Current and Future Trends in Food Waste Valorization for the Production of Value-Added Products

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Industrial Fermentation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 9779

Special Issue Editors

School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637459, Singapore
Interests: food waste valorization for the production of sustainable food packaging; novel food polymers; food ingredients; antimicrobial compounds
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Guest Editor
Food Science and Technology Programme, School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637459, Singapore
Interests: fermentation technology; food waste valorization; fats and oils and bioactive peptides
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The goal of this Special Issue is to showcase works that are involved in food waste valorisation to produce value-added products. This includes, but is not limited to, the use of the following techniques: fermentation, genetic engineering, novel processing, the separation or extraction of value-added products from food waste, and analytical methods applied to analyse the value-added products. The application of these value-added products to products would also fall within the scope of this Special Issue. The characterisation of food waste extracts is not within the scope of this Special Issue.

Dr. Jaslyn Lee
Dr. Kong Fei Chai
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • genetic engineering
  • fermentation
  • flavonoids
  • valorisation
  • probiotics
  • food waste
  • cellulose

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 1521 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Pectin Oligosaccharides Obtained from Citrus Peel Pectin
by Diana Pasarin, Andra-Ionela Ghizdareanu, Florina Teodorescu, Camelia Rovinaru and Alexandra Banu
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030312 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2942
Abstract
This study aims to characterize the pectic oligosaccharides (POSs) generated from enzymatically hydrolyzed citrus peel pectin using a selected enzyme. Pectinex Ultra AFP was used to depolymerize citrus peel pectin into POSs. The POSs were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid [...] Read more.
This study aims to characterize the pectic oligosaccharides (POSs) generated from enzymatically hydrolyzed citrus peel pectin using a selected enzyme. Pectinex Ultra AFP was used to depolymerize citrus peel pectin into POSs. The POSs were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (LC/MS) methodology to determine the composition of monosaccharides and the average molar mass distribution based on the retention time. The identified fractions were predominantly neutral sugars (rhamnose, glucose, and galactose) and acidic sugars (galacturonic acid), with corresponding mole percentages of 8.67%, 10.28%, 74.33%, and 6.72%, respectively. The degree of polymerization (DP) was in the range of DP3–DP8, containing three (trimers) to eight (octamers) monomeric units. The low DP indicates an advanced degree of enzymatic hydrolysis of pectin up to the level of pectic POSs. Full article
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14 pages, 1857 KiB  
Article
Optimal Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Sweet Lupine Protein towards Food Ingredients
by Diana Pasarin, Vasile Lavric, Cristina Emanuela Enascuta, Andra-Ionela Ghizdareanu and Catalin Bogdan Matei
Fermentation 2023, 9(3), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9030203 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1714
Abstract
Although its high protein content, bioactive compounds, and dietary fibers have many health benefits, lupine (Lupinus sp.) was undervalued as a resourceful plant. In the last years, however, the number of studies on the use of lupine as a potential food ingredient [...] Read more.
Although its high protein content, bioactive compounds, and dietary fibers have many health benefits, lupine (Lupinus sp.) was undervalued as a resourceful plant. In the last years, however, the number of studies on the use of lupine as a potential food ingredient has increased. In this study, obtaining a sweet lupine protein concentrate (SLPC) hydrolysate with a high degree of hydrolysis (DH) and a simultaneous low intensity of bitterness was pursued. The experimental design was carried out, according to Taguchi methodology, using three experimental parameters: enzyme concentration (0.5–1.5%), temperature (50–60 °C), and time (1–4 h), with three levels each. The optimal conditions for the enzymatic hydrolysis process of SLPC with Alcalase 2.4 L were enzyme concentration 1.5%, temperature 50 °C, and time 4 h, for which the best DH, 41.96%, was achieved. The SLPC hydrolysate as a food ingredient was characterized in terms of DH, bitter taste intensity, amino acid profile, and techno-functional properties. The results showed an increase of water binding capacity to 1.45 g/g, emulsification activity of 50.91%, and 92% stability of the emulsion, while the evaluated intensity of bitterness was 4.6 on a 7- point scale. Based on its technological, functional, sensory, and chemical characteristics, this study recommends the use of SLPC hydrolysate as a food ingredient in various food matrices. Full article
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12 pages, 1427 KiB  
Article
Overproduction of Laccase by Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus sanguineus in Farnesol-Pineapple Waste Solid Fermentation
by Emanueli Backes, Camila Gabriel Kato, Verci Alves de Oliveira Junior, Thaís Marques Uber, Luís Felipe Oliva dos Santos, Rúbia Carvalho Gomes Corrêa, Adelar Bracht and Rosane Marina Peralta
Fermentation 2023, 9(2), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9020188 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2073
Abstract
The effect of farnesol, a sesquiterpene alcohol, on the production of laccases by Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus sanguineus in pineapple waste solid-state fermentation was evaluated. Extracellular laccase production reached a maximum of 77.88 ± 5.62 U/g (236% above control) in farnesol-induced cultures of [...] Read more.
The effect of farnesol, a sesquiterpene alcohol, on the production of laccases by Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus sanguineus in pineapple waste solid-state fermentation was evaluated. Extracellular laccase production reached a maximum of 77.88 ± 5.62 U/g (236% above control) in farnesol-induced cultures of T. versicolor on the 17th day, whereas in a similar P. sanguineus culture, a maximal laccase activity of 130.95 ± 2.20 U/g (159% increase) was obtained on the 17th day. A single 45 KDa laccase was produced by both fungi under the influence of farnesol. These and other data allow us to conclude that farnesol acted as an inducer of the same form of laccase in both fungi. Farnesol disfavored fungal growth by increasing the lag phase, but it also clearly improved the oxidative state of the cultures. Contrary to the results obtained previously in submerged cultures, farnesol did not promote hyperbranching in the fungal mycelia. This is the first demonstration that farnesol is an excellent inducer of laccases in T. versicolor and P. sanguineus in solid-state cultivation. In quantitative terms, the results can be regarded as an excellent starting point for developing industrial or at least pre-industrial procedures to produce laccases using T. versicolor and P sanguineus under the stimulus of farnesol. Full article
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15 pages, 1911 KiB  
Article
Okara Waste as a Substrate for the Microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum Enhances the Production of Algal Biomass, Fucoxanthin, and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
by Jaejung Kim, Jaslyn Lee, Amanda Ying Hui Voo, Yong Xing Tan, Wai Kit Mok, Aaron Zongwei Li and Wei Ning Chen
Fermentation 2023, 9(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation9010031 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2259
Abstract
Despite the rich nutritional content of okara, the majority remains underutilized and discarded as food waste. In this study, solid-state fermentation of okara with food-grade fungi was performed to extract and solubilize any remnant nutrients locked within the lignocellulosic matrix to produce a [...] Read more.
Despite the rich nutritional content of okara, the majority remains underutilized and discarded as food waste. In this study, solid-state fermentation of okara with food-grade fungi was performed to extract and solubilize any remnant nutrients locked within the lignocellulosic matrix to produce a nutrient-rich okara fermentate. Fermented okara media (FOM) was used as the sole nutrient source for growing marine diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Results have shown a two-fold increase in biomass production when grown on FOM (0.52 g L−1) as compared with conventional Guillard’s F/2 media (0.25 g L−1). Furthermore, cellular fucoxanthin content was enhanced significantly by two-fold to reach a final concentration of 15.3 mg g−1 compared to 7.3 mg g−1. Additionally, a significantly higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was produced, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) which yield has increased by nearly three-fold. Metabolomics analysis of intracellular contents in fermented okara culture revealed a significantly enhanced accumulation of nitrogenous metabolites, alongside the decrease in sugar metabolites as compared to F/2 culture, thus indicating metabolic flux towards pathways involved in cellular growth. This study demonstrated an innovative and low-cost strategy of using fermented okara as a nutritious substrate for achieving a sustainable media replacement for high density algal growth with a simultaneous enhancement of production in highly valued nutraceuticals, including fucoxanthin and EPA. Full article
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