Enological Repercussions of Non-saccharomyces Species 4.0

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Fermentation for Food and Beverages".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2023) | Viewed by 23262

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the beginning of this century, non-Saccharomyces yeasts have had increased relevance in wine processing. Several biotechnological companies now produce non-Saccharomyces yeasts at an industrial level to improve the aroma or flavor, stabilize wine, produce biological acidification, or metabolize malic acid. Species such as Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Kloeckera apiculata, Lachancea thermotolerans, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and several others are common due to the technological applications they have in sensory quality but also in wine ageing and stabilization. Moreover, spoilage non-Saccharomyces yeasts such as Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii are becoming important because of the alterations they are able to produce in high-quality wines. New strategies have been developed to control these defective yeasts without affecting the sensory quality. The knowledge of the physiology, ecology, biochemistry, and metabolomics of these yeasts can help to better use them in controlling traditional problems such as low fermentative power, excessive volatile acidity, low implantation under enological conditions, and sensibility to antimicrobial compounds such as sulfites traditionally used in wine processing. The implantation of non-Saccharomyces yeasts can be improved by using emerging non-thermal treatments such as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH), e-beam irradiation, pulsed electric field (PEF), or pulsed light (PL). Additionally, new applications of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, such as their use as nutrients during fermentation, as fast releasers of polysaccharides at the end of fermentation or during ageing on lees, and the application of these species in biocontrol or as bioprotective tools to eliminate or decrease spoilage microorganisms in grapes, open new possibilities in current wine biotechnology. This Special Issue intends to compile current research and revised information on non-Saccharomyces yeasts with enological applications to facilitate the use and understanding of this biotechnological tool.

The success of the first three editions can be found at:

https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fermentation/special_issues/non-saccharomyces

https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fermentation/special_issues/non_saccharomyces_2

https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fermentation/special_issues/non_saccharomyces_3

Prof. Dr. Antonio Morata
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • non-Saccharomyces yeasts
  • wine biotechnology
  • sensory quality
  • color stabilization
  • spoilage yeasts

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 2181 KiB  
Article
Use of Mixed Cultures for the Production of Grape–Plum Low-Alcohol Fermented Beverages
by Daniel Moreno, Patricia Redondo, Eduardo Lozano, M. Esperanza Valdés and Francisco Pérez-Nevado
Fermentation 2023, 9(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9010029 - 29 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2954
Abstract
This work presents the attempt to develop a production technology for grape–plum low-alcohol beverages and enhance their chemical composition and flavor complexity through the non-Saccharomyces species. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) pure cultures were used as reference beverages. Pure cultures of Lachancea thermotolerans (LT) [...] Read more.
This work presents the attempt to develop a production technology for grape–plum low-alcohol beverages and enhance their chemical composition and flavor complexity through the non-Saccharomyces species. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) pure cultures were used as reference beverages. Pure cultures of Lachancea thermotolerans (LT) and co-inoculated Lachancea thermotolerans with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MIX) were included for grape–plum must fermentation at a pilot scale. The process involves two steps: a primary alcoholic fermentation in stainless steel tanks (F1) and a secondary fermentation in a bottle after dextrose syrup addition (F2). The chemical compositions of all beverages obtained in F1 and F2 were studied. Compared to SC, must inoculated with L. thermotolerans (LT and MIX) required four more days to complete the fermentation of sugars during F1. SC fermentation tended to have slightly higher pH and titratable acidity values and lower concentrations of total phenols. Final levels of aromatic precursor nitrogen and sulfur amino nitrogen were obtained more in SC than in LT and MIX. SC treatment had higher final levels of histidine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, valine, and cysteine. Related to individual amino acids, SC treatment had higher final levels of histidine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, valine, and cysteine. Analysis of the volatile composition showed that, compared with SC, MIX had the highest percentage of higher alcohols (3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol) and acetates (isoamyl acetate and isobutyl acetate) which are associated with fruity and banana aromas. A decreasing trend in volatile fatty acids was observed in LT and MIX compared to SC. LT application, both in pure and mixed culture, significantly modified the values of the percentage of 5 of the 10 ethyl ester compounds analyzed. Finally, the sensory analysis showed that there were no significant differences, even though the non-Saccharomyces had a higher percentage of volatile metabolites. The results have shown that through this process an innovative and high-quality product was obtained: a low-alcohol beverage made from grapes and plums, which could be developed at an industrial level due to the increasing interest of consumers in this type of product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-saccharomyces Species 4.0)
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16 pages, 2201 KiB  
Article
Improving Aroma Complexity with Hanseniaspora spp.: Terpenes, Acetate Esters, and Safranal
by Juan Manuel del Fresno, Carlos Escott, Francisco Carrau, José Enrique Herbert-Pucheta, Cristian Vaquero, Carmen González and Antonio Morata
Fermentation 2022, 8(11), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8110654 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2291
Abstract
Hanseniaspora vineae and Hanseniaspora opuntiae are apiculate yeasts normally found on the skins of ripe grapes and at the beginning of alcoholic fermentation. Several studies have reported that these species can provide interesting sensory characteristics to wine by contributing high levels of acetate [...] Read more.
Hanseniaspora vineae and Hanseniaspora opuntiae are apiculate yeasts normally found on the skins of ripe grapes and at the beginning of alcoholic fermentation. Several studies have reported that these species can provide interesting sensory characteristics to wine by contributing high levels of acetate esters and can increase the mouthfeel and body of wines. The present work aims to evaluate the use of these two species sequentially with Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve the sensory profile of Albillo Mayor white wines. The fermentations were carried out in triplicate in 150 L stainless steel barrels. At the end of the alcoholic fermentation polysaccharides, colour, and an extensive study of the aromatic profiles were measured. Results showed up to 1.55 times higher content of 2-phenylethanol in H. opuntiae wines and up to three times higher concentration of fermentative esters in H. vineae wines than in the controls. Interestingly, it should be noted that the compound safranal was identified only in the H. vineae wines. These results indicated that the species studied are an interesting bio-tool to improve the aromatic profile of Albillo Mayor white wines. A novel non-targeted NMR-based metabolomics approach is proposed as a tool for optimising wine productions with standard and sequential fermentation schemes using apiculate yeast strains due to its discriminant capacity to differentiate fine features between wine samples from the identical geographical origin and grape variety but diverse fermentations or vintages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-saccharomyces Species 4.0)
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12 pages, 997 KiB  
Article
Non-Saccharomyces Are Also Forming the Veil of Flor in Sherry Wines
by Marina Ruiz-Muñoz, María Hernández-Fernández, Gustavo Cordero-Bueso, Sergio Martínez-Verdugo, Fernando Pérez and Jesús Manuel Cantoral
Fermentation 2022, 8(9), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8090456 - 12 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2291
Abstract
Biological ageing is an essential process for obtaining some distinctive Sherry wines, such as Fino and Manzanilla. It occurs after the fermentation of the grape must due to the appearance of a biofilm on the surface of the wine called “veil of flor”. [...] Read more.
Biological ageing is an essential process for obtaining some distinctive Sherry wines, such as Fino and Manzanilla. It occurs after the fermentation of the grape must due to the appearance of a biofilm on the surface of the wine called “veil of flor”. Yeasts belonging to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae species mainly comprise such biofilm. Although other species have also been found, these have been traditionally considered spoilage. Indeed, it has even been hypothesised that they may not be able to form biofilm on their own under such conditions. In the present work, four different non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from barrels in the Jerez area under biological ageing have been characterised through their physiological abilities, including extracellular enzymatic and biofilm-forming capabilities. Results showed not only a surprising ethanol tolerance, above 15.5% in all cases, but also a significant degree of extracellular enzyme production, highlighting the urease and proteolytic activities found in Pichia manshurica, as well as lipolytic activity in Pichia kudriavzevii, Pichia membranifaciens and Wicherhamomyces anomalus. As a conclusion, these non-Saccharomyces could be very interesting in the oenological field, beyond improving the organoleptic characteristics as well as technological features in these wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-saccharomyces Species 4.0)
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13 pages, 982 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Non-Saccharomyces Yeast Strains Isolated from Grape Juice and Pomace: Production of Polysaccharides and Antioxidant Molecules after Growth and Autolysis
by Sabrina Voce, Lucilla Iacumin and Piergiorgio Comuzzo
Fermentation 2022, 8(9), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8090450 - 9 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2006
Abstract
Non-Saccharomyces yeasts (NSY) represent a relevant part of must and wine microbiota, contributing remarkably to the composition of lees biomass. Despite a number of studies indicate their capacity to increase wine polysaccharide content, their contribution to wine quality during aging on lees [...] Read more.
Non-Saccharomyces yeasts (NSY) represent a relevant part of must and wine microbiota, contributing remarkably to the composition of lees biomass. Despite a number of studies indicate their capacity to increase wine polysaccharide content, their contribution to wine quality during aging on lees (AOL) has not been well elucidated yet. In the present study, twenty yeast strains (13 non-Saccharomyces and 7 Saccharomyces) were isolated from grape must and pomace and identified by morphologic and genetic characterization. Biomass production, cell growth and the release of soluble molecules (polysaccharides, amino acids, thiol compounds and glutathione) were evaluated after growth and after autolysis induced by β-glucanases addition. Differences between strains were observed for all parameters. Strains that produced higher amounts of soluble compounds during growth also showed the highest release after autolysis. Hanseniaspora spp. showed the greatest production of polysaccharides and antioxidant molecules, and biomass production and cell viability comparable to the commercial S. cerevisiae and T. delbrueckii used as reference. The aptitude of certain NSY to release antioxidants and polysaccharides is an interesting feature for managing AOL through sequential or mixed fermentations or for the production of inactive autolyzed yeasts for winemaking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-saccharomyces Species 4.0)
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12 pages, 5646 KiB  
Article
Application of Cool Fermentation Temperatures to Encourage Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts to Yield Lower Ethanol Concentrations in Wines
by Charles G. Edwards and Jesse J. Aplin
Fermentation 2022, 8(9), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8090421 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1617
Abstract
Application of cool temperatures were studied to encourage Metschnikowia pulcherrima P01A016 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii P40D002 prior inoculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D254 to lower ultimate ethanol concentrations achieved. Merlot grape must was distributed into 300 L temperature-controlled tanks and inoculated with non-Saccharomyces yeasts [...] Read more.
Application of cool temperatures were studied to encourage Metschnikowia pulcherrima P01A016 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii P40D002 prior inoculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D254 to lower ultimate ethanol concentrations achieved. Merlot grape must was distributed into 300 L temperature-controlled tanks and inoculated with non-Saccharomyces yeasts three days before S. cerevisiae. For control fermentations, S. cerevisiae was inoculated with maximum temperatures set to 25 °C (temperature regime I) while those with Mt. pulcherrima or My. guilliermondii were initially set to 15 °C (temperature regime II) or 17.5 °C (temperature regime III) before increasing to 25 °C after adding S. cerevisiae. Once fermentations achieved dryness (≤2 g/L residual sugar), wines were bottled and stored for six months at 7 °C before sensory analysis. Ethanol reduction by Mt. pulcherrima was not observed in wines fermented under II but was by III (0.8% v/v). In contrast, musts inoculated with My. guilliermondii yielded wines with ethanol concentrations lowered by 0.3% (II) or 0.4% v/v (III). Sensory panelists found wines with Mt. pulcherrima to express lower sensory scores for ‘hotness’, ‘bitterness’, and ‘ethanol’ flavor with fewer differences noted for My. guilliermondii. Reducing final ethanol concentrations of Merlot wines were achieved by Mt. pulcherrima or My. guilliermondii using cooler initial fermentation temperatures without adversely affecting final wine quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-saccharomyces Species 4.0)
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18 pages, 1102 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Indigenous Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts Inoculated Fermentations on ‘Semillon’ Icewine
by Jing Wang, Yuwen Ma, Faisal Eudes Sam, Pingping Gao, Lihong Liang, Shuai Peng and Min Li
Fermentation 2022, 8(8), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8080413 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 2383
Abstract
The emerging low acidity in icewine grapes is becoming a major problem in producing quality icewine. Using non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts in fermentation can improve wine’s organoleptic characteristics and aromatic quality. This study evaluated two indigenous non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts, Lachancea thermotolerans (LT-2) [...] Read more.
The emerging low acidity in icewine grapes is becoming a major problem in producing quality icewine. Using non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts in fermentation can improve wine’s organoleptic characteristics and aromatic quality. This study evaluated two indigenous non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts, Lachancea thermotolerans (LT-2) and Torulaspora delbrueckii (TD-3), for their ability to improve the acidity and quality of ‘Semillon’ icewine. Five different inoculation schemes were implemented, including a single inoculation of S. cerevisiae (SC), L. thermotolerans (LT), and T. delbrueckii (TD); the sequential inoculation of L. thermotolerans, followed by S. cerevisiae after 6 days (L-S); and the sequential inoculation of L. thermotolerans, followed by T. delbrueckii after 6 days (L-D). The results showed that, during sequential fermentation (L-S and L-D), the presence of S. cerevisiae or T. delbrueckii slightly restrained the growth of L. thermotolerans. Single or sequential inoculation with L. thermotolerans and T. delbrueckii significantly reduced the amount of volatile acidity and increased the glycerol content. Furthermore, fermentations involving L. thermotolerans produced relevant amounts of lactic acid (2.04–2.2 g/L) without excessive deacidification of the icewines. Additionally, sequential fermentations increased the concentration of terpenes, C13-norisoprenoid compounds, and phenethyl compounds. A sensory analysis also revealed that sequentially fermented icewines (L-S and L-D) had more fruity and floral odors and aroma intensity. This study highlights the potential application of L. thermotolerans and T. delbrueckii in sequential fermentation to improve the icewine quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-saccharomyces Species 4.0)
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14 pages, 3565 KiB  
Article
Biodiversity and Oenological Property Analysis of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts Isolated from Korla Fragrant Pears (Pyrus sinkiangensis Yu)
by Yinfeng Li, Yuanmin Huang, Hua Long, Zhihai Yu, Mingzheng Huang and Xiaozhu Liu
Fermentation 2022, 8(8), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8080388 - 14 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1846
Abstract
Oenological yeasts play a critical role in the winemaking process. In this study, the biodiversity of the non-Saccharomyces yeast was analyzed and monitored using high-throughput sequencing and culture-dependent approaches. Oenological and fermentation characteristics of these native yeasts were further investigated. A total [...] Read more.
Oenological yeasts play a critical role in the winemaking process. In this study, the biodiversity of the non-Saccharomyces yeast was analyzed and monitored using high-throughput sequencing and culture-dependent approaches. Oenological and fermentation characteristics of these native yeasts were further investigated. A total of 241 fungus species and 5 species of culturable non-Saccharomyces yeasts were detected using high-throughput sequencing and culture-dependent approaches, respectively. Five strains of aroma-producing yeasts (K4, K14, K19, K21, and K26) were isolated, and their growth characteristics, carbon source utilization, hydrogen sulfide production performance, and β-glucosidase activity were different. The oenological condition tolerances of most strains were lower than that of commercial S. cerevisiae X16. The co-inoculum of these strains and S. cerevisiae X16 regulated the volatile aroma characteristics of the fermented Korla fragrant pear (KFP) fruit wine, enriching and complicating the aroma flavor. Thus, the combined inoculation of these indigenous wine yeasts and S. cerevisiae has some application potential in the production of KFP wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-saccharomyces Species 4.0)
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12 pages, 2181 KiB  
Article
Bioprotective Effect of a Torulaspora delbrueckii/Lachancea thermotolerans-Mixed Inoculum in Red Winemaking
by Rocío Escribano-Viana, Lucía González-Arenzana, Patrocinio Garijo, Laura Fernández, Rosa López, Pilar Santamaría and Ana Rosa Gutiérrez
Fermentation 2022, 8(7), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8070337 - 17 Jul 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2089
Abstract
One of the alternatives to SO2 as an antimicrobial is the use of bioprotection yeasts, which colonize the medium preventing the proliferation of undesirable microorganisms. In this work, the bioprotective effect of a mixed inoculum formed by Torulaspora delbrueckii/Lachancea thermotolerans [...] Read more.
One of the alternatives to SO2 as an antimicrobial is the use of bioprotection yeasts, which colonize the medium preventing the proliferation of undesirable microorganisms. In this work, the bioprotective effect of a mixed inoculum formed by Torulaspora delbrueckii/Lachancea thermotolerans during fermentation was evaluated. For this purpose, fermentations were carried out using this mixed inoculum and the populations of yeasts, lactic bacteria and acetic bacteria, and the physical–chemical parameters of the wines obtained were studied. The results were compared with those obtained in spontaneous fermentation with and without SO2. The different fermentation strategies caused a differentiation in the yeast species present during fermentation. Regarding populations of lactic acid bacteria, results showed that the effect of the addition of the mixed inoculum was comparable to that exerted by SO2. On the other hand, due to the high sensitivity of acetic acid bacteria to SO2, the sulfite vinifications showed a lower population of acetic acid bacteria in the early stages of fermentation, followed by the vinifications with the mixed inoculum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-saccharomyces Species 4.0)
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22 pages, 2864 KiB  
Article
New Approaches for the Fermentation of Beer: Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts from Wine
by Vanesa Postigo, Ana Sánchez, Juan Mariano Cabellos and Teresa Arroyo
Fermentation 2022, 8(6), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8060280 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4190
Abstract
Non-Saccharomyces yeasts represent a very attractive alternative for the production of beers with superior sensory quality since they are able to enhance the flavour of beer. Furthermore, they can produce beers with low ethanol content due to the weak fermentative capacity of [...] Read more.
Non-Saccharomyces yeasts represent a very attractive alternative for the production of beers with superior sensory quality since they are able to enhance the flavour of beer. Furthermore, they can produce beers with low ethanol content due to the weak fermentative capacity of a large percentage of non-Saccharomyces species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of 34 non-Saccharomyces yeast strains isolated from Madrilenian agriculture to produce a novel ale beer. The non-Saccharomyces yeast strains were screened at two scales in the laboratory. In the first screening, those with undesirable aromas were discarded and the selected strains were analysed. Thirty-three volatile compounds were analysed by GC, as well as melatonin production by HPLC, for the selected strains. Thirteen strains were then fermented at a higher scale in the laboratory for sensory evaluation. Only yeast strains of the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Lachancea thermotolerans were able to complete fermentation. Species such as Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Hanseniaspora vineae, and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii could be used both for production of low ethanol beers and co-fermentation with a Saccharomyces yeast to improve the organoleptic characteristics of the beer. In addition, for these strains, the levels of melatonin obtained were higher than the concentrations found for Saccharomyces strains subjected to the same study conditions. The selected strains can be used in future trials to further determine their viability under different conditions and for different purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enological Repercussions of Non-saccharomyces Species 4.0)
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