Fermentation Process in Biorefinery

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Fermentation Process Design".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019) | Viewed by 35662

Special Issue Editor

Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical Sciences, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: glycerol; biodiesel; valorization; catalysts; carbonates; ketals; monomers; ethers; esters; lactic acid; hydrogen; diols; refining; oxidation; dehydration; biorefinery; biomaterials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The advent of biorefineries as a global framework for processes and product development out of biomass cannot be denied after the enormous amount of work throughout the last two decades. It is evident that substituting the huge variety of energy vectors and chemical compounds obtained from fossil resources is possible. However, this only can be achieved using a step-by-step approach to derive such compounds (or their functional analogues) from the complex matrix that biomass represents. To this end, the knowledge extracted from petrochemical, gas, and coal processes is critical, not only in terms of chemical approaches to biomass, but also in process implementation, logistics, and economics. Biorefineries can be envisaged as a huge effort to introduce human industrial activities to produce energy, chemicals, food, and feed into nature cycles, ultimately creating a real industrial ecology. It is therefore an opportunity for humankind to finally create a recyclable, nature-friendly approach to use nature’s resources. However, at the same time, it does not come without its challenges, since optimal biomass-based processes are yet to be discovered. First-generation biorefineries have been a good attempt to understand and capitalize on food biomass, but they pose the challenge of not providing sufficient biomass for all the prospective needs of biorefineries. Thus, second-generation biorefineries come hand-in-hand with a new perspective since biomass of vegetal origin suffices, in gross numbers, to fulfil humankind’s needs, especially if new fast-growing species are created by genetic technologies and currently non-productive land is turned into fertile soils. All the chemical and biochemical knowledge gained throughout the last century regarding the use of both biomass and fossil resources should pave our way to imagine and investigate new chemical routes, catalysts, enzymes, and microorganims able to transform biomass such as lignocellulose, polysaccharides, fats and oils, proteins, and minor components into profitable products by implementing sustainable processes and related activities.

The aim of this Special Issue is to collect works on the use of biomass, including thermochemical and biochemical-catalytic routes to energy vectors, chemicals, food and feed products by means of biological catalysts (e.g., enzymes, microorganisms, superior cells). Thus, the focus is to give a global vision of the current significance of biorefineries at lab and pilot-plant scale and ultimately in prospective industrial reality in the near future. In this vision, not only compounds and chemical reactions should be considered, but process development and sustainability assessments should also take place.

Prof. Dr. Miguel Ladero
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biorefinery generation
  • bioenergy and biofuels
  • biomass
  • platform chemicals from biomass
  • synthesis gas
  • fractionation
  • pretreatments
  • saccharification
  • transesterification
  • catalysis and catalytic routes
  • enzymes
  • biocatalysis and bioprocesses
  • sustainability
  • circular economy
  • life cycle

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

12 pages, 2205 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Ionic Liquids as In Situ Extraction Agents during the Alcoholic Fermentation of Carob Pod Extracts
Fermentation 2019, 5(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5040090 - 18 Oct 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2842
Abstract
Anhydrous ethanol is a promising alternative to gasoline in fuel engines. However, since ethanol forms an azeotrope with water, high-energy-consumption separation techniques such as azeotropic distillation, extractive distillation, and molecular sieves are needed to produce anhydrous ethanol. This work discusses the potential development [...] Read more.
Anhydrous ethanol is a promising alternative to gasoline in fuel engines. However, since ethanol forms an azeotrope with water, high-energy-consumption separation techniques such as azeotropic distillation, extractive distillation, and molecular sieves are needed to produce anhydrous ethanol. This work discusses the potential development of an integrated process for bioethanol production using ionic liquids and Ceratonia siliqua as a carbohydrate source for further fermentation of the aqueous extracts. A four-stage counter-current system was designed to improve the sugar extraction yield to values close to 99%. The alcoholic fermentation of the extracts showed ethanol concentrations of 95 g/L using the microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisae. The production of anhydrous ethanol through extractive distillation with ethylene glycol was simulated using CHEMCAD software, with an energy consumption of 13.23 MJ/Kg of anhydrous ethanol. Finally, several ionic liquids were analyzed and are proposed as potential solvents for the recovery of bioethanol for the design of an integrated extraction–fermentation–separation process, according to their ability to extract ethanol from aqueous solutions and their biocompatibility with the microorganism used in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process in Biorefinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3026 KiB  
Article
Augmentation of Granular Anaerobic Sludge with Algalytic Bacteria Enhances Methane Production from Microalgal Biomass
Fermentation 2019, 5(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5040088 - 30 Sep 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3757
Abstract
The efficiency of anaerobic digestion relies upon activity of the inoculum converting organic substrate into biogas. Often, metabolic capacity of the inoculum needs to be augmented with new capabilities to accommodate changes in the substrate feed composition. However, bioaugmentation is not a widely [...] Read more.
The efficiency of anaerobic digestion relies upon activity of the inoculum converting organic substrate into biogas. Often, metabolic capacity of the inoculum needs to be augmented with new capabilities to accommodate changes in the substrate feed composition. However, bioaugmentation is not a widely used strategy possibly due to the lack of studies demonstrating successful applications. This study describes the bioaugmentation of granular anaerobic sludge digesting mixed algal biomass in batch-scale reactors. The addition of an algalytic bacterial mixture to the granular consortium increased methane yield by 11%. This study also investigated changes in the microbial 16SrRNA composition of the augmented and non-augmented granular inoculum, which demonstrates a significant change in the hydrolytic microbial community. Overall, the studies’ results aim to provide a feasible checklist to assess the success rates of bioaugmentation of anaerobic digestion applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process in Biorefinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2103 KiB  
Article
Optimization of the Enzymatic Synthesis of Pentyl Oleate with Lipase Immobilized onto Novel Structured Support
Fermentation 2019, 5(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5020048 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3207
Abstract
The term biorefinery is related to the sustainable production of value-added bioproducts and bioenergy from biomass. Esters from fatty acids are important compounds synthesized from by-products of the oleochemical industry. In agreement with the biorefinery concept, it is important to search for catalysts [...] Read more.
The term biorefinery is related to the sustainable production of value-added bioproducts and bioenergy from biomass. Esters from fatty acids are important compounds synthesized from by-products of the oleochemical industry. In agreement with the biorefinery concept, it is important to search for catalysts that reduce the consumption of energy and water, using moderate operation conditions and low reaction times. In this work, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the enzymatic synthesis of pentyl oleate using Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) immobilized on a polyethylene-aluminum structured support. A factorial design was employed to evaluate the effects of several parameters on the ester yield. To obtain a model with a good fit, an approach to reaction mechanism and enzyme kinetics was taken into consideration. Experimental findings were correlated and explained using equations of a ping-pong bi-bi kinetic model and considering the inhibitory effects of both substrates. The developed model was consistent with the experimental data predicting an increase in pentyl oleate production with increasing temperature and a decrease with higher oleic acid amounts and alcohol to acid molar ratios. This model could be useful in a future industrial application of CALB/LLDPE/Al to minimize the costs in oleochemical biorefineries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process in Biorefinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 267 KiB  
Communication
Upgrading the Nutritional Value of Rice Bran by Solid-State Fermentation with Pleurotus sapidus
Fermentation 2019, 5(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5020044 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5893
Abstract
Solid-state fermentation (SSF) of rice bran (RB) employing the edible fungus Pleurotus sapidus was investigated as a process strategy to improve the nutritional quality of this low-cost and abundant substrate. During fermentation, samples were withdrawn at different time intervals (4, 6, and 10 [...] Read more.
Solid-state fermentation (SSF) of rice bran (RB) employing the edible fungus Pleurotus sapidus was investigated as a process strategy to improve the nutritional quality of this low-cost and abundant substrate. During fermentation, samples were withdrawn at different time intervals (4, 6, and 10 days) and further analyzed. Established methods were deployed to monitor the changes in nutritional composition (carbohydrates, proteins, ash, and lipids). Additionally, changes in fatty acid composition was studied as a function of culture progress. Results showed that the SSF of rice bran increased total carbohydrates from 36.6% to 50.2%, total proteins from 7.4% to 12.8%, and ash from 7.6% to 11.5%. However, the total lipid content was reduced from 48.5% to 27.8%. The fatty acid (FA) composition of RB included mainly oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids. Upon fermentation with P. sapidus, small differences were found: linoleic acid and oleic acid content were increased by 0.4% and 1.1%, respectively, while palmitic acid content was reduced by 0.8%. This study demonstrated an improvement in the nutritional quality of RB after fermentation with P. sapidus, since protein, carbohydrates, minerals, and specific FA components were increased. As a whole, our results indicate that fermented rice bran could be used as a high-quality animal feed supplement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process in Biorefinery)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

10 pages, 894 KiB  
Article
Dry Anaerobic Digestion of Food and Paper Industry Wastes at Different Solid Contents
Fermentation 2019, 5(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5020040 - 14 May 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4875
Abstract
A large volume of food is being wasted every year, while the pulp and paper industry also generate a large amount of solid wastes on a daily basis, causing environmental challenges around the world. Dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of these solid wastes is [...] Read more.
A large volume of food is being wasted every year, while the pulp and paper industry also generate a large amount of solid wastes on a daily basis, causing environmental challenges around the world. Dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of these solid wastes is a cost-effective method for proper management. However, dry digestion of these waste streams has been restricted due to their complex structure, the presence of possible inhibitors and inappropriate operating conditions. In light of this fact, dry digestion of food waste (FW) and paper wastes (PW) was conducted at different total solid (TS) concentrations of reactor mixtures of 14%, 16%, 18% and 20% TS, corresponding to substrate to inoculum (S/I) ratio of 0.5 and 1; investigating the optimum operating conditions for effective dry digestion of these complex wastes. The highest methane yields of 402 NmlCH4/gVS and 229 NmlCH4/gVS were obtained from digestion of FW and PW, respectively at 14%TS corresponding to an S/I ratio of 0.5. Increasing the S/I ratio from 0.5 to 1 and thereby having a TS content of 20% in the reactor mixtures was unfavorable to the digestion of both substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process in Biorefinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2337 KiB  
Article
Application of a Multienzymatic System from Natural Latex in Key Reactions for oil-Based Biorefineries
Fermentation 2019, 5(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5010018 - 02 Feb 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3353
Abstract
Oil-based biorefineries play a crucial role in the production of key platform chemicals that can be generated via biotechnological processes instead of a petrochemical route. This work focuses on the latex of the fruit of Araujia sericifera, which can be considered a [...] Read more.
Oil-based biorefineries play a crucial role in the production of key platform chemicals that can be generated via biotechnological processes instead of a petrochemical route. This work focuses on the latex of the fruit of Araujia sericifera, which can be considered a multienzymatic system with applications in key reactions in oil-based biorefineries. The latex of Araujia sericifera (ASL) was used as a novel biocatalyst in the esterification of oleic acid and in the hydrolysis of triglycerides and p-nitrophenyl carboxylates. When ASL was compared to a commercial biocatalyst, it showed an excellent activity in the hydrolysis of soybean oil and p-nitropheyl laurate, and a comparable activity in the esterification reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process in Biorefinery)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

10 pages, 989 KiB  
Article
Improved Raoultella planticola Strains for the Production of 2,3-Butanediol from Glycerol
Fermentation 2019, 5(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation5010011 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3851
Abstract
Raw glycerol is an industrial byproduct from biodiesel production and is one of the most promising substrates for 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) production; however, 2,3-BD is not yet produced by fermentation from glycerol on a commercial scale due to poor process economics. Class 1 microorganism [...] Read more.
Raw glycerol is an industrial byproduct from biodiesel production and is one of the most promising substrates for 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) production; however, 2,3-BD is not yet produced by fermentation from glycerol on a commercial scale due to poor process economics. Class 1 microorganism collections were screened and Raoultella planticola strain CECT 843 proved to be the best 2,3-BD producer, achieving (23.3 ± 1.4) g 2,3-BD per L and a yield of 36% (g 2,3-BD per g glycerol). To further increase product concentration and yield, R. planticola CEC T843 was subjected to random mutagenesis using ultra-violet (UV) light and ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). Two mutant strains were found to produce at least 30% more 2,3-BD than the wild type: R. planticola IA1 [(30.8 ± 3.9) g 2,3-BD per L and 49% yield] and R. planticola IIIA3 [(30.5 ± 0.4) g 2,3-BD per L and 49% yield]. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process in Biorefinery)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research

27 pages, 1162 KiB  
Review
Production of Oligosaccharides from Agrofood Wastes
Fermentation 2020, 6(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation6010031 - 08 Mar 2020
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 6964
Abstract
The development of biorefinery processes to platform chemicals for most lignocellulosic substrates, results in side processes to intermediates such as oligosaccharides. Agrofood wastes are most amenable to produce such intermediates, in particular, cellooligo-saccharides (COS), pectooligosaccharides (POS), xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and other less abundant oligomers [...] Read more.
The development of biorefinery processes to platform chemicals for most lignocellulosic substrates, results in side processes to intermediates such as oligosaccharides. Agrofood wastes are most amenable to produce such intermediates, in particular, cellooligo-saccharides (COS), pectooligosaccharides (POS), xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and other less abundant oligomers containing mannose, arabinose, galactose and several sugar acids. These compounds show a remarkable bioactivity as prebiotics, elicitors in plants, food complements, healthy coadyuvants in certain therapies and more. They are medium to high added-value compounds with an increasing impact in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic and food industries. This review is focused on the main production processes: autohydrolysis, acid and basic catalysis and enzymatic saccharification. Autohydrolysis of food residues at 160–190 °C leads to oligomer yields in the 0.06–0.3 g/g dry solid range, while acid hydrolysis of pectin (80–120 °C) or cellulose (45–180 °C) yields up to 0.7 g/g dry polymer. Enzymatic hydrolysis at 40–50 °C of pure polysaccharides results in 0.06–0.35 g/g dry solid (DS), with values in the range 0.08–0.2 g/g DS for original food residues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermentation Process in Biorefinery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop