Carboxylic Acid Production 2.0

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637). This special issue belongs to the section "Fermentation Process Design".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 15917

Special Issue Editors

Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
Interests: biorefineries; yeast; lignocellulose; fermentation technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China
Interests: lignocellulose; biorefinery processing; pretreatment; biodetoxification; cellulosic ethanol; cellulosic lactic acid; cellulosic amino acid
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to share with you that journal Fermentation has been indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) .

Three years have past since the first Special Issue on carboxylic acid production in Fermentation. These years have proven challenging for the development of large-scale production of platform chemicals from renewable raw materials. This was shown, for example, by the closing of BioAmber’s succinic acid production in Sarnia in 2018. The reasons behind the commerical difficulties are multifold and complex. However, efficient processes and a market that can absorb the product at a fair price are crucial. On the other hand, the recent boom in the biodegradable biopolymer industry has stimulated high expectations on the large commodity supply of carboxylic acid monomer, especially from various carbohydrate feedstock other than starch.

From a fundamental point of view, carboxylic acids have features making them highly attractive as bio-based platform chemicals. Such compounds are firmly rooted in the central metabolism, and their chemical reactivity make them interesting starting compounds for various types of polymers, including biodegradable polymers. We therefore maintain our belief in the future of carboxylic acid production.

In this Special Issue, we will continue to follow developments within this exciting field. We welcome submissions on the physiology of natural carboxylic acid producers, metabolic engineering for improving and expanding carboxylic acid production, and the isolation of novel producers. We also particularly encourage submissions dealing with downstream processing for the recovery of carboxylic acids as well as techno-economic evaluations of whole processes.

All production organisms—fungi, yeasts, and bacteria—are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Gunnar Lidén
Prof. Dr. Jie Bao
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • carboxylic acid
  • biodegradable polymers
  • succinic acid
  • lactic acid
  • processing engineering
  • fermenting microbes
  • metabolic engineering
  • synthetic pathway design

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 707 KiB  
Article
Rhizopus oryzae for Fumaric Acid Production: Optimising the Use of a Synthetic Lignocellulosic Hydrolysate
Fermentation 2022, 8(6), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8060278 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2136
Abstract
The hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass opens an array of bioconversion possibilities for producing fuels and chemicals. Microbial fermentation is particularly suited to the conversion of sugar-rich hydrolysates into biochemicals. Rhizopus oryzae ATCC 20344 was employed to produce fumaric acid from glucose, xylose, and [...] Read more.
The hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass opens an array of bioconversion possibilities for producing fuels and chemicals. Microbial fermentation is particularly suited to the conversion of sugar-rich hydrolysates into biochemicals. Rhizopus oryzae ATCC 20344 was employed to produce fumaric acid from glucose, xylose, and a synthetic lignocellulosic hydrolysate (glucose–xylose mixture) in batch and continuous fermentations. A novel immobilised biomass reactor was used to investigate the co-fermentation of xylose and glucose. Ideal medium conditions and a substrate feed strategy were then employed to optimise the production of fumaric acid. The batch fermentation of the synthetic hydrolysate at optimal conditions (urea feed rate 0.625mgL−1h−1 and pH 4) produced a fumaric acid yield of 0.439gg−1. A specific substrate feed rate (0.164gL−1h−1) that negated ethanol production and selected for fumaric acid was determined. Using this feed rate in a continuous fermentation, a fumaric acid yield of 0.735gg−1 was achieved; this was a 67.4% improvement. A metabolic analysis helped to determine a continuous synthetic lignocellulosic hydrolysate feed rate that selected for fumaric acid production while achieving the co-fermentation of glucose and xylose, thus avoiding the undesirable carbon catabolite repression. This work demonstrates the viability of fumaric acid production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate; the process developments discovered will pave the way for an industrially viable process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carboxylic Acid Production 2.0)
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10 pages, 1561 KiB  
Article
Increasing Acid Tolerance of an Engineered Lactic Acid Bacterium Pediococcus acidilactici for L-Lactic Acid Production
Fermentation 2022, 8(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8030096 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2404
Abstract
Acid tolerance of the lactic acid bacterium (LAB) is crucially important for the production of free lactic acid as a chemical monomer by simplified purification steps. This study conducts both metabolic modification and adaptive evolution approaches on increasing the acid tolerance of an [...] Read more.
Acid tolerance of the lactic acid bacterium (LAB) is crucially important for the production of free lactic acid as a chemical monomer by simplified purification steps. This study conducts both metabolic modification and adaptive evolution approaches on increasing the acid tolerance of an engineered Pediococcus acidilactici strain. The overexpression of the genes encoding lactate dehydrogenase, recombinase, chaperone, glutathione and ATPase did not show the observable changes in acid tolerance. On the other hand, the low pH adaptive evolution showed clear improvement. The L-lactic acid generation and cell viability of the adaptively evolved P. acidilactici were doubled at low pH up to 4.0 when wheat straw was used as carbohydrate feedstock. However, the further decrease in pH value close to the pKa (3.86) of lactic acid led to a dramatic reduction in L-lactic acid generation. This result shows a partially successful approach on improving the acid tolerance of the lactic acid bacterium P. acidilactici. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carboxylic Acid Production 2.0)
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14 pages, 944 KiB  
Article
Growth Enhancement Facilitated by Gaseous CO2 through Heterologous Expression of Reductive Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Genes in Escherichia coli
Fermentation 2021, 7(2), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7020098 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2667
Abstract
The enzymatic mechanisms of carbon fixation by autotrophs, such as the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle (rTCA), have inspired biotechnological approaches to producing bio-based chemicals directly through CO2. To explore the possibility of constructing an rTCA cycle in Escherichia coli and to [...] Read more.
The enzymatic mechanisms of carbon fixation by autotrophs, such as the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle (rTCA), have inspired biotechnological approaches to producing bio-based chemicals directly through CO2. To explore the possibility of constructing an rTCA cycle in Escherichia coli and to investigate their potential for CO2 assimilation, a total of ten genes encoding the key rTCA cycle enzymes, including α-ketoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, ATP-dependent citrate lyase, and fumarate reductase/succinate dehydrogenase, were cloned into E. coli. The transgenic E. coli strain exhibited enhanced growth and the ability to assimilate external inorganic carbon with a gaseous CO2 supply. Further experiments conducted in sugar-free medium containing hydrogen as the electron donor and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the electron acceptor proved that the strain is able to undergo anaerobic respiration, using CO2 as the major carbon source. The transgenic stain demonstrated CO2-enhanced growth, whereas the genes involved in chemotaxis, flagellar assembly, and acid-resistance were upregulated under the anaerobic respiration. Furthermore, metabolomic analysis demonstrated that the total concentrations of ATP, ADP, and AMP in the transgenic strain were higher than those in the vector control strain and these results coincided with the enhanced growth. Our approach offers a novel strategy to engineer E. coli for assimilating external gaseous CO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carboxylic Acid Production 2.0)
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Review

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12 pages, 673 KiB  
Review
Research Progress on the Construction of Artificial Pathways for the Biosynthesis of Adipic Acid by Engineered Microbes
Fermentation 2022, 8(8), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation8080393 - 15 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2678
Abstract
Adipic acid is an important bulk chemical used in the nylon industry, as well as in food, plasticizers and pharmaceutical fields. It is thus considered one of the most important 12 platform chemicals. The current production of adipic acid relies on non-renewable petrochemical [...] Read more.
Adipic acid is an important bulk chemical used in the nylon industry, as well as in food, plasticizers and pharmaceutical fields. It is thus considered one of the most important 12 platform chemicals. The current production of adipic acid relies on non-renewable petrochemical resources and emits large amounts of greenhouse gases. The bio-production of adipic acid from renewable resources via engineered microorganisms is regarded as a green and potential method to replace chemical conversion, and has attracted attention all over the world. Herein we review the current status of research on several artificial pathways for the biosynthesis of adipic acid, especially the reverse degradation pathway, which is a full biosynthetic method and has achieved the highest titer of adipic acid so far. Other artificial pathways including the fatty acid degradation pathway, the muconic acid conversion pathway, the polyketide pathway, the α-ketopimelate pathway and the lysine degradation pathway are also discussed. In addition, the challenges in the bio-production of adipic acid via these artificial pathways are analyzed and the prospects are presented with the intention of providing some significant points for the promotion of adipic acid biosynthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carboxylic Acid Production 2.0)
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34 pages, 2764 KiB  
Review
Current Progress in Production of Building-Block Organic Acids by Consolidated Bioprocessing of Lignocellulose
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7040248 - 30 Oct 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2936
Abstract
Several organic acids have been indicated among the top value chemicals from biomass. Lignocellulose is among the most attractive feedstocks for biorefining processes owing to its high abundance and low cost. However, its highly complex nature and recalcitrance to biodegradation hinder development of [...] Read more.
Several organic acids have been indicated among the top value chemicals from biomass. Lignocellulose is among the most attractive feedstocks for biorefining processes owing to its high abundance and low cost. However, its highly complex nature and recalcitrance to biodegradation hinder development of cost-competitive fermentation processes. Here, current progress in development of single-pot fermentation (i.e., consolidated bioprocessing, CBP) of lignocellulosic biomass to high value organic acids will be examined, based on the potential of this approach to dramatically reduce process costs. Different strategies for CBP development will be considered such as: (i) design of microbial consortia consisting of (hemi)cellulolytic and valuable-compound producing strains; (ii) engineering of microorganisms that combine biomass-degrading and high-value compound-producing properties in a single strain. The present review will mainly focus on production of organic acids with application as building block chemicals (e.g., adipic, cis,cis-muconic, fumaric, itaconic, lactic, malic, and succinic acid) since polymer synthesis constitutes the largest sector in the chemical industry. Current research advances will be illustrated together with challenges and perspectives for future investigations. In addition, attention will be dedicated to development of acid tolerant microorganisms, an essential feature for improving titer and productivity of fermentative production of acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carboxylic Acid Production 2.0)
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18 pages, 13756 KiB  
Review
Insights on the Advancements of In Silico Metabolic Studies of Succinic Acid Producing Microorganisms: A Review with Emphasis on Actinobacillus succinogenes
Fermentation 2021, 7(4), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation7040220 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2045
Abstract
Succinic acid (SA) is one of the top candidate value-added chemicals that can be produced from biomass via microbial fermentation. A considerable number of cell factories have been proposed in the past two decades as native as well as non-native SA producers. Actinobacillus [...] Read more.
Succinic acid (SA) is one of the top candidate value-added chemicals that can be produced from biomass via microbial fermentation. A considerable number of cell factories have been proposed in the past two decades as native as well as non-native SA producers. Actinobacillus succinogenes is among the best and earliest known natural SA producers. However, its industrial application has not yet been realized due to various underlying challenges. Previous studies revealed that the optimization of environmental conditions alone could not entirely resolve these critical problems. On the other hand, microbial in silico metabolic modeling approaches have lately been the center of attention and have been applied for the efficient production of valuable commodities including SA. Then again, literature survey results indicated the absence of up-to-date reviews assessing this issue, specifically concerning SA production. Hence, this review was designed to discuss accomplishments and future perspectives of in silico studies on the metabolic capabilities of SA producers. Herein, research progress on SA and A. succinogenes, pathways involved in SA production, metabolic models of SA-producing microorganisms, and status, limitations and prospects on in silico studies of A. succinogenes were elaborated. All in all, this review is believed to provide insights to understand the current scenario and to develop efficient mathematical models for designing robust SA-producing microbial strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carboxylic Acid Production 2.0)
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