Probiotic Delivery through Non-Bovine Milk and Milk Products: Trends, Novelties and Benefits

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Probiotic Strains and Fermentation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020) | Viewed by 108250

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Agriculture, Food & Ecosystem Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
Interests: probiotics; prebiotics; dairy products and food quality and safety
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. Discipline of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra 2617, ACT, Australia
2. Functional Foods and Nutrition Research (FFNR) Laboratory, University of Canberra, Ngunnawal Land 2617, Australia
3. University of Canberra Research Institute for Sport and Exercise (UCRISE), Canberra 2617, ACT, Australia
4. Discipline of Nutrition-Dietetics, Harokopio University, 17671 Athens, Greece
Interests: green tea; plant polyphenols; catechins; EGCG; bioactives, nutrition; the effects of resveratrol supplementation on obesity in humans; plant bioactives; nutraceuticals
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Bovine (cow) milk and related milk products have been used as the main probiotic carrier food for thousands of years, and currently these products dominate the market. Relatively recently, interest in the consumption of non-bovine milk and milk products has increased due to the potential problems associated with allergenicity and gastrointestinal disorders from drinking cow milk, the desire for novel dairy products, and the growth of new markets as a source of functional and infant foods. Concurrently, milk from non-bovine mammals (goat, sheep, camel, and donkey) has been increasingly used in producing several different probiotic food products such as yogurt, fermented milk, ice cream, and cheese. Similar to their bovine counterparts, these non-bovine products can be considered as suitable vehicles for delivering probiotics due to their ability to maintain sufficient probiotic viability during product manufacturing and storage. However, sensory properties of these products seem relatively unappealing for some consumers, hence there is a need to develop strategies to improve their consumer acceptability. Research on probiotic gastrointestinal survival, bioavailability, adhesion to gut epithelium and health, and nutritional effects in the presence of non-bovine dairy matrices is still relatively scarce, and the influence of non-bovine dairy matrices on the functional efficacy of probiotics is yet to be thoroughly investigated. Despite the demand, the variety of commercially available non-bovine dairy products containing probiotics is currently limited.

Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue “Probiotic Delivery through Non-Bovine Milk and Milk Products: Trends, Novelties and Benefits” is to gather innovative, high-quality research manuscripts and review papers on non-dairy probiotic food innovations and research findings.

Dr. Senaka Ranadheera
Assoc. Prof. Nenad Naumovski
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Probiotics
  • Lactic acid bacteria
  • Non-bovine milk
  • Goat milk
  • Sheep milk/ewe milk
  • Camel milk
  • Donkey milk
  • Dairy products

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 932 KiB  
Article
Development of Probiotic Almond Beverage Using Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Fortified with Short-Chain and Long-Chain Inulin Fibre
by Lauren Muncey and Sharareh Hekmat
Fermentation 2021, 7(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7020090 - 3 Jun 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3994
Abstract
Plant-based beverages are growing in popularity due to the rise of vegetarianism and other health trends. A probiotic almond beverage that combines the properties of almonds, inulin, and Lacticaseibacillusrhamnosus GR-1 may meet the demand for a non-dairy health-promoting food. The purpose of [...] Read more.
Plant-based beverages are growing in popularity due to the rise of vegetarianism and other health trends. A probiotic almond beverage that combines the properties of almonds, inulin, and Lacticaseibacillusrhamnosus GR-1 may meet the demand for a non-dairy health-promoting food. The purpose of this study was to investigate the viability of L. rhamnosus GR-1 and pH in five fermented almond beverage samples, supplemented with either 2% or 5% (w/v) short-chain or long-chain inulin over 9 h of fermentation and 30 days of refrigerated storage. All almond beverage samples achieved a mean viable count of at least 107 CFU/mL during 9h of fermentation and 30 days of refrigerated storage. The probiotic almond beverage supplemented with 2% (w/v) short-chain inulin had a significantly higher mean microbial count (p = 0.048) and lower pH (p < 0.001) throughout fermentation, while the control and the long-chain inulin treatments had the lowest viable counts and acidity, respectively. This study shows that the addition of short-chain and long-chain inulin had no adverse effects on the viability of L. rhamnosus GR-1. Therefore, the probiotic almond beverage has the potential to be a valid alternative to dairy-based probiotic products. Full article
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16 pages, 1475 KiB  
Article
Technological and Functional Assessment of Riboflavin Enriched Probiotic SoyCurd
by Kapil Singh Narayan, Sakshi Gaurkhede, Virat Sharma, Ankur Kumar, Bharat Bhushan and Vijendra Mishra
Fermentation 2021, 7(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7020047 - 28 Mar 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3327
Abstract
Preparation of soymilk-based product with probiotics is reasonably a novel approach in the field of fermented functional foods. The aim of this study was to develop riboflavin enriched fermented soy curds with either or combination of the two riboflavin producing probiotic strains of [...] Read more.
Preparation of soymilk-based product with probiotics is reasonably a novel approach in the field of fermented functional foods. The aim of this study was to develop riboflavin enriched fermented soy curds with either or combination of the two riboflavin producing probiotic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum i.e., MTCC 25432 (BBC32B) and MTCC 25433 (BBC33), and to compare the technological and functional properties of its developed products. Acidification rate and lactic acid production were enhanced with L. plantarum and its combination in a shorter time to reach pH 4.7. Hardness and cohesiveness were significantly (p < 0.05) higher for fermented soymilk by co-culture of L. plantarum followed by individual strains. Similarly, higher G′ (6.25 × 102 Pa), G” (2.30 × 103 Pa) and G* (8.00 × 102 Pa) values observed for the combination of both L. plantarum strains showed that the gel formed was firmer and had solid character. The riboflavin content of product developed with a combination of test cultures was significantly higher (342.11 µg/L) than individual cultures and control. The final product had a higher probiotic count (more than 9 log cfu/mL), which is also required for functional food containing probiotics. Full article
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11 pages, 988 KiB  
Article
Snapshot of Cyprus Raw Goat Milk Bacterial Diversity via 16S rDNA High-Throughput Sequencing; Impact of Cold Storage Conditions
by Eleni Kamilari, Dimitrios A. Anagnostopoulos, Photis Papademas, Marina Efthymiou, Svitlana Tretiak and Dimitrios Tsaltas
Fermentation 2020, 6(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation6040100 - 24 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3347
Abstract
In general, it is a common practice among dairy producers to store the milk in the refrigerator directly after milking, in order to preserve it and prevent the development of spoilage microbes. However, the impact of keeping the milk in the refrigerator overnight [...] Read more.
In general, it is a common practice among dairy producers to store the milk in the refrigerator directly after milking, in order to preserve it and prevent the development of spoilage microbes. However, the impact of keeping the milk in the refrigerator overnight on milk microbial diversity has been poorly investigated. This study aimed to provide a snapshot of the bacterial composition of goat milk after direct storage at −80 °C and after being kept overnight at 4 °C and then in storage at −80 °, using high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Goat milk samples from four different farms were analyzed, to reveal that milk bacterial diversity differed between the two different storage conditions. Goat milk directly stored at −80 °C was characterized by the presence of the Gram-negative contaminants Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, in addition to the genera Corynebacterium, Chryseobacterium, Bacteroides and Clostridium. Milk samples that were kept overnight at 4 °C were characterized by a reduction in their bacterial biodiversity and the predominance of the Gram-negative, aerobic Phyllobacterium. Overall, HTS methodologies provide an in-depth identification and characterization of the goat raw milk microbiome. Further, they offer a better understanding of the contribution of cold storage conditions to milk microbiota formation. This study may assist dairy producers in improving raw milk and raw milk cheeses quality and guaranteeing consumers’ safety. Full article
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14 pages, 901 KiB  
Article
Microbial and Sensory Analysis of Soy and Cow Milk-Based Yogurt as a Probiotic Matrix for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1
by Syeda Maria Fatima and Sharareh Hekmat
Fermentation 2020, 6(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation6030074 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 7527
Abstract
Plant-based milk alternatives represent a growing sector of the functional food industry due to consumer demand for more nutritious and sustainable options. Soymilk is abundant in fibre, phytosterols, and isoflavones. In contrast, cow milk has a high cholesterol and caloric content, superior organoleptic [...] Read more.
Plant-based milk alternatives represent a growing sector of the functional food industry due to consumer demand for more nutritious and sustainable options. Soymilk is abundant in fibre, phytosterols, and isoflavones. In contrast, cow milk has a high cholesterol and caloric content, superior organoleptic characteristics, and a well-established probiotic delivery matrix. Supplementing cow milk with soymilk to produce probiotic yogurt may enhance the nutritional value, sensory profile, and probiotic delivery capacity of the final product. In order to investigate the probiotic potential and sensory appeal of this blend, four yogurt mixtures were prepared by incorporating 0% (T1), 25% (T2), 50% (T3), or 75% (T4) soymilk in cow milk. The viability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and pH were evaluated during fermentation (6 h) and refrigerated storage (30 days). Additionally, consumer acceptability was determined through a sensory evaluation. L. rhamnosus GR-1 reached viable counts of 108 colony forming units (CFU)/mL in all treatments. Sensory panellists provided higher hedonic scores to T1 for appearance and texture compared to T2–T4, but flavour and overall acceptability ratings amongst T1–T4 were comparable. These results serve as an indication for the successful fortification of cow and soymilk yogurt mixtures with L. rhamnosus GR-1. Full article
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Review

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24 pages, 1604 KiB  
Review
Inclusion of Probiotics into Fermented Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Milk: An Overview of Challenges and Opportunities
by A.M.N.L. Abesinghe, Hasitha Priyashantha, P.H.P. Prasanna, Maheshika S. Kurukulasuriya, C.S. Ranadheera and J.K. Vidanarachchi
Fermentation 2020, 6(4), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation6040121 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 8370
Abstract
Buffalo-milk-based dairy products provide various health benefits to humans since buffalo milk serves as a rich source of protein, fat, lactose, calcium, iron, phosphorus, vitamin A and natural antioxidants. Dairy products such as Meekiri, Dadih, Dadi and Lassie, which are derived from Artisanal [...] Read more.
Buffalo-milk-based dairy products provide various health benefits to humans since buffalo milk serves as a rich source of protein, fat, lactose, calcium, iron, phosphorus, vitamin A and natural antioxidants. Dairy products such as Meekiri, Dadih, Dadi and Lassie, which are derived from Artisanal fermentation of buffalo milk, have been consumed for many years. Probiotic potentials of indigenous microflora in fermented buffalo milk have been well documented. Incorporation of certain probiotics into the buffalo-milk-based dairy products conferred vital health benefits to the consumers, although is not a common practice. However, several challenges are associated with incorporating probiotics into buffalo-milk-based dairy products. The viability of probiotic bacteria can be reduced due to processing and environmental stress during storage. Further, incompatibility of probiotics with traditional starter cultures and high acidity of fermented dairy products may lead to poor viability of probiotics. The weak acidifying performance of probiotics may affect the organoleptic quality of fermented dairy products. Besides these challenges, several innovative technologies such as the use of microencapsulated probiotics, ultrasonication, the inclusion of prebiotics, use of appropriate packaging and optimal storage conditions have been reported, promising stability and viability of probiotics in buffalo-milk-based fermented dairy products. Full article
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20 pages, 2263 KiB  
Review
Microbial Fermentation and Its Role in Quality Improvement of Fermented Foods
by Ranjana Sharma, Prakrati Garg, Pradeep Kumar, Shashi Kant Bhatia and Saurabh Kulshrestha
Fermentation 2020, 6(4), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation6040106 - 6 Nov 2020
Cited by 266 | Viewed by 79775
Abstract
Fermentation processes in foods often lead to changes in nutritional and biochemical quality relative to the starting ingredients. Fermented foods comprise very complex ecosystems consisting of enzymes from raw ingredients that interact with the fermenting microorganisms’ metabolic activities. Fermenting microorganisms provide a unique [...] Read more.
Fermentation processes in foods often lead to changes in nutritional and biochemical quality relative to the starting ingredients. Fermented foods comprise very complex ecosystems consisting of enzymes from raw ingredients that interact with the fermenting microorganisms’ metabolic activities. Fermenting microorganisms provide a unique approach towards food stability via physical and biochemical changes in fermented foods. These fermented foods can benefit consumers compared to simple foods in terms of antioxidants, production of peptides, organoleptic and probiotic properties, and antimicrobial activity. It also helps in the levels of anti-nutrients and toxins level. The quality and quantity of microbial communities in fermented foods vary based on the manufacturing process and storage conditions/durability. This review contributes to current research on biochemical changes during the fermentation of foods. The focus will be on the changes in the biochemical compounds that determine the characteristics of final fermented food products from original food resources. Full article
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