the referred to compounds but also as their targets. This comprehensive analysis of the literature points out the significant roles of biodiversity, bioprospection, and genome editing tools on the microbial production of bioactive compounds and reveals the value of these approaches from the one health perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast, Biofuels, and Value-Added Products)
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